Scotland is a country, part of the United Kingdom. Sharing a border with England to the southeast, Scotland is otherwise surrounded by the Atlantic Ocean to the north and west, by the North Sea to the northeast and by the Irish Sea to the south. In addition to the mainland, situated on the northern third of the island of Great Britain, Scotland has over 790 islands, including the Northern Isles and the Hebrides; the Kingdom of Scotland emerged as an independent sovereign state in the Early Middle Ages and continued to exist until 1707. By inheritance in 1603, James VI, King of Scots, became King of England and King of Ireland, thus forming a personal union of the three kingdoms. Scotland subsequently entered into a political union with the Kingdom of England on 1 May 1707 to create the new Kingdom of Great Britain; the union created a new Parliament of Great Britain, which succeeded both the Parliament of Scotland and the Parliament of England. In 1801, the Kingdom of Great Britain and Kingdom of Ireland enacted a political union to create a United Kingdom.
The majority of Ireland subsequently seceded from the UK in 1922. Within Scotland, the monarchy of the United Kingdom has continued to use a variety of styles and other royal symbols of statehood specific to the pre-union Kingdom of Scotland; the legal system within Scotland has remained separate from those of England and Wales and Northern Ireland. The continued existence of legal, educational and other institutions distinct from those in the remainder of the UK have all contributed to the continuation of Scottish culture and national identity since the 1707 union with England; the Scottish Parliament, a unicameral legislature comprising 129 members, was established in 1999 and has authority over those areas of domestic policy which have been devolved by the United Kingdom Parliament. The head of the Scottish Government, the executive of the devolved legislature, is the First Minister of Scotland. Scotland is represented in the UK House of Commons by 59 MPs and in the European Parliament by 6 MEPs.
Scotland is a member of the British–Irish Council, sends five members of the Scottish Parliament to the British–Irish Parliamentary Assembly. Scotland is divided into councils. Glasgow City is the largest subdivision in Scotland in terms of population, with Highland being the largest in terms of area. "Scotland" comes from the Latin name for the Gaels. From the ninth century, the meaning of Scotia shifted to designate Gaelic Scotland and by the eleventh century the name was being used to refer to the core territory of the Kingdom of Alba in what is now east-central Scotland; the use of the words Scots and Scotland to encompass most of what is now Scotland became common in the Late Middle Ages, as the Kingdom of Alba expanded and came to encompass various peoples of diverse origins. Repeated glaciations, which covered the entire land mass of modern Scotland, destroyed any traces of human habitation that may have existed before the Mesolithic period, it is believed the first post-glacial groups of hunter-gatherers arrived in Scotland around 12,800 years ago, as the ice sheet retreated after the last glaciation.
At the time, Scotland was covered in forests, had more bog-land, the main form of transport was by water. These settlers began building the first known permanent houses on Scottish soil around 9,500 years ago, the first villages around 6,000 years ago; the well-preserved village of Skara Brae on the mainland of Orkney dates from this period. Neolithic habitation and ritual sites are common and well preserved in the Northern Isles and Western Isles, where a lack of trees led to most structures being built of local stone. Evidence of sophisticated pre-Christian belief systems is demonstrated by sites such as the Callanish Stones on Lewis and the Maes Howe on Orkney, which were built in the third millennium BCE; the first written reference to Scotland was in 320 BC by Greek sailor Pytheas, who called the northern tip of Britain "Orcas", the source of the name of the Orkney islands. During the first millennium BCE, the society changed to a chiefdom model, as consolidation of settlement led to the concentration of wealth and underground stores of surplus food.
