United States Census Bureau
The United States Census Bureau is a principal agency of the U. S. Federal Statistical System, responsible for producing data about the American people and economy; the Census Bureau is part of the U. S. Department of Commerce and its director is appointed by the President of the United States; the Census Bureau's primary mission is conducting the U. S. Census every ten years, which allocates the seats of the U. S. House of Representatives to the states based on their population; the Bureau's various censuses and surveys help allocate over $400 billion in federal funds every year and it helps states, local communities, businesses make informed decisions. The information provided by the census informs decisions on where to build and maintain schools, transportation infrastructure, police and fire departments. In addition to the decennial census, the Census Bureau continually conducts dozens of other censuses and surveys, including the American Community Survey, the U. S. Economic Census, the Current Population Survey.
Furthermore and foreign trade indicators released by the federal government contain data produced by the Census Bureau. Article One of the United States Constitution directs the population be enumerated at least once every ten years and the resulting counts used to set the number of members from each state in the House of Representatives and, by extension, in the Electoral College; the Census Bureau now conducts a full population count every 10 years in years ending with a zero and uses the term "decennial" to describe the operation. Between censuses, the Census Bureau makes population projections. In addition, Census data directly affects how more than $400 billion per year in federal and state funding is allocated to communities for neighborhood improvements, public health, education and more; the Census Bureau is mandated with fulfilling these obligations: the collecting of statistics about the nation, its people, economy. The Census Bureau's legal authority is codified in Title 13 of the United States Code.
The Census Bureau conducts surveys on behalf of various federal government and local government agencies on topics such as employment, health, consumer expenditures, housing. Within the bureau, these are known as "demographic surveys" and are conducted perpetually between and during decennial population counts; the Census Bureau conducts economic surveys of manufacturing, retail and other establishments and of domestic governments. Between 1790 and 1840, the census was taken by marshals of the judicial districts; the Census Act of 1840 established a central office. Several acts followed that revised and authorized new censuses at the 10-year intervals. In 1902, the temporary Census Office was moved under the Department of Interior, in 1903 it was renamed the Census Bureau under the new Department of Commerce and Labor; the department was intended to consolidate overlapping statistical agencies, but Census Bureau officials were hindered by their subordinate role in the department. An act in 1920 changed the date and authorized manufacturing censuses every two years and agriculture censuses every 10 years.
In 1929, a bill was passed mandating the House of Representatives be reapportioned based on the results of the 1930 Census. In 1954, various acts were codified into Title 13 of the US Code. By law, the Census Bureau must count everyone and submit state population totals to the U. S. President by December 31 of any year ending in a zero. States within the Union receive the results in the spring of the following year; the United States Census Bureau defines four statistical regions, with nine divisions. The Census Bureau regions are "widely used...for data collection and analysis". The Census Bureau definition is pervasive. Regional divisions used by the United States Census Bureau: Region 1: Northeast Division 1: New England Division 2: Mid-Atlantic Region 2: Midwest Division 3: East North Central Division 4: West North Central Region 3: South Division 5: South Atlantic Division 6: East South Central Division 7: West South Central Region 4: West Division 8: Mountain Division 9: Pacific Many federal, state and tribal governments use census data to: Decide the location of new housing and public facilities, Examine the demographic characteristics of communities and the US, Plan transportation systems and roadways, Determine quotas and creation of police and fire precincts, Create localized areas for elections, utilities, etc.
Gathers population information every 10 years The United States Census Bureau is committed to confidentiality, guarantees non-disclosure of any addresses or personal information related to individuals or establishments. Title 13 of the U. S. Code establishes penalties for the disclosure of this information. All Census employees must sign an affidavit of non-disclosure prior to employment; the Bureau cannot share responses, addresses or personal information with anyone including United States or foreign government
A county seat is an administrative center, seat of government, or capital city of a county or civil parish. The term is used in Canada, Romania and the United States. County towns have a similar function in the United Kingdom and Republic of Ireland, in Jamaica. In most of the United States, counties are the political subdivisions of a state; the city, town, or populated place that houses county government is known as the seat of its respective county. The county legislature, county courthouse, sheriff's department headquarters, hall of records and correctional facility are located in the county seat though some functions may be located or conducted in other parts of the county if it is geographically large. A county seat is but not always, an incorporated municipality; the exceptions include the county seats of counties that have no incorporated municipalities within their borders, such as Arlington County, Virginia. Ellicott City, the county seat of Howard County, is the largest unincorporated county seat in the United States, followed by Towson, the county seat of Baltimore County, Maryland.
