Anders Nilsen (cartoonist)
Anders Nilsen is an American cartoonist who lives in Portland, Oregon. Nilsen graduated with an art degree from the University of New Mexico in 1996, he moved to Chicago in 1999 to get a Master of Fine Arts in painting, but dropped out after one year. Nilsen's comics have appeared in the anthologies Kramers Mome, his graphic novel Dogs and Water won an Ignatz Award in 2005. An excerpt from Dogs and Water was featured in the inaugural 2006 edition of the Best American Comics anthology, the book was expanded and reissued in hardcover in 2007. In 2007, Nilsen won an Ignatz Award for his graphic memoir, Don't Go Where I Can't Follow, in 2012, he won an Ignatz Award for Big Questions, a collected edition of his comic book series. Nilsen is co-founder of Autoptic, a bi-annual festival of independent comics and art culture that takes place in Minneapolis, he is one of the organizers of comics residency Pierre Feuille Ciseaux. 2001: Xeric Award for The Ballad of the Two-Headed Boy 2005: Ignatz Award for Dogs and Water 2007: Ignatz Award for Don't Go Where I Can't Follow 2012: Ignatz Award for Big Questions 2012: Lynd Ward Graphic Novel Prize for Big Questions Dogs and Water and Quarterly, October 2004, ISBN 978-1-894937-77-1 Monologues for the Coming Plague, Fantagraphics, 2006, ISBN 978-1-56097-718-6 Don’t Go Where I Can’t Follow and Quarterly, 2006, ISBN 1-897299-14-1 The End, Coconino Press, January 2007, ISBN 978-1-56097-814-5 Monologues for Calculating the Destiny of Black Holes, January 2009, ISBN 978-156097-980-7 Big Questions and Quarterly, June 2011, ISBN 978-1-77046-047-8 Rage of Poseidon and Quarterly, October 2013, ISBN 978-177046-128-4 God and the Devil at War in the Garden, May 2015, Self Published Poetry is Useless and Quarterly, September 2015, ISBN 978-177046-207-6 A Walk in Eden and Quarterly, October 2016, ISBN 978-177046-266-3 Tongues Chapter 1, No Miracles Press, August 2017 Official website Original Art by Anders Nilsen'Anders Nilsen Interview' in'Lines and Marks"Anders Nilsen: drawing through grief' in The Guardian'Massive, Ambitious: Anders Nilsen' in Publishers Weekly'Dead Birds, Big Questions' in The Comics Journal'An interview with Anders Nilsen' in The Nashville Review'Anders Nilsen: The Interview' on Metabunker Anders Brekhus Nilsen interview on Barbarus'Fate and Death' in ""The New York Times""
Tove Marika Jansson (Finland Swedish pronunciation:, was a Swedish-speaking Finnish author, painter and comic strip author. Brought up by artistic parents, Jansson studied art from 1930 to 1938 in Stockholm and Paris, her first solo art exhibition was in 1943. At the same time, she was writing short stories and articles for publication, as well as creating the graphics for book covers and other purposes, she continued to work as a writer for the rest of her life. Jansson wrote the Moomin books for children, starting in 1945 with the Great Flood; the next two books, Comet in Moominland and Finn Family Moomintroll, published in 1946 and 1948 were successful in sales, adding to sales of the first book. For her work as a children's writer she received the Hans Christian Andersen Medal in 1966. Starting with the semi-autobiographical Bildhuggarens dotter in 1968, Jansson wrote six novels, including the admired Sommarboken, five books of short stories for adults. Tove Jansson was born in Grand Duchy of Finland, Russian Empire.
Her family, part of the Swedish-speaking minority of Finland, was an artistic one: her father, Viktor Jansson, was a sculptor, her mother, Signe Hammarsten-Jansson, was a Swedish-born graphic designer and illustrator. Tove's siblings became artists: Per Olov Jansson became a photographer and Lars Jansson an author and cartoonist. Whilst their home was in Helsinki, the family spent many of their summers in a rented cottage on an island near Borgå, 50 km east of Helsinki. Jansson studied at University College of Arts and Design, in Stockholm in 1930–33, the Graphic School of the Finnish Academy of Fine Arts in 1933–1937, at L'École d'Adrien Holy and L'École des Beaux-Arts in Paris in 1938, she displayed a number of artworks in exhibitions during the 30s and early 40s, her first solo exhibition was held in 1943. At age 14, Jansson wrote and illustrated her first picture book "Sara och Pelle och näckens bläckfiskar" It was not published until 1933, she sold drawings that were published in magazines in the 1920s.