The first Roman incursion into Scotland occurred in 79 AD. After the Roman victory, Roman forts were set along the Gask Ridge close to the Highland line, but by three years after the battle, the Roman armies had withdrawn to the Southern Uplands; the Romans erected Hadrian's Wall in northern England and the Limes Britannicus became the northern border of the Roman Empire. The Roman influence on the southern part of the country was considerable, they introduced Christianity to Scotland. Beginning in the sixth century, the area, now Scotland was divided into three areas: Pictland, a patchwork of small lordships in central Scotland; these societies were based on the family unit and had sharp divisions in wealth, although the vast majority were poor and worked full-time in subsistence agriculture. The Picts kept slaves through the ninth century. Gaelic influence over Pictland and Northumbria was facilitated by the large number of Gaelic-speaking clerics working as missionaries. Operating in the sixth ce
Aberdeenshire is one of the 32 council areas of Scotland. It takes its name from the County of Aberdeen which has different boundaries; the Aberdeenshire council area includes all of the area of the historic counties of Aberdeenshire and Kincardineshire, as well as part of Banffshire. The county boundaries are used for a few purposes, namely land registration and lieutenancy. Aberdeenshire Council is headquartered at Woodhill House, in Aberdeen, making it the only Scottish council whose headquarters are located outside its jurisdiction. Aberdeen itself forms a different council area. Aberdeenshire borders onto Angus and Perth and Kinross to the south and Moray to the west and Aberdeen City to the east. Traditionally, it has been economically dependent upon the primary sector and related processing industries. Over the last 40 years, the development of the oil and gas industry and associated service sector has broadened Aberdeenshire's economic base, contributed to a rapid population growth of some 50% since 1975.
Its land represents 8% of Scotland's overall territory. It covers an area of 6,313 square kilometres. Aberdeenshire has a rich historic heritage, it is the locus of a large number of Neolithic and Bronze Age archaeological sites, including Longman Hill, Kempstone Hill, Catto Long Barrow and Cairn Lee. The area was settled in the Bronze Age by the Beaker culture, who arrived from the south around 2000–1800 BC. Stone circles and cairns were constructed predominantly in this era. In the Iron Age, hill forts were built. Around the 1st century AD, the Taexali people, who have left little history, were believed to have resided along the coast; the Picts were the next documented inhabitants of the area, were no than 800–900 AD. The Romans were in the area during this period, as they left signs at Kintore. Christianity influenced the inhabitants early on, there were Celtic monasteries at Old Deer and Monymusk. Since medieval times there have been a number of traditional paths that crossed the Mounth through present-day Aberdeenshire from the Scottish Lowlands to the Highlands.
Some of the most well known and important trackways are the Causey Mounth and Elsick Mounth. Aberdeenshire played an important role in the fighting between the Scottish clans. Clan MacBeth and the Clan Canmore were two of the larger clans. Macbeth fell at Lumphanan in 1057. During the Anglo-Norman penetration, other families arrives such as House of Balliol, Clan Bruce, Clan Cumming; when the fighting amongst these newcomers resulted in the Scottish Wars of Independence, the English king Edward I traveled across the area twice, in 1296 and 1303. In 1307, Robert the Bruce was victorious near Inverurie. Along with his victory came new families, namely the Forbeses and the Gordons; these new families set the stage for the upcoming rivalries during the 15th centuries. This rivalry grew worse during and after the Protestant Reformation, when religion was another reason for conflict between the clans; the Gordon family adhered to the Forbes to Protestantism. Aberdeenshire was the historic seat of the clan Dempster.
Three universities were founded in the area prior to the 17th century, King's College in Old Aberdeen, Marischal College in Aberdeen, the University of Fraserburgh. After the end of the Revolution of 1688, an extended peaceful period was interrupted only by such fleeting events such as the Rising of 1715 and the Rising of 1745; the latter resulted in the end of the ascendancy of Episcopalianism and the feudal power of landowners. An era began of industrial progress. During the 17th century, Aberdeenshire was the location of more fighting, centered on the Marquess of Montrose and the English Civil Wars; this period saw increased wealth due to the increase in trade with Germany and the Low Countries. The present council area is named after the historic county of Aberdeenshire, which has different boundaries and was abandoned as an administrative area in 1975 under the Local Government Act 1973, it was replaced by Grampian Regional Council and five district councils: Banff and Buchan, Gordon and Deeside, Moray and the City of Aberdeen.