Some county seats may not be incorporated in their own right, but are located within incorporated municipalities. For example, Cape May Court House, New Jersey, though unincorporated, is a section of Middle Township, an incorporated municipality. In some of the colonial states, county seats include or included "Court House" as part of their name. In the Canadian provinces of Prince Edward Island, New Brunswick, Nova Scotia, the term "shire town" is used in place of county seat. County seats in Taiwan are the administrative centers of the counties. There are 13 county seats in Taiwan, which are in the forms of county-administered city, urban township or rural township. Most counties have only one county seat. However, some counties in Alabama, Georgia, Kentucky, Mississippi, New Hampshire, New York, Vermont have two or more county seats located on opposite sides of the county. An example is Harrison County, which lists both Biloxi and Gulfport as county seats; the practice of multiple county seat towns dates from the days.
There have been few efforts to eliminate the two-seat arrangement, since a county seat is a source of pride for the towns involved. There are 36 counties with multiple county seats in 11 states: Coffee County, Alabama St. Clair County, Alabama Arkansas County, Arkansas Carroll County, Arkansas Clay County, Arkansas Craighead County, Arkansas Franklin County, Arkansas Logan County, Arkansas Mississippi County, Arkansas Prairie County, Arkansas Sebastian County, Arkansas Yell County, Arkansas Columbia County, Georgia Lee County, Iowa Campbell County, Kentucky Kenton County, Kentucky Essex County, Massachusetts Middlesex County, Massachusetts Plymouth County, Massachusetts Bolivar County, Mississippi Carroll County, Mississippi Chickasaw County, Mississippi Harrison County, Mississippi Hinds County, Mississippi Jasper County, Mississippi Jones County, Mississippi Panola County, Mississippi Tallahatchie County, Mississippi Yalobusha County, Mississippi Jackson County, Missouri Hillsborough County, New Hampshire Seneca County, New York Bennington County, Vermont In New England, the town, not the county, is the primary division of local government.
Counties in this region have served as dividing lines for the states' judicial systems. Connecticut and Rhode Island have no county level of thus no county seats. In Vermont and Maine the county seats are designated shire towns. County government consists only of a Superior Court and Sheriff, both located in the respective shire town. Bennington County has two shire towns. In Massachusetts, most government functions which would otherwise be performed by county governments in other states are performed by town or city governments; as such, Massachusetts has dissolved many of its county governments, the state government now operates the registries of deeds and sheriff's offices in those counties. In Virginia, a county seat may be an independent city surrounded by, but not part of, the county of which it is the administrative center. Two counties in South Dakota have their county seat and government services centered in a neighboring county, their county-level services are provided by Fall River Tripp County, respectively.
In Louisiana, divided into parishes rather than counties, county seats are referred to as parish seats. Alaska is divided into boroughs rather than counties; the Unorganized Borough, which covers 49 % of Alaska's area, has equivalent. The state with the most counties is Texas, with 254, the state with the fewest counties is Delaware, with 3. County seat war Administrative center County town, administrative centres in Ireland and the UK Chef-lieu, administrative centres in Algeria, Luxembourg, France and Tunisia Municipality, equivalent to county in many c
Arkansas is a state in the southern region of the United States, home to over 3 million people as of 2018. Its name is of Siouan derivation from the language of the Osage denoting their related kin, the Quapaw Indians; the state's diverse geography ranges from the mountainous regions of the Ozark and the Ouachita Mountains, which make up the U. S. Interior Highlands, to the densely forested land in the south known as the Arkansas Timberlands, to the eastern lowlands along the Mississippi River and the Arkansas Delta. Arkansas is the 33rd most populous of the 50 United States; the capital and most populous city is Little Rock, located in the central portion of the state, a hub for transportation, business and government. The northwestern corner of the state, such as the Fayetteville–Springdale–Rogers Metropolitan Area and Fort Smith metropolitan area, is a population and economic center; the largest city in the state's eastern part is Jonesboro. The largest city in the state's southeastern part is Pine Bluff.
