In Christianity, a collegiate church is a church where the daily office of worship is maintained by a college of canons: a non-monastic or "secular" community of clergy, organised as a self-governing corporate body, which may be presided over by a dean or provost. In its governance and religious observance a collegiate church is similar to a cathedral, although a collegiate church is not the seat of a bishop and has no diocesan responsibilities. Collegiate churches were supported by extensive lands held by the church, or by tithe income from appropriated benefices, they provide distinct spaces for congregational worship and for the choir offices of their clerical community. In the early medieval period, before the development of the parish system in Western Christianity, many new church foundations were staffed by groups of secular priests, living a communal life and serving an extensive territory. In England these churches were termed minsters, from the Latin monasterium, although confusingly only a few were monastic.
In the 9th and 10th centuries many such churches adopted formal rules of governance derived from those composed by Chrodegang of Metz for Metz cathedral, thenceforth came to be described as "collegiate". The endowments of these foundations were held in a common treasury from which each canon received a proportion for their subsistence, such canons being termed portioners. A few major collegiate bodies remained portionary. Both prebendaries and portioners tended in this period to abandon communal living, each canon establishing his own house within the precinct of the church. In response to which, on account of widespread concern that the religious life of collegiate communities might be insufficiently rigorous, many collegiate foundations in the 12th century adopted the Augustinian rule, become monastic, as for example at Dorchester Abbey and Christchurch Priory; because each prebend or portion provided a discrete source of income as a separate benefice, in the medieval period canons tended to be non-resident, paying a vicar to undertake divine service in their place.
Kings and bishops came to regard prebends as useful sources of income for favoured servants and supporters, it was not uncommon for a bishop or archbishop to hold half a dozen or more collegiate prebends or deaneries. From the 13th century onwards, existing collegiate foundations attracted chantry endowments a legacy in a will providing for masses to be sung for the repose of the souls of the testator and their families by the collegiate clergy or their vicars; the same impetus to establish endowed prayer led to many new collegiate foundations in this period. A new organisational structure was developed for these bodies, by which endowment income was held collectively, each canon received a fixed stipend conditional on being resident, such canons being termed fellows, or chaplains led by a warden or master. In this arrangement, only the office of warden constituted a separate benefice. Chantry colleges still maintained the daily divine office with the additional prime function of offering masses in intercession for departed members of the founder's family.
For founders, this presented the added advantage that masses for the repose of themselves and their families endowed in a chantry would be supported by a guaranteed congregation of grateful and virtuous recipients of charity, which conferred a perceived advantage in endowing such a chantry in a parish church over doing so in a monastery. In the medieval period, testators tended to favour chantries linked to parochial charitable endowments. One particular development of the chantry college principle was the establishment in university cities of collegiate foundations in which the fellows were graduate academics and university teachers. Local parish churches were appropriated to these foundations, thereby acquiring collegiate status. However, this form of college developed radically in the Middle Ages after the pattern of New College, where for the first time college residence was extended to include undergraduate students. Thereafter university collegiate bodies developed into a distinct type of religious establishment whose regular worship took place in dedicated college chapels rather than in collegiate churches.
In a collegiate church or chapel, as in a cathedral, the canons or fellows are seated separately from any provision for a lay congregation, in quire stalls parallel with the south and north walls facing inwards rather than towards the altar at the eastern end. This has influenced the design of other churches
Integrated Authority File
The Integrated Authority File or GND is an international authority file for the organisation of personal names, subject headings and corporate bodies from catalogues. It is used for documentation in libraries and also by archives and museums; the GND is managed by the German National Library in cooperation with various regional library networks in German-speaking Europe and other partners. The GND falls under the Creative Commons Zero licence; the GND specification provides a hierarchy of high-level entities and sub-classes, useful in library classification, an approach to unambiguous identification of single elements. It comprises an ontology intended for knowledge representation in the semantic web, available in the RDF format; the Integrated Authority File became operational in April 2012 and integrates the content of the following authority files, which have since been discontinued: Name Authority File Corporate Bodies Authority File Subject Headings Authority File Uniform Title File of the Deutsches Musikarchiv At the time of its introduction on 5 April 2012, the GND held 9,493,860 files, including 2,650,000 personalised names.