Local government functions were shared between the two levels. In 1996, under the Local Government etc Act 1994, the Banff and Buchan district, Gordon district and Kincardine and Deeside district were merged to form the present Aberdeenshire council area. Moray and the City of Aberdeen were made their own council areas; the present Aberdeenshire council area consists of all of the historic counties of Aberdeenshire and Kincardineshire, as well as northeast portions of Banffshire. The population of the council area has risen over 50% since 1971 to 261,800, representing 4.7% of Scotland's total. Aberdeenshire's population has increased by 9.1% since 2001, while Scotland's total population grew by 3.8%. The census lists a high proportion of under 16s and fewer people of working-age compared with the Scottish average. Aberdeenshire is one of the most homogeneous regions of the UK. In 2011 82.2% of residents identified as'White Scottish', followed by 12.3% who are'White British'. The largest ethnic minority group are Asian Scottish/British at 0.8%.
The fourteen biggest settlements in Aberdeenshire are: Peterhead Fraserburgh (12,54
George Sutherland-Leveson-Gower, 2nd Duke of Sutherland
George Granville Sutherland-Leveson-Gower, 2nd Duke of Sutherland, KG, styled Viscount Trentham until 1803, Earl Gower between 1803 and 1833 and Marquess of Stafford in 1833, was a British Whig MP and peer from the Leveson-Gower family. Sutherland-Leveson-Gower was born at Portland Place, London, as the eldest son of George Leveson-Gower, 1st Duke of Sutherland and his wife Elizabeth Gordon, de jure Countess of Sutherland, he was educated at Harrow School from 1798 to 1803 entered Christ Church, where he graduated B. A. in 1806 and M. A. in 1810. In 1841 he graduated D. C. L. at the same university. His father died in 1833, only six months after being created Duke of Sutherland by William IV for his support for the Reform Act 1832, so this new title devolved on his eldest son, his mother, 19th Countess of Sutherland in her own right, died in 1839, so her ancient Scottish title passed to George, who became 20th Earl of Sutherland. As a result, the two titles were united in the same person until 1963.
It was the 2nd Duke who assumed the additional surname of Sutherland, so that his family name became Sutherland-Leveson-Gower. Between 1806 and 1808, Earl Gower travelled in Russia. During the Prussian campaign against Napoleon's French forces, he spent time at the Prussians' general headquarters. After returning from Europe, Earl Gower entered the Commons as M. P. for the Cornwall rotten borough of St Mawes in 1808. In 1812, he transferred to sit for the Staffordshire borough of Newcastle-Under-Lyme, until 1815, when he stood to become one of the county MPs for Staffordshire, sitting until 1820, he was Lord Lieutenant for the County of Sutherland from 1831 until his death, was appointed High Steward of the Borough of Stafford in 1833, was Lord Lieutenant of Shropshire from 1839-45. He was appointed Knight of the Order of the Garter in 1841. Sutherland was an active first-class cricketer in 1816 when he played for Marylebone Cricket Club and a team organised by E. H. Budd in a total of three matches.
He was a keen book collector and was one of the founder members of the Roxburghe Club in 1812. He was a trustee of the National Gallery from 1835 and of the British Museum from 1841 to his death, as well as appointed a Fine Arts Commissioner in 1841. Sutherland was deaf and therefore decided not to play a active part in politics, the path well worn by his contemporary peers. Instead he expended his energies by spending some of his vast wealth which he inherited from his father on improving his homes. In 1845, he employed Sir Charles Barry to make vast alterations to Dunrobin Castle. Barry transformed the place into the 189-room ducal palace. In addition to Dunrobin, the Duke had Barry remodel his Staffordshire seat of Trentham Hall, Cliveden House in Buckinghamshire, the family's London townhouse, Stafford House, the most valuable private home in the whole of London; the Duke died, aged 75, at Trentham Hall in Staffordshire, one of his English mansions, after a period of illness. Sutherland married Lady Harriet Elizabeth Georgiana Howard, daughter of George Howard, 6th Earl of Carlisle, on 28 May 1823.
