National Trust for Scotland
The National Trust for Scotland for Places of Historic Interest or Natural Beauty known as the National Trust for Scotland is a Scottish conservation organisation. It is the largest membership organisation in Scotland and describes itself as "the conservation charity that protects and promotes Scotland's natural and cultural heritage for present and future generations to enjoy"; the Trust owns and manages around 130 properties and 180,000 acres of land, including castles, ancient small dwellings, historic sites and remote rural areas. It is similar in function to the National Trust, which covers England and Northern Ireland, to other national trusts worldwide; the Trust was established in 1931 and had 450 employees, over 310,000 members, 1.5 million recorded visitors. The Trust's Patron is Prince Duke of Rothesay, it is a registered charity under Scottish law. The charity owned properties rather than "wilderness" areas; when the Trust took on the management of rural estates there was controversy concerning issues such as the siting of visitor centres and placing of signposts.
However, the Trust has learned to adopt a more sensitive approach to the extent of removing some intrusive facilities such as the original Glen Coe Visitor Centre. In August 2010, a report called Fit For Purpose by George Reid, commissioned by the Trust, cited shortcomings that were corrected though organizational restructuring completed by the end of its 2011/12 Fiscal Year; the stabilisation of the Trust's finances allowed it to make its first acquisition in seven years when it bought the Alloa Tower in Clackmannanshire in 2015. For the year ended 28 February 2015, the Trust's total income was £47 million, down from £49 million in 2013–14; the largest sources of income were membership subscriptions, commercial activities and investment income. In the same year the Trust's total expenditure was £49 million, the majority of, spent on property operating and conservation expenditures; as part of its current five-year strategy, the Trust is working to generate additional income and improve operational efficiency with the aim of eliminating its operating deficit by the end of the 2016/17 financial year.
Annual membership of the Trust allows free entry to properties and "Discovery Tickets" are available for shorter term visitors. Membership provides free entry to National Trust properties in England and Wales and Northern Ireland, vice versa; the Trust has independent sister organisations in the United States, Canada. The organisation's membership magazine, Scotland in Trust, is published three times a year. For the maintenance of its nature properties, the Trust depends on the contributions of volunteers, with local circles of Conservation Volunteers working on projects during weekends; the charity organises working holidays called "Thistle Camps" on various properties, with activities undertaken including footpath maintenance and woodland work such as rhododendron control. The Trust manages 129 heritage properties consisting of 1,500 individual buildings, 270 of which are listed. Most grounds and open spaces are open throughout the year but buildings may only be visited from Easter to October, sometimes only in the afternoons.
The Trust is Scotland's largest garden owner with just under 70 gardens that cover 238 hectares and contain 13,500 varieties of plant. These gardens include 35 "major gardens" with the remainder forming part of other properties; the gardens represent the full history of Scottish gardening ranging from the late medieval at Culross Palace, through the 18th-century picturesque at Culzean Castle and Victorian formality at the House of Dun to 20th-century plant collections at Brodick and Inverewe. The Trust is the third largest land manager in Scotland, owning 76,000 hectares of Scottish countryside including 46 Munros, more than 400 islands and islets and significant stretches of coastline. Trust countryside properties include Glen Coe and Mar Lodge Estate; the Trust's management of its coastal and countryside sites is guided by its Wild Land Policy which aims to preserve the land in its undeveloped state and provide access and enjoyment to the public. Trust sites are home to a diverse variety of native wildlife.
The Trust estimate that 25% of Scotland's seabirds nest on its island and coastal sites, equivalent to 8% of seabirds in Europe. The Trust's countryside properties are home to native mammal species including red deer, pine marten and red squirrel. Since 1957, the Trust have owned and managed the archipelago of St Kilda, Scotland's first World Heritage Site and the only World Heritage Site in the UK to be listed for both its natural and cultural significance. St Kilda and the surrounding sea stacks are home to over one million seabirds as well as three species unique to the islands. Across its properties the Trust is responsible for the conservation and display of hundreds of thousands of objects from paintings to furniture and domestic tools; the primary aim of the Trust's curatorship is to present collections and works of art in the historic settings for which they were commissioned or acquired. In the year 2014–15 the Trust welcomed 2,480,000 visitors to its properties, an increase of 93,000 on the previous year's total of 2,387,000.