There are seven main types of GND entities: LIBRIS Virtual International Authority File Information pages about the GND from the German National Library Search via OGND Bereitstellung des ersten GND-Grundbestandes DNB, 19 April 2012 From Authority Control to Linked Authority Data Presentation given by Reinhold Heuvelmann to the ALA MARC Formats Interest Group, June 2012
Milan Cathedral is the cathedral church of Milan, Italy. Dedicated to St Mary of the Nativity, it is the seat of the Archbishop of Milan Archbishop Mario Delpini; the cathedral took nearly six centuries to complete. It is the third largest in Europe and the fourth largest in the world. Milan's layout, with streets either radiating from the Duomo or circling it, reveals that the Duomo occupies what was the most central site in Roman Mediolanum, that of the public basilica facing the forum; the first cathedral, the "new basilica" dedicated to St Thecla, was completed by 355. It seems to share, on a smaller scale, the plan of the contemporaneous church rediscovered beneath Tower Hill in London. An adjoining basilica was erected in 836; the old octagonal baptistery, the Battistero Paleocristiano, dates to 335 and still can be visited under the Milan Cathedral. When a fire damaged the cathedral and basilica in 1075, they were rebuilt as the Duomo. In 1386, Archbishop Antonio da Saluzzo began construction of the cathedral.
Start of the construction coincided with the ascension to power in Milan of the archbishop's cousin Gian Galeazzo Visconti, was meant as a reward to the noble and working classes, who had suffered under his tyrannical Visconti predecessor Barnabò. Before actual work began, three main buildings were demolished: the palace of the Archbishop, the Ordinari Palace and the Baptistry of St. Stephen at the Spring, while the old church of Sta. Maria Maggiore was exploited as a stone quarry. Enthusiasm for the immense new building soon spread among the population, the shrewd Gian Galeazzo, together with his cousin the archbishop, collected large donations for the work-in-progress; the construction program was regulated under the "Fabbrica del Duomo", which had 300 employees led by first chief engineer Simone da Orsenigo. Orsenigo planned to build the cathedral from brick in Lombard Gothic style. Visconti had ambitions to follow the newest trends in European architecture. In 1389, a French chief engineer, Nicolas de Bonaventure, was appointed, adding to the church its Rayonnant Gothic, a French style not typical for Italy.
He decided. Galeazzo gave the Fabbrica del Duomo exclusive use of the marble from the Candoglia quarry and exempted it from taxes. Ten years another French architect, Jean Mignot, was called from Paris to judge and improve upon the work done, as the masons needed new technical aid to lift stones to an unprecedented height. Mignot declared all the work done up till as in pericolo di ruina, as it had been done sine scienzia. In the following years Mignot's forecasts proved untrue, but they spurred Galeazzo's engineers to improve their instruments and techniques. Work proceeded and at the death of Gian Galeazzo in 1402 half the cathedral was complete. Construction, stalled totally until 1480, for lack of money and ideas: the most notable works of this period were the tombs of Marco Carelli and Pope Martin V and the windows of the apse, of which those extant portray St. John the Evangelist, by Cristoforo de' Mottis, Saint Eligius and San John of Damascus, both by Niccolò da Varallo. In 1452, under Francesco Sforza, the nave and the aisles were completed up to the sixth bay.
In 1500 to 1510, under Ludovico Sforza, the octagonal cupola was completed, decorated in the interior with four series of 15 statues each, portraying saints, prophets and other Figures from the Bible. The exterior long remained without any decoration, except for the Guglietto dell'Amadeo, constructed 1507-1510; this is a Renaissance masterwork which harmonized well with the general Gothic appearance of the church. During the subsequent Spanish domination, the new church proved usable though the interior remained unfinished, some bays of the nave and the transepts were still missing. In 1552 Giacomo Antegnati was commissioned to build a large organ for the north side of the choir, Giuseppe Meda provided four of the sixteen pales which were to decorate the altar area. In 1562, Marco d' Agrate's St. Bartholomew and the famous Trivulzio candelabrum were added. After the accession of Carlo Borromeo to the archbishop's throne, all lay monuments were removed from the Duomo; these included the tombs of Giovanni, Filippo Maria Visconti, Francesco I and his wife Bianca, Galeazzo Maria, which were brought to unknown destinations.