They had eleven children, seven daughters and four sons: Lady Elizabeth Georgiana, married George Douglas Campbell, 8th Duke of Argyll and had issue. Lady Evelyn Leveson-Gower, married Charles Stuart, 12th Lord Blantyre Lady Caroline Leveson-Gower, married Charles FitzGerald, 4th Duke of Leinster and had issue. George Sutherland-Leveson-Gower, 3rd Duke of Sutherland Lady Blanche Julia Sutherland-Leveson-Gower Lord Frederick George Leveson-Gower Lady Constance Leveson-Gower, married Hugh Grosvenor, 1st Duke of Westminster and had issue. Lady Victoria Sutherland-Leveson-Gower Lord Albert, married Grace Abdy, daughter of Sir Thomas Neville Abdy, 1st Baronet and had issue, including Frederick Leveson-Gower. Lord Ronald Gower, died unmarried. Lady Alexandrina Sutherland-Leveson-Gower A large proportion of today's aristocracy are descended from the 2nd Duke of Sutherland. Through the marriages of his daughters, he is the ancestor of the present Dukes of Hamilton & Brandon, Northumberland and Westminster, the present Marquesses of Hertford and Londonderry, the present earls of Selkirk and Cromartie, the present Viscount Dilhorne, among many others.
The heir to the present Duke of Roxburghe is descended from him. His male line died out on the death of his great-grandson, the 5th Duke in 1963, the title passed to John Egerton, a descendant of the 2nd Duke's brother Francis, not descended from the 2nd Duke; the present Countess of Sutherland is a direct descendant of the 2nd Duke. He was the ancestor of the late Duchess of Beaufort, but not of the present Duke of Beaufort. Other notable descendants include the naturalist Gavin Maxwell and the spymaster Eliza Manningham-Buller. Hansard 1803–2005: contributions in Parliament by the Duke of Sutherland
Trentham Estate, in the village of Trentham, is a visitor attraction located on the southern fringe of the city of Stoke-on-Trent in Staffordshire, United Kingdom. The estate was first recorded in the Domesday Book in 1086. At the time it was a royal manor, with a value of 115 shillings. An Augustinian priory occupied the site, followed by a convent. Trentham Priory occupied land on the Trentham estate from the 11th century until the Dissolution of the Monasteries; the property was sold in 1540 to a Wolverhampton wool merchant. The Leveson family occupied the property and Sir Richard Leveson built a new house in 1634; the Leveson heiress Frances married Sir Thomas Gower Bt leading to the creation of the Leveson Gower family. It was a large Elizabethan house, demolished to make way for a Georgian house, their son Sir William Leveson-Gower, 4th Baronet built a new house on the site in 1690. Around 1730, John Leveson-Gower, 1st Earl Gower erected a hall based on Buckingham House, it was altered by his son 1st Marquess of Stafford, from designs by Henry Holland, in 1775–78.
The country house, of which parts remain, dates from 1833–42 was designed by Charles Barry, while he was working on the rebuild of the Palace of Westminster. He was commissioned by 2nd Duke of Sutherland; the focal point of the building was a 100 feet square campanile clock tower. The original approach to the hall was from the west, an Italianate Grand Entrance was part of the western front; the one-story arcade range is semi-circular with side wings. It was made of plastered brick and ashlar, had unfluted Ionic columns each side of its bays, as well as a balustrade above the cornice; the centre has a three-arched entrance with Porte-cochère projects, a coat of arms is carved above. The right wing incorporates an orangery, built in 1808 by Heathcote Tatham. Barry spent over 10 years improving the house, as well as adding a new block including state bedrooms and dressing rooms, as well as servant's quarters, a sculpture gallery, a clock tower; this interesting complex, with its clock tower, is known as the Riding School, designed in 1840 and built between 1841-50.
It stands on the perimeter of a large cobbled stableyard, represents the last major addition to, sole survivor of the once-exciting and impressive Trentham Hall. In 1851 it was described as being an "elegant mansion", it had been rebuilt in the previous 14 years, had a stone front. It housed an extensive collection of paintings, it is surrounded by an 18th- and 19th-century park designed by Lancelot Brown. The house served as the Staffordshire seat of the Duke of Sutherland, whose traditional burial place was Trentham Mausoleum nearby. In the southern extremity of the Trentham Estate stands the monument to the 1st Duke of Sutherland; this colossal statue, designed by Winks and sculptured by Chantrey, surmounts a plain column of stone on a tiered pedestal. The monument was raised in 1834 at the instigation of the second Duke, a year after the first Duke's death. A wide range of possible monuments was put forward but it was Sir Francis Leggatt Chantrey, with whom Loch, the Duke's Chief Agent, had been in touch, who recommended Sir Charles Barry for the design of the monument.