The 10 most visited properties are: List of National Trust for Scotland properties Historic Scotland Bremner, Douglas. For the Benefit of the Nation. McGraw-Hill Contemporary. 2001. ISBN 97
Thomas Telford FRS, FRSE was a Scottish civil engineer and stonemason, road and canal builder. After establishing himself as an engineer of road and canal projects in Shropshire, he designed numerous infrastructure projects in his native Scotland, as well as harbours and tunnels; such was his reputation as a prolific designer of highways and related bridges, he was dubbed The Colossus of Roads, reflecting his command of all types of civil engineering in the early 19th century, he was elected as the first President of the Institution of Civil Engineers, a post he held for 14 years until his death. Telford was born on 9 August 1757 at Glendinning, a hill farm 3 miles east of Eskdalemuir Kirk, in the rural parish of Westerkirk, in Eskdale, Dumfriesshire, his father John Telford, a shepherd, died. Thomas was raised in poverty by his mother Janet Jackson. At the age of 14 he was apprenticed to a stonemason, some of his earliest work can still be seen on the bridge across the River Esk in Langholm in the Scottish borders.
He worked for a time in Edinburgh and in 1782 he moved to London where, after meeting architects Robert Adam and Sir William Chambers, he was involved in building additions to Somerset House there. Two years he found work at Portsmouth dockyard and — although still self-taught — was extending his talents to the specification and management of building projects. In 1787, through his wealthy patron William Pulteney, he became Surveyor of Public Works in Shropshire. Civil engineering was a discipline still in its infancy, so Telford was set on establishing himself as an architect, his projects included renovation of Shrewsbury Castle, the town's prison, the Church of St. Mary Magdalene and another church, St Michael, in Madeley. Called in to advise on a leaking roof at St Chad's Church Shrewsbury in 1788, he warned the church was in imminent danger of collapse; as the Shropshire county surveyor, Telford was responsible for bridges. In 1790 he designed a bridge carrying the London–Holyhead road over the River Severn at Montford, the first of some 40 bridges he built in Shropshire, including major crossings of the Severn at Buildwas, Bridgnorth.
The bridge at Buildwas was Telford's first iron bridge. He was influenced by Abraham Darby's bridge at Ironbridge, observed that it was grossly over-designed for its function, many of the component parts were poorly cast. By contrast, his bridge was 30 ft wider in span and half the weight, although it now no longer exists, he was one of the first engineers to test his materials before construction. As his engineering prowess grew, Telford was to return to this material repeatedly. In 1795, the bridge at Bewdley in Worcestershire was swept away in the winter floods and Telford was responsible for the design of its replacement; the same winter floods saw the bridge at Tenbury swept away. This bridge across the River Teme was the joint responsibility of both Worcestershire and Shropshire and the bridge has a bend where the two counties meet. Telford was responsible for the repair to the northern end of the bridge. Telford's reputation in Shropshire led to his appointment in 1793 to manage the detailed design and construction of the Ellesmere Canal, linking the ironworks and collieries of Wrexham via the north-west Shropshire town of Ellesmere, with Chester, utilising the existing Chester Canal, the River Mersey.
Among other structures, this involved the spectacular Pontcysyllte Aqueduct over the River Dee in the Vale of Llangollen, where Telford used a new method of construction consisting of troughs made from cast iron plates and fixed in masonry. Extending for over 1,000 feet with an altitude of 126 feet above the valley floor, the Pontcysyllte Aqueduct consists of nineteen arches, each with a forty-five foot span. Being a pioneer in the use of cast-iron for large scaled structures, Telford had to invent new techniques, such as using boiling sugar and lead as a sealant on the iron connections. Eminent canal engineer William Jessop oversaw the project, but he left the detailed execution of the project in Telford's hands; the aqueduct was designated a UNESCO World Heritage Site in 2009. The same period saw Telford involved in the design and construction of the Shrewsbury Canal; when the original engineer, Josiah Clowes, died in 1795, Telford succeeded him. One of Telford's achievements on this project was the design of Longdon-on-Tern Aqueduct, the cast-iron aqueduct at Longdon-on-Tern, pre-dating that at Pontcysyllte, bigger than the UK's first cast-iron aqueduct, built by Benjamin Outram on the Derby Canal just months earlier.