However, Borromeo's main intervention was the appointment, in 1571, of Pellegrino Pellegrini as chief engineer— a contentious move, since to appoint Pellegrino, not a lay brother of the duomo, required a revision of the Fabbrica's statutes. Borromeo and Pellegrini strove for a new, Renaissance appearance for the cathedral, that would emphasise its Roman / Italian nature, subdue the Gothic style, now seen as foreign; as the façade still was incomplete, Pellegrini designed a "Roman" style one, with columns, obelisks and a large tympanum. When Pellegrini's design was revealed, a competition for the design of the façade was announced, this elicited nearly a dozen entries, including one by Antonio Barca This design was never carried out, but the interior decoration continued: in 1575-1585 the presbytery was rebuilt, while new altars and the baptistry were added; the wooden choir stalls were constructed by 1614 for the main altar by Francesco Brambilla. In 157
Alba Cathedral is a Roman Catholic cathedral in Alba, Italy, dedicated to Saint Lawrence. It is the episcopal seat of the Diocese of Alba, it is a Romanesque building located in the Piazza del Risorgimento, better known as Piazza Duomo, amidst cobbled streets. The earliest structure appears to have been built on the site at the end of the 5th century. A subsequent Romanesque structure was built on its ruins; the current structure, built upon the original one, dates to the first half of the 12th century over holy edifices of Roman age, is of red brick,Between the 12th and 15th centuries the cathedral was reshaped in the form of late Gothic architecture. It was restructured in the 15th century by bishop Andrea Novelli, who arrived in Alba in 1484 to find the cathedral in poor condition; the most important renovation dates to 1652 to repair the damage caused by earthquakes in 1626. After the earthquake, the ceiling of the nave fell, it was restored along with the construction of two side aisles, one dedicated to San Theobald of Provins and the other to SS.
Sacramento. The last major restoration was between 1867 and 1878 by the engineer Edoardo Arborio Mella who modified the exterior of the cathedral as well as the interior décor; this reconstruction included roofs, aisle vaults, the rebuilding of the apse, the rehabilitation of the facade, opening side windows and the replacement of the pavement. The current appearance dates to the controversial restoration of the 19th century, of which the three portals and the crypt are from the original edifice. Restoration work in 2007, including the heating infrastructure, was carried out with financial backing from Bank Foundation of Cassa di Risparmio di Cuneo. An ancient baptismal font was found during archaeological excavation in the aisle in front of the Blessed Sacrament chapel. 100 graves of children, dating from the 16th and 18th centuries were found. The finding was not unusual as it was once customary to reuse the space of an ancient baptistery redesigned as a burial place; the recent renovation gave the Diocese the opportunity to consider the next restoration which will be a'liturgical adaptation' to the cathedral.
In 2008, an Evaluation Committee was formed, consisting of the vicar, the parish priest, the Cultural Property Office of the Diocese, the Director of the National Office of Ecclesiastical Cultural Heritage, as well as expert architects and superintendents. It selected a design that takes into account of two of the cathedral's architectural aspects, the ancient chorus and the special decoration of with bands on the columns that stress the development of building upward; the cost of the work will be supported by the Diocese. The building has two aisles, on the Latin cross plan; the first chapel on the right is that of the Holy Cross. Its altar was designed in Mella-style with neo-Gothic walls on the left side; the painting of St Joseph is from the 18th century. Paintings of Madonna and Child and St Philip date from the same century, are attributed to Pietro Paolo Operti; the altar of Our Lady of the Sacred Heart holds a statue of the same name. The walls display paintings by Agostino Cottolengo include one of the Abbot San Palemon, the other depicting Pope Eugene.
The church organ was built by Fratelli Lingiardi of Pavia in 1876. The current belfry, from the 12th century, includes the original bell tower; the old bell tower, not high, contains at least five overlapping buttresses to form a powerful base. It is visible by ascending through a cavity that leads to the belfry and was built as a public works project, it is symbolic of the union between Alba's society. Reconstruction of the ancient tower included the interior staircase; the church is well known for its wood-carved chorus stalls built in 1512 by Bernardino Fossati. The stalls consist of thirty-five seats in two semicircle rows; the center one is the Episcopal stall. An overhead canopy is flanked by seventeen on each side; the canopies and stalls are decoratively framed in an architectural style typical of the area. This includes a traditional iconographic motif of Renaissance marquetry; the seats are separated from each other by arm rests with plant motifs. The outer paneling consists of inlaid wood scenes, each enclosed in a frame with geometric motifs.