The Hall was one of many to be demolished in the 20th century, was one of the greatest losses of the era. The River Trent had been diverted into a lake close to the hall, but sewage and effluent from nearby potteries polluted it in the early 20th century, it was offered for free to the local council in 1905, but it was abandoned by 1907. The hall was demolished in 1912-13 by its owner, the 4th Duke of Sutherland, who razed it after his offer to give it to the people of Stoke-on-Trent was rejected. However, the gardens and the ornamental park with its lake and the Estate woodlands have all been preserved. During the 20th Century an amusement park and hosting the Lombard RAC motor rally which cut through the Italianate gardens; the sculpture gallery, clock tower and parish church, as well as other buildings, were not demolished. The remains of Trentham Hall, namely the Grand Entrance and Orangery, were listed on 24 January 1967, their listing was amended on 25 April 1980. They are Grade II*-listed.
Emergency repairs to stabilise the building were carried out. It is listed on the Heritage at Risk register; the sculpture gallery and clock tower remain. The property was purchased by St. Modwen Properties in 1996, at which point the buildings and gardens were derelict and vandalised, contracted the Land Use Consultants company to restore the historic landscape; the surrounding Trentham Gardens were restored in 2003-04, in 2013 they were visited by over 3 million people. As well as gardens, the Trentham estate contains a shopping village. St. Modwen set out a plan to recreate the house according to the original designs at the cost of £35 million as a five star hotel with 150 rooms, a luxury spa, a conference centre. Planning permission was granted, initial plans aimed for a 2008 completion date, revised to 2011. However, in 2013 they stated that despite having planning permission to restore the hall, it was not economically viable to do so, given that the £30-35 million cost of restoring and rebuilding the hall would be greater than the hall's value as a hotel due to the then-recent economic recession, although they stated that they were committed to restoring the hall when they could "make the numbers work".
As of May 2015, the buildings stand derelict. Trentham Gardens are part of an English landscape park; the gardens are set within a large area of woodland. Together these together cover some 300 acres; the gardens were designe
Duke of Sutherland
Duke of Sutherland is a title in the Peerage of the United Kingdom, created by William IV in 1833 for George Leveson-Gower, 2nd Marquess of Stafford. A series of marriages to heiresses by members of the Leveson-Gower family made the Dukes of Sutherland one of the richest landowning families in the United Kingdom; the title remained in the Leveson-Gower family until the death of the 5th Duke of Sutherland in 1963, when it passed to John Egerton, 5th Earl of Ellesmere. The subsidiary titles of the Duke of Sutherland are: Marquess of Stafford, Earl Gower, Earl of Ellesmere, of Ellesmere in the County of Shropshire, Viscount Trentham, of Trentham in the County of Stafford, Viscount Brackley, of Brackley in the County of Northampton, Baron Gower, of Sittenham in the County of York; the marquessate of Stafford, the earldom of Gower and the viscountcy of Trentham are in the Peerage of Great Britain, the dukedom, the earldom of Ellesmere and the viscountcy of Brackley in the Peerage of the United Kingdom, the barony of Gower in the Peerage of England.
The Duke is a Baronet, of Sittenham in the County of York, a title created in the Baronetage of England in 1620. Between 1839 and 1963 the Dukes held the titles of Lord Strathnaver and Earl of Sutherland, both in the Peerage of Scotland; the Scottish titles came into the family through the marriage of the first Duke to Elizabeth Sutherland, 19th Countess of Sutherland. Sir Thomas Gower was created a Baronet, of Sittenham in the County of York, by James I of England in 1620; this title was in the Baronetage of England. His son Thomas, the second Baronet, married daughter of Sir John Leveson, their grandson son William, the fourth Baronet, assumed the additional surname of Leveson. Sir William married Lady Jane, daughter of John Granville, 1st Earl of Bath and sister of Grace Carteret, 1st Countess Granville, their son John, the fifth Baronet, was raised to the Peerage of England as Baron Gower, of Sittenham in the County of York, in 1706. His son, the second Baron, served three times as Lord Privy Seal.