The aqueduct is preserved as a distinctive piece of canal engineering. The Ellesmere Canal was completed in 1805 and alongside his canal responsibilities, Telford's reputation as a civil engineer meant he was consulted on numerous other projects; these included water supply works for Liverpool, improvements to London's docklands and the rebuilding of London Bridge. Most notably, in 1801 Telford devised a master plan to improve communications in the Highlands of Scotland, a massive project, to last some 20 years, it included the building of the Caledonian Canal along the Great Glen and redesign of sections of the Crinan Canal, some 920 miles of new roads, over a thousand new bridges, numerous harbour improvements (includ
The Caledonians or the Caledonian Confederacy were a Brittonic-speaking tribal confederacy in what is now Scotland during the Iron Age and Roman eras. The Greek form of the tribal name gave rise to the name Caledonia for their territory; the Caledonians were considered to be a group of Britons, but after the Roman conquest of the southern half of Britain, the northern inhabitants were distinguished as Picts, thought to be a related people who would have spoken a Brittonic language. The Caledonian Britons were thus enemies of the Roman Empire, the occupying force administering most of Great Britain as the Roman province of Britannia; the Caledonians, like many Celtic tribes in Britain, were hillfort builders and farmers who defeated and were defeated by the Romans on several occasions. The Romans never occupied Caledonia, though several attempts were made. Nearly all of the information available about the Caledonians is based on predominately Roman sources, which may suggest bias. Peter Salway assumes that the Caledonians would have been Pictish tribes speaking a language related to Common Brittonic, or a branch of it augmented by fugitive Brythonic resistance fighters fleeing from Britannia.
The Caledonian tribe, after which the historical Caledonian Confederacy is named, may have been joined in conflict with Rome by tribes in northern central Scotland by this time, such as the Vacomagi and Venicones recorded by Ptolemy. The Romans reached an accommodation with Brythonic tribes such as the Votadini as effective buffer states. According to German linguist Stefan Zimmer, Caledonia is derived from the tribal name Caledones, which he etymologises as "possessing hard feet"; the singular form of the ethnic name is attested as Caledo on a Romano-British inscription from Colchester. In AD 83 or 84, led by Calgacus, the Caledonians' defeat at the hands of Gnaeus Julius Agricola at Mons Graupius is recorded by Tacitus. Tacitus avoids using terms such as king to describe Calgacus and it is uncertain as to whether the Caledonians had single leaders or whether they were more disparate and that Calgacus was an elected war leader only. Tacitus records the physical characteristics of the Caledonians as long limbs.
In AD 180 they took part in an invasion of Britannia, breached Hadrian's Wall and were not brought under control for several years signing peace treaties with the governor Ulpius Marcellus. This suggests that they were capable of making formal agreements in unison despite having many different chieftains. However, Roman historians used the word "Caledonius" not only to refer to the Caledones themselves, but to any of the other tribes living north of Hadrian's Wall, it is uncertain whether these were limited to individual groups or wider unions of tribes. In 197 AD Dio Cassius records that the Caledonians aided in a further attack on the Roman frontier being led by the Maeatae and the Brigantes and inspired by the removal of garrisons on Hadrian's Wall by Clodius Albinus, he says. The governor who arrived to oversee the regaining of control over Britannia after Albinus' defeat, Virius Lupus, was obliged to buy peace from the Maeatae rather than fight them; the Caledonians are next mentioned in 209, when they are said to have surrendered to the emperor Septimius Severus after he led a military expedition north of Hadrian's Wall, in search of a glorious military victory.
Herodian and Dio wrote only in passing of the campaign but describe the Caledonians ceding territory to Rome as being the result. Cassius Dio records that the Caledonians inflicted 50,000 Roman casualties due to attrition and unconventional tactics such as guerrilla warfare. Dr. Colin Martin has suggested that the Severan campaigns did not seek a battle but instead sought to destroy the fertile agricultural land of eastern Scotland and thereby bring about genocide of the Caledonians through starvation. By 210 however, the Caledonians had re-formed their alliance with the Maeatae and joined their fresh offensive. A punitive expedition led by Severus' son, was sent out with the purpose of slaughtering everyone it encountered from any of the northern tribes. Severus meanwhile prepared for total conquest but was ill. Caracalla attempted to take over command but when his troops refused to recognise him as emperor, he made peace with the Caledonians and retreated south of Hadrian's Wall to press his claim for the imperial title.