The Territory of Arkansas was admitted to the Union as the 25th state on June 15, 1836. In 1861, Arkansas withdrew from the United States and joined the Confederate States of America during the Civil War. On returning to the Union in 1868, the state continued to suffer due to its earlier reliance on slavery and the plantation economy, causing the state to fall behind economically and socially. White rural interests continued to dominate the state's politics until the civil rights movement. Arkansas began to diversify its economy following World War II and relies on its service industry, poultry, tourism and rice; the culture of Arkansas is observable in museums, novels, television shows and athletic venues across the state. People such as politician and educational advocate William Fulbright; the name Arkansas was applied to the Arkansas River and derives from a French term, the plural term for Quapaws, a Dhegiha Siouan-speaking Native American people who settled in Arkansas around the 13th century.
This comes from an Algonquian term, /akansa/, for the Quapaws, is also the root term for Kansas. The name has been spelled in a variety of fashions. In 1881, the pronunciation of Arkansas with the final "s" being silent was made official by an act of the state legislature after a dispute arose between Arkansas's two U. S. senators as one favored the pronunciation as AR-kən-saw while the other favored ar-KAN-zəs. In 2007, the state legislature passed a non-binding resolution declaring that the possessive form of the state's name is Arkansas's, followed by the state government. Arkansas borders Louisiana to the south, Texas to the southwest, Oklahoma to the west, Missouri to the north, Tennessee and Mississippi to the east; the United States Census Bureau classifies Arkansas as a southern state, sub-categorized among the West South Central States. The Mississippi River forms most of Arkansas's eastern border, except in Clay and Greene, counties where the St. Francis River forms the western boundary of the Missouri Bootheel, in many places where the channel of the Mississippi has meandered from its original 1836 course.
Arkansas can be split into two halves, the highlands in the northwest half and the lowlands of the southeastern half. The highlands are part of the Southern Interior Highlands, including The Ozarks and the Ouachita Mountains; the southern lowlands include the Arkansas Delta. This dual split can yield to general regions named northwest, northeast, southeast, or central Arkansas; these directionally named regions are broad and not defined along county lines. Arkansas has seven distinct natural regions: the Ozark Mountains, Ouachita Mountains, Arkansas River Valley, Gulf Coastal Plain, Crowley's Ridge, the Arkansas Delta, with Central Arkansas sometimes included as a blend of multiple regions; the southeastern part of Arkansas along the Mississippi Alluvial Plain is sometimes called the Arkansas Delta. This region is a flat landscape of rich alluvial soils formed by repeated flooding of the adjacent Mississippi. Farther away from the river, in the southeast portion of the state, the Grand Prairie consists of a more undulating landscape.
Both are fertile agricultural areas. The Delta region is bisected by a geological formation known as Crowley's Ridge. A narrow band of rolling hills, Crowley's Ridge rises from 250 to 500 feet above the surrounding alluvial plain and underlies many of the major towns of eastern Arkansas. Northwest Arkansas is part of the Ozark Plateau including the Ozark Mountains, to the south are the Ouachita Mountains, these regions are divided by the Arkansas River; these mountain ranges are part of the U. S. Interior Highlands region, the only major mountainous region between the Rocky Mountains and the Appalachian Mountains; the highest point in the state is Mount Magazine in the Ouachita Mountains, which rises to 2,753 feet above sea level. Arkansas has many rivers and reservoirs within or along its borders. Major tributaries of the Mississippi River include the Arkansas River, the White River, the St. Francis River; the Arkansas is fed by the Mulberry River and the Fou
A census is the procedure of systematically acquiring and recording information about the members of a given population. The term is used in connection with national population and housing censuses; the United Nations defines the essential features of population and housing censuses as "individual enumeration, universality within a defined territory and defined periodicity", recommends that population censuses be taken at least every 10 years. United Nations recommendations cover census topics to be collected, official definitions and other useful information to co-ordinate international practice; the word is of Latin origin: during the Roman Republic, the census was a list that kept track of all adult males fit for military service. The modern census is essential to international comparisons of any kind of statistics, censuses collect data on many attributes of a population, not just how many people there are. Censuses began as the only method of collecting national demographic data, are now part of a larger system of different surveys.