During the 1930s Jansson made several trips to other European countries. She drew from these for her short stories and articles, which she illustrated, which were published in magazines and daily papers. During this period, Jansson designed many book covers and postcards. Following her mother's example, she drew illustrations for Garm, an anti-fascist Finnish-Swedish satirical magazine, she was engaged in the 1940s to Atos Wirtanen. During her studies, Jansson met her future partner Tuulikki Pietilä; the two women collaborated on many works and projects, including a model of the Moominhouse, in collaboration with Pentti Eistola. This is now exhibited at the Moomin museum in Tampere. Jansson is principally known as the author of the Moomin books. Jansson created the Moomins, a family of trolls who are white and smooth in appearance, with large snouts that make them vaguely resemble hippopotamuses; the first Moomin book, The Moomins and the Great Flood, was written in 1945. Although the primary characters are Moominmamma and Moomintroll, most of the principal characters of stories were only introduced in the next book, so The Moomins and the Great Flood is considered a forerunner to the main series.
The book was not a success, but the next two installments in the Moomin series, Comet in Moominland and Finn Family Moomintroll, brought Jansson some fame. The original title of Finn Family Moomintroll, Trollkarlens Hatt, translates as "The Magician's Hat"; the style of the Moomin books changed. The first books, written starting just after the Second World War, up to Moominland Midwinter, are adventure stories that include floods and supernatural events; the Moomins and the Great Flood deals with Moominmamma and Moomintroll's flight through a dark and scary forest, where they encounter various dangers. In Comet in Moominland, a comet nearly destroys the Moominvalley. Finn Family Moomintroll deals with adventures brought on by the discovery of a magician's hat; the Exploits of Moominpappa tells the story of Moominpappa's adventurous youth and cheerfully parodies the genre of memoirs. Moominsummer Madness pokes fun at the world of the theatre: the Moomins explore an empty theatre and perform Moominpappa's pompous hexametric melodrama.
In addition to the Moomin novels and short stories, Tove Jansson wrote and illustrated four original and popular picture books: The Book about Moomin and Little My, Who will Comfort Toffle?, The Dangerous Journey and An Unwanted Guest. As the Moomins' fame grew, two of the original novels, Comet in Moominland and The Exploits of Moominpappa, were revised by Jansson and republished. Critics have interpreted various Moomin characters as being inspired by real people members of the author's family, Jansson spoke in interviews about the backgrounds of, possible models for, her characters. Pietilä's personality inspired the character Too-Ticky in Moominland Midwinter. and Moomintroll and Little My have been seen as psychological self-portraits of the artist. Jansson referred to Moomintroll as her alter-ego; the Moomins speaking, relate to Jansson's own family – they were bohemian and lived close to nature. Moominpappa and Moominmamma are seen as portraits of Jansson's parents. Jansson remained close to her mother until her mother's death in 1970.
Red Colored Elegy
Red Colored Elegy is a one volume Japanese manga written and illustrated by Seiichi Hayashi. The manga was serialized in manga magazine, Garo from 1970-1971, it is licensed in North America by Drawn and Quarterly, which released the manga on July 8, 2008. It was adapted into an original video animation by Toei Animation on June 21, 2007. Red Colored Elegy is illustrated by Seiichi Hayashi; the manga was serialized in manga magazine, Garo from 1970 to 1971. Shogakukan published the manga in 1970/1971, it was republished on July 15, 2000. The manga is licensed in North America by Drawn and Quarterly, which released the manga on July 8, 2008. An eponymous single, performed by Morio Agata, was released on April 25, 1972 and peak ranked 7th in Oricon singles charts with more than 290,000 copies sold. An original video animation was created for Red Colored Elegy by Toei Animation on June 21, 2007; the OVA was directed by Seiichi Hayashi and its music was directed by Morio Agata. Music was composed by Keiichi Suzuki and Agata's single for the OVA was played by Matiko Hamada.