Sheppard Frere suggests that Caracalla continued the campaign after his father's death rather than leaving, citing an apparent delay in his arrival in Rome and indirect numismatic and epigraphic factors that suggest he may instead have concluded the war but that Dio's hostility towards his subject led him to record the campaign as ending in a truce. Malcolm Todd however considers there to be no evidence to support this. Nonetheless the Caledonians pushed the Romans back to Hadrian's Wall. In any event, there is no further historical mention of the Caledonians for a century save for a c. AD 230 inscription from Colchester which records a dedication by a man calling himself the nephew of "Uepogenus, Caledonian"; this may be because Severus' campaigns were so successful that the Caledonians were wiped out, howeve
Dunkeld is a town in Victoria, Australia, at the southern end of the Grampians National Park, in the Shire of Southern Grampians. It is approx 283 km west of Melbourne on the Glenelg Highway; the town's population is holding ageing. At the 2016 census, Dunkeld had a population of 678; the Djab wurrung people lived in this region to the south and east of the Grampians for over 4,000 years prior to the arrival of the Europeans. The first pastoralists took up properties here in the late 1830s, there was a decade of sometimes violent clashes with the Djab wurrung. A small European township developed, known as Mount Sturgeon, after the hill behind the town. A Post Office of that name opened on 1 July 1852. At a strategic point south of the Grampians for road traffic and surrounded by fine wool producing country, Dunkeld thrived in the mid-19th century; the Robertson's Woolpack Inn was the first building to be erected in 1845, followed by five other hotels - the Shamrock and the Western, the Royal Mail, the Collins Railway Hotel and the Family Inn.
Road traffic declined with the opening of the railway. Louis Buvelot, Eugene von Guerard and Nicholas Chevalier all made paintings of the district, where Mount Abrupt and Mount Sturgeon provide an appealing backdrop. In January 1944 fires destroyed one-third of Dunkeld's houses and only the Royal Mail Hotel remained from the five original establishments. Today Dunkeld contains accommodation. There is a general store, two cafes, a Post Office, an art gallery, a petrol station, schools, a local museum, a bookstore, a stonemason and a DIY store. Residents access most other services they need in Hamilton but the railway line has been closed for some years. Wool production still takes place in the surrounding farms; the timber industry has now ceased. There is a campsite and a variety of other tourist accommodation, tourism is now the main employer. A 40-ha property,'Heathlands' was owned by naturalist Graham Pizzey, author of A Field Guide to the Birds of Australia. Dunkeld has a horse racing club, the Dunkeld Racing Club, which runs the Dunkeld Cup meeting in November.
The town in conjunction with nearby township Glenthompson has an Australian Rules football team Glenthompson-Dunkeld competing in the Mininera & District Football League. The team won the league premiership in 2010. Golfers play at the course of the Grampians Golf Club on Dunkeld. Media related to Dunkeld, Victoria at Wikimedia Commons Dunkeld, Victoria - Official Tourism Victoria website Royal Mail Hotel, Dunkeld
The River Tay is the longest river in Scotland and the seventh-longest in the United Kingdom. The Tay originates in western Scotland on the slopes of Ben Lui flows easterly across the Highlands, through Loch Dochart, Loch Iubhair and Loch Tay continues east through Strathtay, in the centre of Scotland southeasterly through Perth, where it becomes tidal, to its mouth at the Firth of Tay, south of Dundee, it is the largest river in the UK by measured discharge. Its catchment is 2,000 square miles, the Tweed's is 1,500 square miles and the Spey's is 1,097 square miles; the Tay drains much of the lower region of the Highlands. It originates on the slopes of Ben Lui, only around 25 miles from the west coast town of Oban, in Argyll and Bute. In 2011, the Tay Western Catchments Partnership determined as its source a small lochan on Allt Coire Laoigh south of the summit; the river has a variety of names in its upper catchment: for the first few miles it is known as the River Connonish. The River Tay emerges from Loch Tay at Kenmore, flows from there to Perth which, in historical times, was its lowest bridging point.