In 1746 he was created Viscount Trentham, of Trentham in the County of Stafford, Earl Gower. Both titles are in the Peerage of Great Britain, his eldest surviving son from his first marriage, the second Earl, was a prominent politician. In 1786 he was created Marquess of Stafford in the Peerage of Great Britain. Lord Stafford married secondly Lady Louisa Egerton, daughter of Scroop Egerton, 1st Duke of Bridgewater, his son from his third marriage to Lady Susanna Stewart, Lord Granville Leveson-Gore, was created Earl Granville in 1833, a revival of the title created for his great-great-aunt in 1715. Lord Stafford was succeeded by his eldest son from George, he married 19th Countess of Sutherland. In 1803 he succeeded to the vast estates of his maternal uncle Francis Egerton, 3rd Duke of Bridgewater. In 1833 he was created Duke of Sutherland in the Peerage of the United Kingdom; the 1st Duke and Duchess of Sutherland remain controversial for their role in the Highland Clearances, when thousands of tenants were evicted and resettled in coastal villages.
This allowed the vacated land to be used for extensive sheep farming, replacing the mixed farming carried out by the previous occupants. This was part of the Scottish Agricultural Revolution; the changes on the Sutherland estate were motivated by two major objectives. The first was to increase the rental income from the estate: sheep farmers could afford much higher rents; the second was to remove the population from the recurrent risks of famine.:157 Historical opinion differs on the relevance and severity of famine years, but most do not dispute that the Highland region remained the only part of mainland Britain, affected in this way at this time.:48The future 1st Duke became the proprietor of the Sutherland Estate on his marriage to Lady Elizabeth Sutherland, the Countess of Sutherland, in 1785. Despite the conventions of the day, Lady Sutherland, retained control of the management of the estate, rather than passing this responsibility to her husband.:154-155The Sutherland Clearances did not start until the 19th century due to insufficient capital – a problem, solved when, in 1803, George Leveson-Gower, the future 1st Duke inherited a huge fortune from the Duke of Bridgewater.
The remaining delay was that many leases did not expire until 1807 or but plans were put together for the interior of the estate to be devoted to large sheep farms, with new settlements to be built for the displaced inhabitants. A tentative start was made to this with the letting of the first big sheep farm at Lairg in 1807, involving the removal of about 300 people. Many of these did not accept their new homes and emigrated, to the dissatisfaction of the estate management and Lady Sutherland.:164-165Lady Sutherland was not happy with the estate factor and, in 1811, replaced him with William Young and Patrick Sellar. Young had a proven track record of agricultural improvement in Moray and Sellar was a lawyer educated at Edinburgh University, they provided an extra level of ambition for the estate.:166 New industries were added to the plans, to employ the resettled population. A coal mine was sunk at Brora, fishing villages were built to exploit the herring shoals off the coast. Other ideas were tanning, flax and brick manufacturing.:167The next clearances were in Assynt in 1812, under the direction of Sellar, establishing large sheep farms and resettling the old tenants on the coast.
Sellar had the assistance of the local tacksmen in this and the process was
Sir Charles Barry FRS RA was an English architect, best known for his role in the rebuilding of the Palace of Westminster in London during the mid-19th century, but responsible for numerous other buildings and gardens. He is known for his major contribution to the use of Italianate architecture in Britain the use of the Palazzo as basis for the design of country houses, city mansions and public buildings, he developed the Italian Renaissance garden style for the many gardens he designed around country houses. Born on 23 May 1795 in Bridge Street, Westminster, he was the fourth son of Walter Edward Barry, a stationer, Frances Barry née Maybank, he was baptised at St Margaret's, into the Church of England, of which he was a lifelong member. His father remarried shortly after Frances died and Barry's stepmother Sarah would bring him up, he was educated at private schools in Homerton and Aspley Guise, before being apprenticed to Middleton & Bailey, Lambeth architects and surveyors, at the age of 15.