The images alternate in their subject matter. They depict differing views of development of the city of Alba inventing architectural features; the semicircle of sculptural depictions, thirty-five in all, are of the Renaissance tradition. The builder used different wood types for the inlay; the sculptured subjects include bound books, cups filled with fruit and inverted cups, musical instruments, objects of worship, symbols of the Passion, villages perched on hilltops. A small altar, built in 1872, is dedicated to Saint Bavo, it contains an oil painting on canvas, a representation of San Bovo, by the artist Luigi Morgari and was painted for the cathedral. Placed over a sacred table, built to a design of Edoardo Arborio Mella, the painting is framed by stucco decorations, pale blue in color, with gold decorations; the painting portrays San Bovo kneeling in admiration of the cross. The saint is wearing a red cloak, is dressed as a soldier in boots and a helmet, he holds a waving white flag. A tower is visible in the distance.
A baptistery chapel designed by the architect Ugo Della Piana in 1991 contains the painting Baptism of Jesus. Bartoletti, Massimo.
A cathedral is a Catholic church that contains the cathedra of a bishop, thus serving as the central church of a diocese, conference, or episcopate. The equivalent word in German for such a church is Dom. Churches with the function of "cathedral" are specific to those Christian denominations with an episcopal hierarchy, such as the Catholic, Anglican and some Lutheran and Methodist churches. Church buildings embodying the functions of a cathedral first appeared in Italy, Gaul and North Africa in the 4th century, but cathedrals did not become universal within the Western Catholic Church until the 12th century, by which time they had developed architectural forms, institutional structures and legal identities distinct from parish churches, monastic churches and episcopal residences. In the Eastern Orthodox Church, the English word "cathedral" translates as katholikon, meaning "assembly", but this title is applied to monastic and other major churches without episcopal responsibilities; when the church at which an archbishop or "metropolitan" presides is intended, the term kathedrikós naós is used.
Following the Protestant Reformation, the Christian church in several parts of Western Europe, such as Scotland, the Netherlands, certain Swiss Cantons and parts of Germany, adopted a Presbyterian polity that did away with bishops altogether. Where ancient cathedral buildings in these lands are still in use for congregational worship, they retain the title and dignity of "cathedral", maintaining and developing distinct cathedral functions, but void of hierarchical supremacy. From the 16th century onwards, but since the 19th century, churches originating in Western Europe have undertaken vigorous programmes of missionary activity, leading to the founding of large numbers of new dioceses with associated cathedral establishments of varying forms in Asia, Australasia and the Americas. In addition, both the Catholic Church and Orthodox churches have formed new dioceses within Protestant lands for converts and migrant co-religionists, it is not uncommon to find Christians in a single city being served by three or more cathedrals of differing denominations.
In the Catholic or Roman Catholic tradition, the term "cathedral" applies only to a church that houses the seat of the bishop of a diocese. The abbey church of a territorial abbacy does not acquire the title. In any other jurisdiction canonically equivalent to a diocese but not canonically erected as such, the church that serves this function is called the "principal church" of the respective entity—though some have coopted the term "cathedral" anyway; the Catholic Church uses the following terms. A pro-cathedral is a parish or other church used temporarily as a cathedral while the cathedral of a diocese is under construction, renovation, or repair; this designation applies. A co-cathedral is a second cathedral in a diocese; this situation can arise in various ways such as a merger of two former dioceses, preparation to split a diocese, or perceived need to perform cathedral functions in a second location due to the expanse of the diocesan territory. A proto-cathedral is the former cathedral of a transferred.
The cathedral church of a metropolitan bishop is called a metropolitan cathedral. The term "cathedral" carries no implication as to the size or ornateness of the building. Most cathedrals are impressive edifices. Thus, the term "cathedral" is applied colloquially to any large and impressive church, regardless of whether it functions as a cathedral, such as the Crystal Cathedral in California or the Arctic Cathedral in Tromsø, Norway. Although the builders of Crystal Cathedral never intended the building to be a true cathedral, the Roman Catholic Diocese of Orange purchased the building and the surrounding campus in February 2012 for use as a new cathedral church; the building is now under renovation and restoration for solemn dedication under the title "Christ Cathedral" in 2019. The word "cathedral" is derived from the French cathédrale, from the Latin cathedra, from the Greek καθέδρα kathédra, "seat, bench", from κατά kata "down" and ἕδρα hedra "seat, chair." The word refers to the presence and prominence of the bishop's or archbishop's chair or throne, raised above both clergy and laity, located facing the congregation from behind the High Altar.