In a 2008 About.com poll, Red Colored Elegy was voted Best "Artsy/Quirky", 7th best new classic or reissued manga. Publishers Weekly named Red Colored Elegy as the third best manga of 2008. In 2009, the manga was nominated for the Harvey Award in the Best American Edition of Foreign Material category. Red Colored Elegy was selected as part of Paul Gravett's list of "PG Rated Manga"; the Comics Reporter's David Welsh commends the manga artist's approach to the story, saying "Hayashi's approach is restrained and conscientious in its ability to convey the unspoken. Since communication is the crux of Ichiro and Sachiko's problems, the ability to convey the inability to express is essential." Another The Comics Reporter review comments on how "very simple cartooning can be taken in bold new directions through something other than a prodigious display of old-school craft." The Japan Times's David Cozy commends Hayashi's art, commenting "Hayashi shows us Ichiro struggling, but it is the spatters that bring the struggle home."
The comics artist and cartoonist Eddie Campbell described it as a good read, "a long strip cartoon about the stuff of life" and back to 1971 context would have been an inspirational work. He replied to a reviewer complaining not able to make sense of it by linking the Red Colored Elegy and the'60s French New Wave cinema movement and describing today's reader as accustomed to linear read, concluding by if readers are confused "welcome to 1970". Chris Lanier expressed a similar view in the January 2009 issue of The Believer describing Hayashi's work as an attempt to import "the disjunctive innovations of French new-wave cinema to the comics page" resulting "a condensed visual poetry that still feels avant-garde nearly forty years later". Red Colored Elegy was reviewed in issue #292 of The Comics Journal by Bill Randall, who provided additional notes on his blog and expressed his disappointment on the online reviews of what he considers as "one of the most important of all manga translated in English".
Another contributor of the Comics Journal, Adam Stephanides in an earlier review of the Japanese edition described the storytelling as simple at first but quite complex and elliptical, with a great deal left unsaid making a rapprochement with comics artist Jaime Hernandez's works, compared Red Colored Elegy with the'70s American underground comix artists outputs, stating that no underground artist was doing anything nearly as ambitious as this at the time. However he criticized Drawn and Quarterly's edition for "rearranging the panels on each page so that the page reads left-to-right, but not flipping the original panels." Tom Devlin, creative director at Drawn & Quarterly, answered that it was done so to reach the widest audience as possible, making a parallel with putting subtitles on a foreign film altering the work and yet the only way for many to access it. Jason Thompson's appendix to Manga: The Complete Guide compares Red Colored Elegy with Craig Thompson's Blankets through the shared theme of "a tale of young love and despair".
He commends "Hayashi’s shapeless human figures convey emotion and vulnerability in every line". Red Colored Elegy OVA was recommended by the jury at the 2007 Japan Media Arts Festival in the animation division. Official Toei Animation Red Colored Elegy website Official Drawn and Quarterly page Red Colored Elegy at Anime News Network's encyclopedia Sekishoku Erejī on IMDb
Gregory Gallant, better known by his pen name Seth, is a Canadian cartoonist. He is best known for his series Palookaville and his mock-autobiographical graphic novel It's a Good Life, If You Don't Weaken. Seth draws in a style influenced by the classic cartoonists of The New Yorker, his work is nostalgic for the early-to-mid-20th Century period, of Southern Ontario. His work shows a great depth and breadth of knowledge of the history of comics and cartooning. Seth was born Gregory Gallant on September 16, 1962, in Clinton, Canada, his parents were the English-born Violet Daisy Gallant. His family moved and he grew up in Tilbury, Ontario, he was inward and had few friends, took to comic books and drawing at a young age. Seth attended the Ontario College of Art in Toronto from 1980 to 1983, he became involved with the punk subculture and began wearing outlandish clothing, bleaching his hair, wearing makeup, frequenting nightclubs. He took on the pen name Seth in 1982; as of 2004, Seth lived in Guelph, with his wife Tania Van Spyk, whom he married in 2002.