Although population estimates remain an important function of a census, including the geographic distribution of the population, statistics can be produced about combinations of attributes e.g. education by age and sex in different regions. Current administrative data systems allow for other approaches to enumeration with the same level of detail but raise concerns about privacy and the possibility of biasing estimates. A census can be contrasted with sampling in which information is obtained only from a subset of a population. Modern census data are used for research, business marketing, planning, as a baseline for designing sample surveys by providing a sampling frame such as an address register. Census counts are necessary to adjust samples to be representative of a population by weighting them as is common in opinion polling. Stratification requires knowledge of the relative sizes of different population strata which can be derived from census enumerations. In some countries, the census provides the official counts used to apportion the number of elected representatives to regions.
In many cases, a chosen random sample can provide more accurate information than attempts to get a population census. A census is construed as the opposite of a sample as its intent is to count everyone in a population rather than a fraction. However, population censuses rely on a sampling frame to count the population; this is the only way to be sure that everyone has been included as otherwise those not responding would not be followed up on and individuals could be missed. The fundamental premise of a census is that the population is not known and a new estimate is to be made by the analysis of primary data; the use of a sampling frame is counterintuitive as it suggests that the population size is known. However, a census is used to collect attribute data on the individuals in the nation; this process of sampling marks the difference between historical census, a house to house process or the product of an imperial decree, the modern statistical project. The sampling frame used by census is always an address register.
Thus it is not known how many people there are in each household. Depending on the mode of enumeration, a form is sent to the householder, an enumerator calls, or administrative records for the dwelling are accessed; as a preliminary to the dispatch of forms, census workers will check any address problems on the ground. While it may seem straightforward to use the postal service file for this purpose, this can be out of date and some dwellings may contain a number of independent households. A particular problem is what are termed'communal establishments' which category includes student residences, religious orders, homes for the elderly, people in prisons etc; as these are not enumerated by a single householder, they are treated differently and visited by special teams of census workers to ensure they are classified appropriately. Individuals are counted within households and information is collected about the household structure and the housing. For this reason international documents refer to censuses of housing.
The census response is made by a household, indicating details of individuals resident there. An important aspect of census enumerations is determining which individuals can be counted from which cannot be counted. Broadly, three definitions can be used: de facto residence; this is important to consider individuals who have temporary addresses. Every person should be identified uniquely as resident in one place but where they happen to be on Census Day, their de facto residence, may not be the best place to count them. Where an individual uses services may be more useful and this is at their usual, or de jure, residence. An individual may be represented at a permanent address a family home for students or long term migrants, it is necessary to have a precise definition of residence to decide whether visitors to a country should be included in the population count. This is becoming more important as students travel abroad for education for a period of several years. Other groups causing problems of enumeration are new born babies, people away on holiday, people moving home around census day, people without a fixed address.
People having second homes because of working in another part of the country or retaining a holiday cottage are dif
Missouri's 8th congressional district
Missouri's 8th Congressional District is one of 435 congressional districts in the United States and one of eight congressional districts in the state of Missouri. The district encompasses rural Southeast Missouri and South Central Missouri as well as some counties in Southwest Missouri; the district stretches from the Bootheel in the south to the St. Louis southern exurbs of Festus and surrounding areas in the Lead Belt; the district's largest city is Cape Girardeau. A predominantly rural district, the district votes Republican for national offices. In 2004, President George W. Bush received 63% of the vote in the district over U. S. Senator John Kerry who clinched 36%. In 2008, U. S. Senator John McCain carried the district with 61.92% over U. S. Senator Barack Obama, who received 36.42%. The district increased the margin for Republicans in 2012 when former Governor Mitt Romney gained 65.88% of the vote over President Barack Obama's 31.99%. The district swung towards Republican Donald Trump in the 2016 Election.