In the ancient world, the chair, on a raised dais, was the distinctive mark of a teacher or rhetor and thus symbolises the bishop's role as teacher. A raised throne within a basilican hall was definitive for a Late Antique presiding magistrate; the episcopal throne embodies the principle that only a bishop makes a cathedral, this still applies in those churches that no longer have bishops, but retain cathedral dignity and functions in ancient churches over which bishops presided. But the throne can embody the principle that a cathedral makes a bishop.
The Duomo of Monza known in English as Monza Cathedral is the main religious building of Monza, in northern Italy. Unlike most duomos it is not in fact a cathedral, as Monza has always been part of the Diocese of Milan, but is in the charge of an archpriest who has the right to certain episcopal vestments including the mitre and the ring; the church is known as the Basilica of San Giovanni Battista from its dedication to John the Baptist. The basilica, which would in essence have been completed by 603 when heir to the Lombard throne Adaloald was baptised here by Secundus of Non, is believed to have been commissioned towards the end of the sixth century by the Lombard Queen of Italy, Theodelinda, as a royal chapel to serve the nearby palace. According to the legend she had made a vow to build a church dedicated to Saint John the Baptist, when riding along the banks of the Lambro River, she was halted by a dove who told her Modo, to which she replied Etiam. Monza itself was known as Modoetia.
In 595, she had a oraculum built on the Greek Cross plan. The queen was buried here, in. On the remains of the oraculum, a new church was erected in the 13th century, it was again rebuilt as a basilica, starting from 1300, on a Latin Cross plan with an octagonal tiburium. In the late 14th century, the side chapels were added and, as designed by Matteo da Campione, the Pisan-Gothic style west front in white and green marble was begun. Starting from the 16th century, the choir and the ceiling were restored. Subsequently, the walls and the vaults were decorated with frescoes and stucco-work; the bell tower was erected in 1606. In the 18th century a cemetery was annexed on the left side; the massive west front is divided into five parts by six lesene, each of, surmounted by a tabernacle housing a statue. The façade has several mullioned windows with, in the centre, a large rose window framed by a motif inspired by Roman antique ceilings, decorated with rosettes and star motifs; the façade is considered Romanesque in its Gothic in its decoration.
Typical of the latter is the porch, with 14th century gargoyles on the sides and the 13th century lunette with the 16th century busts of Theodelinda and King Agilulf. Over the porch is the statue of Saint John the Baptist. Over the portal is depicted the Baptism of Jesus, assisted by Saint Peter, the Blessed Virgin Mary, Saint Zachary and Saint Paul. In the upper section is portrayed Theodelinda offering to John the Baptist the Iron Crown of Lombardy, together with her kneeling husband Agilulf and their children Adaloald and Gundeberga; the church has a nave and two aisles, separated by octagonal columns with Romanesque capitals and round columns with Baroque capitals. It ends in large apses, has a series of chapels opening into the aisles; the wall decoration is overwhelmingly Baroque. Other artworks include a choir by Matteo da Campione, the high altar by Andrea Appiani, the presbytery and transept frescoes by Giuseppe Meda and Giuseppe Arcimboldi. In the right transept is the entrance to the Serpero Museum which houses the treasury with the Iron Crown of Lombardy, the Late Antique ivory Poet and Muse diptych, of about 500, as well as an internationally important collection of late antique and early medieval works of various kinds, many deposited by Theodelinda herself.
These include small metal 6th century ampullae from the Holy Land which are evidence of the emerging iconography of medieval art, among them the earliest depictions of the treatments of the Crucifixion and Nativity of Jesus in art that were to become standard throughout the Middle Ages and beyond. Only Bobbio has an equivalent collection of ampullae; the library holds a number of important illuminated manuscripts. Apart the Iron Crown, the most famous attraction of the church is the Chapel of Theodelinda, it has 15th-century frescoes from the Zavattari workshop depicting the stories of the queen's life, such as the dove episode, her marriage proposal, her meeting with her first husband, the latter's death in battle, her new marriage with Agilulf. All the figures are portrayed with rich garments typical of the Visconti era; the vault is decorated with 14th century figures of evangelists enthroned. On the outer arch are depicted Theodelinda with her court venerating Saint John the Baptist. An ancient and unusual privilege of the Duomo is its right to employ ceremonial armed guards, rather on the line of the Papal Swiss Guard at the Vatican.