Barry exhibited drawings at the Royal Academy annually from 1812 to 1815. Upon the death of his father, Barry inherited a sum of money that allowed him, after coming of age, to undertake an extensive Grand Tour around the Mediterranean and Middle East, from 28 June 1817 to August 1820, he visited France and, spent several days at the Musée du Louvre. In Rome he sketched antiquities and paintings at the Vatican Museums and other galleries, before carrying on to Naples, Pompeii and Corfu. While in Italy, Barry met Charles Lock Eastlake, an architect, William Kinnaird and Francis Johnson and Thomas Leverton Donaldson. With these gentlemen he visited Greece, where their itinerary covered Athens, which they left on 25 June 1818, Mount Parnassus, Aegina the Cyclades, including Delos Smyrna and Turkey, where Barry admired the magnificence of Hagia Sophia. From Constantinople he visited the Troad, Assos and back to Smyrna. Whilst in Athens, Barry met David Baillie, taken with Barry's sketches and offered to pay him £200 a year plus any expenses to accompany him to Egypt and Syria in return for Barry's drawings of the countries they visited.
The major sites of the Middle East that they visited included Dendera, the Temple of Edfu, Philae – it was here that he met his future client William John Bankes on 13 January 1819 – Thebes and Karnak back to Cairo and Giza with its pyramids. Continuing on through the Middle East, the major sites and cities visited were Jaffa, the Dead Sea, including the Church of the Holy Sepulchre Bethlehem, Jerash, Beirut and Palmyra on to Homs. On 18 June 1819, Barry parted from Baillie at Lebanon. Over this time, Barry created more than 500 sketches. Barry travelled on to Cyprus, Halicarnassus and Smyrna from where he sailed on 16 August 1819 for Malta. Barry sailed from Malta to Syracuse, Sicily Italy and back through France, his travels in Italy exposed him to Renaissance architecture and after arriving in Rome in January 1820, he met architect John Lewis Wolfe, who inspired Barry himself to become an architect. Their friendship continued; the building that inspired Barry's admiration for Italian architecture was the Palazzo Farnese.
Over the following months, he and Wolfe together studied the architecture of Vicenza, Venice and Florence, where the Palazzo Strozzi impressed him. While in Rome he had met Henry Petty-Fitzmaurice, 3rd Marquess of Lansdowne, through whom he met Henry Vassall-Fox, 3rd Baron Holland, his wife, Elizabeth Fox, Baroness Holland, their London home, Holland House, was the centre of the Whig Party. Barry remained a lifelong supporter of the successor to the Whig Party. Barry was invited to the gatherings at the house, there met many of the prominent members of the group. Barry set up his home and office in Ely Place in 1821. In 1827 he moved to 27 Foley Place in 1842 he moved to 32 Great George Street and to The Elms, Clapham Common. Now 29 Clapham Common Northside, the Georgian house of five bays and three stories was designed by Samuel Pepys Cockerell as his own home. Thanks to his fiancée's friendship with John Soane, Barry was recommended to the Church Building Commissioners, was able to obtain his first major commissions building churches for them.
These were in the Gothic Revival architecture style, including two in Lancashire, St. Matthew, Campfield and All Saints' Church, Whitefield. Barry designed three churches for the Commissioners in Islington: Holy Trinity, St. John's and St. Paul's, all in the Gothic style and built between 1826 and 1828. Two further Gothic churches in Lancashire, not for the Commissioners followed in 1824: St Saviour's Church, Ringley rebuilt in 1851–54 and Barry's neglected Welsh Baptist Chapel, on Upper Brook Street in Manchester, is open to the elements and at serious risk after its roof was removed in late 2005, his final church for the Commissioners' was the Gothic St Peter's Church, which he won in a design competition on 4 August 1823 and was his first building to win acclaim. The next church he designed was St Andrew's Hove, East Sussex, in Waterloo Street, Brunswick,.