Mr. Trump garnered 75.4% of the vote, Democratic Nominee Hillary Clinton received just 21.0% of the vote, making it one of the most Republican Congressional Districts in the United States. Jason T. Smith, a Republican, has represented the district in the U. S. Congress since winning a special election on June 4, 2013; the incumbent Republican U. S. Representative Jo Ann Emerson resigned on January 22, 2013 to take a position as CEO for the National Rural Electric Cooperative Association. Missouri lost one of its nine congressional district seats following redistricting based on population numbers from the 2010 U. S. Census; the Republican-controlled state legislature decided to redefine Missouri's 3rd Congressional District, represented by U. S. Representative Russ Carnahan; the district included all of Ste. Genevieve and Jefferson counties and southern St. Louis County and the neighborhoods making up what is known as South City of St. Louis. Missouri’s 8th Congressional District lost its Taney County parts (which were redistricted to the Southwestern-based 7th Congressional District, picked up all of Crawford and Ste.
Genevieve counties, most of the southern and western rural parts of Jefferson County. Parts of Jefferson County that are now included in Missouri’s 8th include all of the cities of Hillsboro and De Soto, the extreme southern portions of the Twin Cities of Festus and Crystal City. Missouri's 8th is a diverse congressional district. Although it is quite conservative and Republican-leaning at the federal level, Democrats perform well here in local and state elections. Bill Clinton, a Democrat from neighboring Arkansas, carried the previous 8th District both times in 1992 and 1996. At the local level, Democrats control a slight majority of elected county offices in Southeast Missouri. In presidential elections, Democratic candidates perform best in the Bootheel, an agricultural area, the most impoverished region in the district, it has a wide majority of whites and a significant minority of African Americans. Democrats do well in the Lead Belt region, which contains a core constituency of voters who belong to labor unions in the mining industry.
The district takes in a large swath of the Bible Belt with evangelical Protestantism being the dominant religion in most counties in the district. This influence is demonstrated in conservative voters' positions on social issues such as abortion, gay rights and gun control. Racially, this district is predominately white. Many voters here maintain a rural lifestyle where agriculture and farming are the backbone of the economy and are important issues of concern. Socioeconomically, it is the poorest district in Missouri. There are 30 counties included in the district; these numbers reflect only the eastern sections of Taney County that were included in the 8th Congressional District. These numbers reflect only the eastern sections of Taney County that were included in the 8th Congressional District; these numbers reflect only the western and southern sections of Jefferson County that are included in the 8th Congressional District. These numbers reflect only the eastern sections of Taney County that were included in the 8th Congressional District at the time of the Missouri Democratic Presidential Primary on Super Tuesday, February 5, 2008.
These numbers reflect only the eastern sections of Taney County that were included in the 8th Congressional District at the time of the Missouri Republican Presidential Primary on Super Tuesday, February 5, 2008. The 10 largest cities in the district are as follows. Southeast Missouri State University - Cape Girardeau Southeast Missouri State University-Kennett Southeast Missouri State University-Malden Perryville Area Higher Education Center - Perryville Sikeston Area Higher Education Center - Sikeston Southeast Missouri Hospital College of Nursing Missouri University of Science and Technology - Rolla Missouri State University - Springfield - Located in Missouri's 7th congressional district Missouri State University-Mountain Grove Missouri State University-West Plains (Satellite
Pemiscot County, Missouri
Pemiscot County is a county located in the southeastern corner in the Bootheel in the U. S. state with the Mississippi River forming its eastern border. As of the 2010 census, the population was 18,296; the largest city and county seat is Caruthersville. The county was organized on February 19, 1851, is named for the local bayou, taken from the Fox dialect word, pem-eskaw, meaning "liquid mud"; this has been an area of cotton plantations and other commodity crops. Murphy Mound Archeological Site has one of the largest platform mounds in Missouri, it is a major earthwork of the Late Mississippian culture, which had settlement sites throughout the Mississippi Valley and tributaries. The site is owned and is not open to the public; the site may have been occupied from as early as 1200 CE and continuing to about 1541. Bordering the river and floodplain, the county has been devoted to agricultural development and commodity crops. In the 19th and early 20th centuries, its major commodity crop was cotton, developed first by enslaved African Americans.