Seth living in Toronto, first drew attention to his work in 1985 when he took over art duties from the Hernandez brothers for Dean Motter's Mister X from Toronto publisher Vortex Comics. His run covered issues #6–13, after which he did commercial artwork for publications including Saturday Night and Fashion. In 1986 he met fellow Toronto-based Vortex artist Chester Brown, in 1991 Toronto-based American cartoonist Joe Matt; the three became noted for doing confessional autobio comics in the early 1990s, for depicting each other in their works. In April 1991 he launched his own comic book, with Montreal publisher Drawn and Quarterly. By this time, Seth's artwork had evolved to a style inspired by The New Yorker cartoons of the 1930s and 1940s, he is a magazine illustrator and book designer best known for his work designing the complete collection of Charles M. Schulz's classic comic strip Peanuts; the books, released by Fantagraphics Books in 25 separate volumes combine Seth's signature aesthetic with Schulz's minimalistic comic creation.
He is designing the Collected Doug Wright, the John Stanley Library. Seth's illustration work includes the cover artwork for Aimee Mann's album Lost in Space and the jacket and French flaps for the Penguin Classics Portable Dorothy Parker. Clyde Fans, the story of two brothers whose trade in electric fans suffers and goes out of business from the failure to adapt to the rise of air conditioning, was serialized in Palooka-ville. Seth's short graphic novel Wimbledon Green, about an eccentric comic-book collector, was published in November 2005. From September 2006 to March 25, 2007, Seth serialized a graphic novel titled George Sprott, for the Funny Pages section of The New York Times Magazine. Selections from George Sprott were featured in Best American Comics 2009. In the liner notes of that publication, Seth announced he was expanding Sprott into a book, filling in gaps that were cut to meet the restraints given by NYTM; the book was published by Drawn & Quarterly in May 2009. Seth's affection for early- and mid-20th century popular culture and his relative disdain for pop culture since is a recurrent theme in his work, both in terms of the characters and his artistic style.
Although, as a teenager, he was a vocal fan of mainstream superhero comics. Seth's artwork has landed on the cover of The New Yorker three times, which he said was a professional milestone he was happy to achieve. Seth collaborated with children's novelist Lemony Snicket on his four-part series All the Wrong Questions, starting with Who Could That Be at This Hour? Released on October 23, 2012 and Why Is This Night Different From All Other Nights? Released on September 29, 2015. A selection of Seth's original models was included in an exhibition at the Phoenix Art Museum from April 21 through August 19, 2007. In a collaboration between the Kitchener-Waterloo Art Gallery, RENDER, one of the buildings from Seth's Dominion City project has been re-built as a walk-in theatre in KW|AG's Eastman Gallery Seth is the subject of the 2014 documentary film Seth's Dominion, which received the grand prize for best animated feature at the Ottawa International Animation Film Festival. Seth has won a number of industry awards throughout is career, in 2011 was honoured by being the first cartoonist to win the literary Harbourfront Festival Prize.