Below Perth the river enters the Firth of Tay. The largest city on the river, lies on the north bank of the Firth. On reaching the North Sea, the River Tay has flowed 120 miles from west to east across central Scotland; the Tay is unusual amongst Scottish rivers in having several major tributaries, notably the Earn, the Isla, the River Tummel, the Almond and the Lyon. A flow of 2,269 m3/s was recorded on 17 January 1993, when the river rose 6.48 m above its usual level at Perth, caused extensive flooding in the city. Were it not for the hydro-electric schemes upstream which impounded runoff, the peak would have been higher; the highest flood recorded at Perth occurred in 1814, when the river rose 7 m above its usual level caused by a blockage of ice under Smeaton's Bridge. Other severe flood events occurred in 1210 and 1648 when bridges over the Tay at Perth were destroyed. During the winters of 2009–10 and 2010–11, the Tay froze over as far as the Tay Road Bridge, ice floes remained for weeks despite a thaw.
Several places along the Tay take their names from it, or are believed to have done so: Broughty - Bruach Tatha, Bank of the Tay Taymouth - Near the mouth of Loch Tay. Tayside - A former Scottish Government region The river is of high biodiversity value and is both a Site of Special Scientific Interest and a Special Area of Conservation; the SAC designation notes the river's importance for salmon, brook lampreys, river lampreys, sea lampreys. The Tay maintains flagship population of Freshwater pearl mussel. Freshwater pearl mussels are one of Scotland's most endangered species and the River Tay hosts two-thirds of the world's remaining stock; the Tay is internationally renowned for its salmon fishing and is one of the best salmon rivers in the United Kingdom, western Europe, attracting anglers from all over the world. The lowest ten miles of the Tay, including prestigious beats like Taymount or Islamouth, provides most of the cream of the Tay; the largest rod caught salmon in Britain, caught on the Tay by Miss Georgina Ballantine in 1922, weighing 64 pounds, retains the British record.
The river system has salmon fisheries on many of its tributaries including the Earn, Ericht, Garry, Dochart and Eden. Dwindling catches include a 50% reduction in 2009 so the Tay District Salmon Fisheries Board ordered a catch-and-release policy for females all season, for males until May, beginning in the January 2010 fishing season. Research by the North Atlantic Salmon Conservation Organisation has shown that the number of salmon dying at sea has doubled or trebled over the past 20 years due to overfishing in the oceans where salmon spend two years before returning to freshwater to spawn; the widespread collapse in Atlantic salmon stocks suggests that this is not a local problem in the River Tay. A section of the Tay surrounding the town of Dunkeld is designated as a national scenic area, one of 40 such areas in Scotland, which are defined so as to identify areas of exceptional scenery and to ensure its protection by restricting certain forms of development; the River Tay NSA covers 5,708 ha.
The first sustained and significant population Eurasian beaver living wild in Scotland in over 400 years became established on the river Tay catchment in Scotland as early as 2001, has spread in the catchment, numbering from 20 to 100 individuals in 2011. These beavers were to be either escapees from any of several nearby sites with captive beavers, or were illegally released, were targeted for removal by Scottish Natural Heritage in late 2010. Proponents of the beavers argued that no reason exists to believe that they are of "wrong" genetic stock. In early December 2010, the first of the wild Tayside beavers was trapped by Scottish Natural Heritage on the River Ericht in Blairgowrie and was held in captivity in Edinburgh Zoo, dying within a few months. In March 2012 the Scottish Government reversed the decision to remove beavers from the Tay, pending the outcome of studies into the suitability of re-introduction; as part of the study into re-introduction, a trial release project was undertaken in Knapdale, alongs
The Scottish Parliament is the devolved unicameral legislature of Scotland. Located in the Holyrood area of the capital city, Edinburgh, it is referred to by the metonym Holyrood; the Parliament is a democratically elected body comprising 129 members known as Members of the Scottish Parliament, elected for four-year terms under the additional member system: 73 MSPs represent individual geographical constituencies elected by the plurality system, while a further 56 are returned from eight additional member regions, each electing seven MSPs. The most recent general election to the Parliament was held on 5 May 2016, with the Scottish National Party winning a plurality; the original Parliament of Scotland was the national legislature of the independent Kingdom of Scotland, existed from the early 13th century until the Kingdom of Scotland merged with the Kingdom of England under the Acts of Union 1707 to form the Kingdom of Great Britain. As a consequence, both the Parliament of Scotland and the Parliament of England ceased to exist, the Parliament of Great Britain, which sat at Westminster in London was formed.