After the Reconstruction era, whites lynched four African Americans, all in the early 1900s in the county seat of Caruthersville. This was a period of heightened violence against them by whites. To leave such conditions, many African Americans left the area in the Great Migration to urban areas for work. With mechanization of agriculture requiring fewer workers, the county population has continued to decline since a peak in 1940. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 513 square miles, of which 493 square miles is land and 21 square miles is water. Fishing is a popular activity among residents in the area. New Madrid County Lake County, Tennessee Dyer County, Tennessee Mississippi County, Arkansas Dunklin County I-55 I-155 US 61 US 412 Route 84 Route 153 Route 164 As of the census of 2000, there were 20,047 people, 7,855 households, 5,317 families residing in the county; the population density was 41 people per square mile. There were 8,793 housing units at an average density of 18 per square mile.
The racial makeup of the county was 71.76% White, 26.23% Black or African American, 0.25% Native American, 0.27% Asian, 0.01% Pacific Islander, 0.62% from other races, 0.85% from two or more races. 1.57% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. Among the major first ancestries reported in Pemiscot County were 31.9% American, 7.8% Irish, 5.6% English, 5.5% German ancestry. There were 7,855 households out of which 33.60% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 45.00% were married couples living together, 18.50% had a female householder with no husband present, 32.30% were non-families. 28.80% of all households were made up of individuals and 14.30% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.52 and the average family size was 3.10. In the county, the population was spread out with 30.00% under the age of 18, 9.10% from 18 to 24, 25.00% from 25 to 44, 21.10% from 45 to 64, 14.90% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 34 years.
For every 100 females there were 88.50 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 83.30 males. The median income for a household in the county was $26,992, the median income for a family was $33,945. Males had a median income of $27,476 versus $17,358 for females; the per capita income for the county was $15,599. About 24.80% of families and 30.40% of the population were below the poverty line, including 43.20% of those under age 18 and 23.20% of those age 65 or over. According to the Association of Religion Data Archives County Membership Report, Pemiscot County is a part of the Bible Belt with evangelical Protestantism being the majority religion; the most predominant denominations among residents in Pemiscot County who adhere to a religion are Southern Baptists and Churches of Christ. The Democratic Party controls politics at the local level in Pemiscot County. Democrats hold every elected position in the county. All of Pemiscot County is a part of Missouri’s 162nd District in the Missouri House of Representatives and is represented by Terry Swinger.
All of Pemiscot County is a part of Missouri's 25th District in the Missouri Senate and is represented by State Senator Rob Mayer. In 2008, Mayer defeated Democrat M. Shane Stoelting 65.32-34.68 percent in the district. The 25th Senatorial District consists of Butler, New Madrid, Ripley and Wayne counties. Pemiscot County is included in Missouri’s 8th Congressional District and is represented by Jason T. Smith in the U. S. House of Representatives. Smith won a special election on Tuesday, June 4, 2013, to finish out the remaining term of U. S. Representative Jo Ann Emerson. Emerson announced her resignation a month after being reelected with over 70 percent of the vote in the district, she resigned to become CEO of the National Rural Electric Cooperative. At the presidential level, Pemiscot County is a independent-leaning or battleground county although, like many counties in the impoverished Bootheel with a large African American population, it has a significant tendency to vote Democratic. While George W. Bush carried Pemiscot County by just 17 votes in 2004, Al Gore won the county in 2000, although both times the margin of victory was closer than in many other rural areas.