Inner Drawings and Cover Art for the Record Lost In Space by Aimee Mann, Super Ego Records. Editing and cover art for "Bannock, Beans & Black Tea" by J. H. Gallant – Montreal: Drawn and Quarterly, ISBN 1-896597-78-5 Design and Inner drawings for "Christmas Days", by Derek McCormack, Anansi, 2005, ISBN 978-0-88784-193-4. Forty Books of Interest: A Supplement to Comic Art No. 8 Design and Inner drawings for "Cocktail Culture", by Mark Kingwell, 2007, ISBN 978-1-84627-114-4 Design and Inner drawings for "The Idler's Glossary," by Joshua Glenn and Mark Kingwell, Biblioasis, 2008, ISBN 978-1-897231-46-3. Cover of The Criterion Collection's DVD release of Leo McCarey's Make Way for Tomorrow. Design and Inner drawings for "The Wage Slave's Glossary", by Joshua Glenn and Mark Kingwell, Biblioasis, 2011, ISBN 978-1-926845-17-3. Cover of The Criterion Collection's Blu-ray/DVD release of Charlie Chaplin's City Lights. Christmas Ghost Stories (Charles Dickens' The
Louis Riel (comics)
Louis Riel is a historical biography in comics by Canadian cartoonist Chester Brown, published as a book in 2003 after serializion in 1999–2003. The story deals with Métis rebel leader Louis Riel's antagonistic relationship with the newly established Canadian government, it begins shortly before the 1869 Red River Rebellion, ends with Riel's 1885 hanging for high treason. The book explores Riel's possible schizophrenia—he believed God had named him Prophet of the New World, destined to lead the Métis people to freedom; the work is noted for its emotional disengagement, its intentionally flat dialogue, a minimalist drawing style inspired by that of Harold Gray's comic strip Little Orphan Annie. Unusual for comics of the time, it includes a full scholarly apparatus: a foreword, index and end notes; the lengthy, hand-lettered appendix provides insight into Brown's creative process and biases and highlights where he changed historical facts to create a more engaging story, such as incorporating a conspiracy theory not accepted by historians.
Brown became interested in the issue of property rights while researching the book, which led to a public change in his politics from anarchism to libertarianism. Although Brown intended it to be published only in book form, his publisher had him first serialize Louis Riel as a comic book, which lasted ten issues; the series was the first comic book to receive a grant from the Canada Council for the Arts. It won three Harvey Awards; the serialization sold poorly. Its success played a major part in gaining shelf space for serious graphic novels in mainstream North American bookstores. Subtitled "A Comic-Strip Biography", Louis Riel looks at Métis rebel leader Louis Riel and his leadership in the Red River and North-West rebellions, it does not attempt a complete retelling of Riel's life—it omits long periods and ignores many aspects of his personality. Instead the focus is on his "antagonistic relationship with the Canadian government" from 1869 to 1885; the story comprises 241 pages of the 271-page book, is supplemented with a complete scholarly apparatus: a foreword, index, map section and extensive end notes.
It has strong historiographical elements, detailing in the appendix the research done and choices made by the author in developing a story. Brown grew up in the Canadian province of Quebec, where the majority speaks French, where Riel is considered a martyr; however Brown, who grew up speaking only English, said he was ignorant of Riel's story until he read Maggie Siggins' 1994 biography Louis Riel: A Life of Revolution. Many of Brown's favourite topics are entwined in Louis Riel: anti-authoritarianism, outsider religion and accuracy and objectivity in nonfiction. A central incident in the book is an eight-panel sequence in which Riel has a revelatory experience on a hilltop in Washington, D. C, he experiences visions and talks to God, who declares him Prophet of the New World and instructs him to lead his people to freedom. On the cover of the book, however, we see Riel standing alone in the wilderness, staring into the sky, leaving open the question of whether what he witnessed was real. In 1995, Brown published the anti-psychiatry comics essay "My Mom was a Schizophrenic", in which he examines society's role in mental illness, questions the medical profession's accepted beliefs about it.
The six-page strip came with two pages of end notes gathered from his research. Brown enjoyed this project and thought he would like to take on another in which he could "cram a lot of research into a comic strip"; when he came across Siggins' biography of Riel, he had been working on the experimental Underwater series, a project on which he felt he had lost his way. His father died in late 1997, he decided he did not "want to waste time with projects that weren't working out". In 1998, he turned his attention to Riel. While researching, Brown came across two books by political scientist Tom Flanagan: Louis "David" Riel: "Prophet of the New World" and Louis Riel and the Rebellion: 1885 Reconsidered. Brown found "Prophet of the New World" intriguing as it dealt with Riel's religious ideas while reevaluating his alleged diagnosis of mental illness, two topics Brown had especial interest in, as he had made "eccentric" adaptations of the Gospel, comics dealing with his mother's schizophrenia, he came across books by researcher Don McLean and historian Douglas N. Sprague that advanced the conspiracy theory that the 1885 North-West Rebellion was deliberately provoked by Prime Minister John A. Macdonald to gain support for the building of the transcontinental railway.