Following a referendum in 1997, in which the Scottish electorate voted for devolution, the powers of the devolved legislature were specified by the Scotland Act 1998. The Act delineates the legislative competence of the Parliament – the areas in which it can make laws – by explicitly specifying powers that are "reserved" to the Parliament of the United Kingdom; the Scottish Parliament has the power to legislate in all areas that are not explicitly reserved to Westminster. The British Parliament retains the ability to amend the terms of reference of the Scottish Parliament, can extend or reduce the areas in which it can make laws; the first meeting of the new Parliament took place on 12 May 1999. The competence of the Scottish Parliament has been amended numerous times since most notably by the Scotland Act 2012 and Scotland Act 2016, with some of the most significant changes being the expansion of the Parliament's powers over taxation and welfare. Before the Treaty of Union 1707 united the Kingdom of Scotland and the Kingdom of England into a new state called "Great Britain", Scotland had an independent parliament known as the Parliament of Scotland.
Initial Scottish proposals in the negotiation over the Union suggested a devolved Parliament be retained in Scotland, but this was not accepted by the English negotiators. For the next three hundred years, Scotland was directly governed by the Parliament of Great Britain and the subsequent Parliament of the United Kingdom, both seated at Westminster, the lack of a Parliament of Scotland remained an important element in Scottish national identity. Suggestions for a'devolved' Parliament were made before 1914, but were shelved due to the outbreak of the First World War. A sharp rise in nationalism in Scotland during the late 1960s fuelled demands for some form of home rule or complete independence, in 1969 prompted the incumbent Labour government of Harold Wilson to set up the Kilbrandon Commission to consider the British constitution. One of the principal objectives of the commission was to examine ways of enabling more self-government for Scotland, within the unitary state of the United Kingdom.
Kilbrandon published his report in 1973 recommending the establishment of a directly elected Scottish Assembly to legislate for the majority of domestic Scottish affairs. During this time, the discovery of oil in the North Sea and the following "It's Scotland's oil" campaign of the Scottish National Party resulted in rising support for Scottish independence, as well as the SNP; the party argued that the revenues from the oil were not benefitting Scotland as much as they should. The combined effect of these events led to Prime Minister Wilson committing his government to some form of devolved legislature in 1974. However, it was not until 1978 that final legislative proposals for a Scottish Assembly were passed by the United Kingdom Parliament. Under the terms of the Scotland Act 1978, an elected assembly would be set up in Edinburgh provided that a referendum be held on 1 March 1979, with at least 40% of the total electorate voting in favour of the proposal; the 1979 Scottish devolution referendum failed: although the vote was 51.6% in favour of a Scottish Assembly, with a turnout of 63.6%, the majority represented only 32.9% of the eligible voting population.
Throughout the 1980s and 1990s, demand for a Scottish Parliament grew, in part because the government of the United Kingdom was controlled by the Conservative Party, while Scotland itself elected few Conservative MPs. In the aftermath of the 1979 referendum defeat, the Campaign for a Scottish Assembly was initiated as a pressure group, leading to the 1989 Scottish Constitutional Convention with various organisations such as Scottish churches, political parties and representatives of industry taking part. Publishing its blueprint for devolution in 1995, the Convention provided much of the basis for the structure of the Parliament. Devolution continued to be part of the platform of the Labour Party which, in May 1997, took power under Tony Blair. In September 1997, the Scottish devolution referendum was put to the Scottish electorate and secured a majority in favour of the establishment of a new devolved Scottish Parliament, with tax-varying powers, in Edinburgh. An election was held on 6 May 1999, on 1 July of that year power was transferred from Westminster to the new Parliament.
Since September 2004, the official home of the Scottish Parliament has been a new Scottish Parliament Building, in the Holyrood area of Edinburgh. The Scottish Parliament building was designed by Spanish architect Enric Miralles in partnership with local Ed
Highland Boundary Fault
The Highland Boundary Fault is a major fault zone that traverses Scotland from Arran and Helensburgh on the west coast to Stonehaven in the east. It separates two distinctly different physiographic and geological terrains: the Highlands from the Lowlands, in most places it is recognisable as a change in topography. Where rivers cross the fault, they pass through gorges, the associated waterfalls can be a barrier to salmon migration; the fault is believed to have formed in conjunction with the Strathmore syncline to the south-east during the Acadian orogeny in a transpressive regime that caused the uplift of the Grampian block and a small sinistral movement on the Highland Boundary Fault. One of the earliest and most prominent references to the Highland Boundary Fault was by George Barrow in 1912, ʻOn the Geology of Lower Dee-side and the Southern Highland Borderʼ, which highlights the nature of the rocks accompanying the Highland Border and describes the outlining mineral zones associated with metamorphism.