Bill Clinton carried Pemiscot County in both 1992 and 1996 by double-digit margins. As was the case in many o
Clay County, Arkansas
Clay County is a county located in the U. S. state of Arkansas. As of the 2010 census, the population was 16,083; the county has two county seats and Piggott. It is a dry county, in which the sale of alcoholic beverages is prohibited; when Clay County was created as Arkansas's 67th county on March 24, 1873, it was named Clayton County, after John M. Clayton a member of the Arkansas Senate and a brother of then-U. S. Senator Powell Clayton, though some sources suggest it may have been named for Powell Clayton instead. Two years on December 6, 1875, the county's name was shortened to "Clay" by the Arkansas General Assembly; some claim it was renamed for the statesman Henry Clay, while others say John M. Clayton remained its official namesake; the name change was inspired by lingering distrust of Powell Clayton, as he had declared martial law and suspended elections in the county in 1868 when he was Governor of Arkansas and it was still part of Greene County. The first county seat was Corning, established in 1873, with the arrival of the St. Louis, Iron Mountain and Southern Railway, as the first incorporated town in the county.
The county seat was moved to Boydsville in 1877, because people living east of the Black and Cache Rivers had difficulty getting to Corning during the flood season. However, this caused problems for those living west of the rivers, in 1881 Corning was re-established as the seat of the Western District, with Boydsville remaining the seat for the Eastern District. With the arrival of the St. Louis and Texas Railroad in 1882, other towns such as Greenway and Piggott experienced growth. In 1887, the Eastern District seat was moved to Piggott, the dual county seat system remains in place today. Important county functions alternate between Corning as their venues. In the early 20th century, Clay and Craighead counties had sundown town policies forbidding African Americans from living in the area. On April 6, 1972, Sheriff Douglas Batey and deputies Glen Ray Archer and Troy Key were shot and killed while trying to serve a warrant on Bert Grissom. Grissom opened fire as soon, he surrendered without resistance to another deputy, was tried and sentenced to life in prison.
William Thomas Pond became sheriff, but he died in an automobile accident on June 8, 1973. Four of the five police officers who have lost their lives serving the Clay County Sheriff's Office died in these two incidents. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 641 square miles, of which 639 square miles is land and 2.0 square miles is water. Future Interstate 57 U. S. Highway 49 U. S. Highway 62 U. S. Highway 67 Highway 90 Highway 119 Highway 139 Butler County, Missouri Dunklin County, Missouri Greene County Randolph County Ripley County, Missouri As of the 2000 census, there were 17,609 people, 7,417 households, 5,073 families residing in the county; the population density was 28 people per square mile. There were 8,498 housing units at an average density of 13 per square mile; the racial makeup of the county was 98.08% White, 0.19% Black or African American, 0.69% Native American, 0.08% Asian, 0.15% from other races, 0.81% from two or more races. 0.80% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race.
There were 7,417 households out of which 28.30% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 56.60% were married couples living together, 8.60% had a female householder with no husband present, 31.60% were non-families. 28.40% of all households were made up of individuals and 16.70% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.35 and the average family size was 2.87. In the county, the population was spread out with 23.10% under the age of 18, 7.70% from 18 to 24, 25.30% from 25 to 44, 24.60% from 45 to 64, 19.40% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 40 years. For every 100 females there were 93.50 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 88.30 males. The median income for a household in the county was $25,345, the median income for a family was $32,558. Males had a median income of $24,375 versus $17,146 for females; the per capita income for the county was $14,512. About 13.40% of families and 17.50% of the population were below the poverty line, including 21.20% of those under age 18 and 22.70% of those age 65 or over.
County Judge: Mike Patterson County Clerk: Pat Poole Sheriff & Collector: Terry Miller Circuit Clerk: Janet Kilbreath County Treasurer: Carolyn Morrisett District Judge: David Copelin Quorum Court Justices: David Cagle, Greg Ahrendt, Doyne Holifield, Joey Henderson, David Hatcher, Dennis Haynes, Mark Watson, & Burton Eddington, Jeff Douglas. Agriculture is the cornerstone of Clay County's economy. Farmers throughout the county grow a wide variety of crops. Rice is the dominant crop, but significant amounts of cotton, corn and milo are grown. Industry is limited to a handful of factories located in the cities of Piggott and Rector. Public education of elementary and secondary school students is provided by: Corning School District Piggott School District Rector School District Datto McDougal Nimmons Success Scatterville Townships in Arkansas are the divisions of a county; each township includes unincorporated areas. Arkansas townships have limited purposes in modern times. However, the United States Census does list Arkansas population based on townships.
Townships are a