Known as Alabardieri from the halberds they carry, the date of their institution is described in a 1763 edict of Maria Theresa of Austria as ‘immemorial’. Their eighteenth-century style uniform, of blue wool with gold braiding and a belt buckle with an image of the Iron Crown, is unchanged from that approved in the edict, except that since the Napoleonic period the bicorne hat has replaced the earlier tricorne. Caterina Visconti Hahn, The Meaning of Early Medieval Treasuries, in Reliquiare im Mittelalter, Volume 5 of Hamburger Forschungen zur Kunstgeschichte, eds Bruno Reudenbach, Gia Toussaint, Akademie Verlag, 2005, ISBN 3-05-004134-X, 9783050041346, google books Media related to Duomo at Wikimedia Commons Official website Page with images of the frescoes
Oxford English Dictionary
The Oxford English Dictionary is the principal historical dictionary of the English language, published by Oxford University Press. It traces the historical development of the English language, providing a comprehensive resource to scholars and academic researchers, as well as describing usage in its many variations throughout the world; the second edition, comprising 21,728 pages in 20 volumes, was published in 1989. Work began on the dictionary in 1857, but it was only in 1884 that it began to be published in unbound fascicles as work continued on the project, under the name of A New English Dictionary on Historical Principles. In 1895, the title The Oxford English Dictionary was first used unofficially on the covers of the series, in 1928 the full dictionary was republished in ten bound volumes. In 1933, the title The Oxford English Dictionary replaced the former name in all occurrences in its reprinting as twelve volumes with a one-volume supplement. More supplements came over the years until 1989.
Since 2000, compilation of a third edition of the dictionary has been underway half of, complete. The first electronic version of the dictionary was made available in 1988; the online version has been available since 2000, as of April 2014 was receiving over two million hits per month. The third edition of the dictionary will most only appear in electronic form: the Chief Executive of Oxford University Press has stated that it is unlikely that it will be printed; as a historical dictionary, the Oxford English Dictionary explains words by showing their development rather than their present-day usages. Therefore, it shows definitions in the order that the sense of the word began being used, including word meanings which are no longer used; each definition is shown with numerous short usage quotations. This allows the reader to get an approximate sense of the time period in which a particular word has been in use, additional quotations help the reader to ascertain information about how the word is used in context, beyond any explanation that the dictionary editors can provide.
The format of the OED's entries has influenced numerous other historical lexicography projects. The forerunners to the OED, such as the early volumes of the Deutsches Wörterbuch, had provided few quotations from a limited number of sources, whereas the OED editors preferred larger groups of quite short quotations from a wide selection of authors and publications; this influenced volumes of this and other lexicographical works. According to the publishers, it would take a single person 120 years to "key in" the 59 million words of the OED second edition, 60 years to proofread them, 540 megabytes to store them electronically; as of 30 November 2005, the Oxford English Dictionary contained 301,100 main entries. Supplementing the entry headwords, there are 157,000 bold-type derivatives; the dictionary's latest, complete print edition was printed in 20 volumes, comprising 291,500 entries in 21,730 pages. The longest entry in the OED2 was for the verb set, which required 60,000 words to describe some 430 senses.
As entries began to be revised for the OED3 in sequence starting from M, the longest entry became make in 2000 put in 2007 run in 2011. Despite its considerable size, the OED is neither the world's largest nor the earliest exhaustive dictionary of a language. Another earlier large dictionary is the Grimm brothers' dictionary of the German language, begun in 1838 and completed in 1961; the first edition of the Vocabolario degli Accademici della Crusca is the first great dictionary devoted to a modern European language and was published in 1612. The official dictionary of Spanish is the Diccionario de la lengua española, its first edition was published in 1780; the Kangxi dictionary of Chinese was published in 1716. The dictionary began as a Philological Society project of a small group of intellectuals in London: Richard Chenevix Trench, Herbert Coleridge, Frederick Furnivall, who were dissatisfied with the existing English dictionaries; the Society expressed interest in compiling a new dictionary as early as 1844, but it was not until June 1857 that they began by forming an "Unregistered Words Committee" to search for words that were unlisted or poorly defined in current dictionaries.
In November, Trench's report was not a list of unregistered words. The Society realized that the number of unlisted words would be far more than the number of words in the English dictionaries of the 19th century, shifted their idea from covering only words that were not in English diction