In the same publication, Barrow outlines the ʻHighland Faultʼ and the areas where he believes there are planes of overthrust. Barrowʼs description of the structural nature of the rocks along the Highland Border suggests that rocks along both ends of the fault plane are indistinguishable from one another, with no brecciation. Aligned southwest to northeast from Lochranza on Arran, the Highland Boundary Fault bisects Bute and crosses the southeastern parts of the Cowal and Rosneath Peninsulas, as it passes up the Firth of Clyde, it comes ashore near Helensburgh continues through Loch Lomond. The loch islands of Inchmurrin, Creinch and Inchcailloch all form part of the Highland Boundary Fault. From Loch Lomond the Highland Boundary Fault continues to Aberfoyle Callander and Crieff, it forms the northern boundary of Strathmore and reaches the North Sea north of Stonehaven near the ruined Chapel of St. Mary and St. Nathalan. Aeromagnetic maps of Great Britain and Northern Ireland show that the Highland Boundary Fault can be traced from Ireland to the region of Greenock.
In these areas, the Highland Boundary Fault is seen to be dividing a northerly low area from a southerly high area. In 1970, Hall and Dagley identified the Highland Boundary Fault as coincident with a regional magnetic feature dividing a string of negative anomalies in the north from positive ones in the south. On discovering this and Dagley concluded that the observed trend, which followed the length of the Dalradian trough transition from positive to negative anomalies; this linear feature of magnetic anomalies has since been referred to as the Fair Head–Clew Bay line. At present, it is believed that the Highland Boundary Fault was active during two main orogenic events associated with the Caledonian orogeny: the Grampian orogeny in the Early Ordovician and the Acadian orogeny in the Middle Devonian; the fault allowed the Midland Valley to descend as a major rift by up to 4,000 m and there was subsequent vertical movement. This earlier vertical movement was replaced by a horizontal shear. A complementary fault, the Southern Uplands Fault, forms the southern boundary for the Central Lowlands.
The age of the Highland Boundary Fault has been inferred to be between Ordovician to middle Devonian and through several generations it has been interpreted as a graben-bounding normal fault, a major sinistral strike-slip fault, a northwest-dipping reverse fault or terrane boundary. The reason the precise nature of the fault is still unknown is because there is little evidence of a continuous fault plane on the surface. More seismic activities marking the fault line have been analysed to show that the 2003 Aberfoyle earthquake had a hypocentre at 4 km depth and was caused by an oblique sinistral strike-slip fault with normal movement; the fault plane was estimated to be dipping at 65° NW. To the north and west of the Highland Boundary Fault lie hard Precambrian and Cambrian metamorphic rocks: marine deposits metamorphosed to schists and slates, namely the Dalradian Supergroup and the Highland Border Ophiolite suite. To the south and east are Old Red Sandstone conglomerates and sandstones: softer, sedimentary rocks of the Devonian and Carboniferous periods.
Between these areas lie the quite different rocks of the Highland Border Complex, a weakly metamorphosed sedimentary sequence of sandstones, limestones and conglomerates. These make up a zone, found discontinuously along the line of the fault and, up to 1.2 kilometres in width. The Dalradian Supergroup consists of metasedimentary rocks which underwent polyphase deformation and metamorphism during the Precambrian and early Paleozoic, they were deformed and metamorphosed around 750 Ma. The deposition of younger Dalradian sediments continued until 590 Ma, where the sediments underwent transformation to the greenschist facies during the Proterozoic and Ordovician. Modeling of gravity and magnetic data along the fault has confirmed the presence of an extensive ophiolite suite; the Dalradian metasedimentary rocks are overlain by an obducted ophiolite, continuous for at least several kilometers on either side of the Highland Boundary Fault. The models generated from magnetic data suggest that the ophiolite is only displaced vertically by the fault.
The Old Red Sandstone is a magnafacies of red beds and lacustrine deposits from the Late Silurian to the Carboniferous. The NE segment of the Highland Boundary Fault is marked by an abrupt change in the dip of the Old Red Sandstone from around 20° to near-vertical and subsequently exposes the Old Red Sandstone basement, it is believed that there were two ma