Brown had gained a reputation for improvised storytelling by the time. With Underwater, he had intended in the end chose to improvise, he found the results unsatisfactory, decided to write a full script beforehand for his next project. The script for Louis Riel came to over 200 pages. Brown's was not the first depiction of the Métis leader in comics. James Simpkins, a Canadian cartoonist best known for Jasper the Bear, made a mildly anti-Riel two-page strip in 1967, Pierre Dupuis produced a French-language two-page summary in 1979. A 23-page pro-Riel strip appeared in Canadian History Comic Book No. 2: Rebellion in 1972. In 1980, Italian artist Hugo Pratt created a character called Jesuit Joe, supposed to have descended from Riel. Publishing house Les Éditions des Plaines published two books on Riel: Robert Freynet's 58-page Louis Riel en bande dessinée in 1990, Zoran and Toufik's Louis Riel, le père du Manitoba ("Lou
Frank King (cartoonist)
Frank Oscar King was an American cartoonist best known for his comic strip Gasoline Alley. In addition to innovations with color and page design, King introduced real-time continuity in comic strips by showing his characters aging over generations. Born in Cashton, King was the older of the two sons of mechanic John J. King and his wife Caroline; when Frank was four years old, he moved with his parents to 1710 Superior Avenue in Tomah, where they operated their family general store. He started drawing while growing up in Tomah, where he graduated from Tomah High School in 1901, he entered country fair drawing competitions. The salesman arranged an interview for King with a Minneapolis newspaper editor. King began earning $7 a week at the Minneapolis Times, during his four years there, he doubled his salary while creating drawings and doing retouching. On March 17, 1905, he gave a chalk talk at a Minneapolis St. Patrick's Day celebration. In 1905-06, he studied art at the Chicago Academy of Fine Arts.
After a spell at an ad agency and a brief time at the Chicago American, he spent three years with the Chicago Examiner, where he worked next to cartoonist T. S. Sullivant. In 1909, King left the Examiner to work at the Chicago Tribune, according to his friend, Chicago cartoonist Lew Merrell, he increased his weekly pay 50 cents. At the Tribune he worked alongside Dean Cornwell and Garrett Price. In 1910, he began a short-lived daily comic strip, Jonah, a Whale for Trouble, which ran in the Tribune from October 3, 1910 until December 8, 1910, he followed with a Tribune Sunday strip, Young Teddy, seen from September 10, 1911 to October 6, 1912. His funny frog Sunday strip, Hi-Hopper, ran from February 1, 1914 until December 27, 1914. On February 7, 1911, King married Delia Drew from Tomah, they were both 28 years old and moved into a series of apartments on the South Side of Chicago. Delia gave birth to a stillborn daughter in 1912, in 1916, a son, Robert Drew King, was born, it was at this time that the family moved to 533 Madison in Glencoe, a somewhat affluent suburb on Lake Michigan north of Chicago.
In 1916, King's salary from the Tribune was $5000. By 1925, this had grown to $22,500, a princely sum, augmented by royalties from Gasoline Alley books and toys; the Rectangle began as a Chicago Tribune page featuring a variety of serial features. King's Rectangle Sunday page printed in black-and-white outside the comics section, was a late addition to a page that ran for years in the Tribune. On January 9, 1913, King introduced a bounded rectangle containing themed single-panel gags, but pages in that format did not appear with any regularity until February 1914; the Rectangle title was introduced on December 27, 1914. King created several recurring strips, including Tough Teddy, The Boy Animal Trainer, Here Comes Motorcycle Mike, Hi Hopper and his first successful full-page comic, Bobby Make-Believe. During World War I, King was overseas drawing scenes of the war for publication in American newspapers. On Sunday, November 24, 1918, the bottom quadrant of The Rectangle featured Walter Weatherby Wallet and his neighbors Bill and Avery as they repaired their automobiles in the alley behind their houses.
The corner was titled Sunday Morning in Gasoline Alley. King recalled, "My brother had a car that he kept in the alley with a fellow by the name of Bill Gannon and some others. I'd go to his house on Sunday, we'd go down the alley and run into somebody else and talk cars; that was the beginning of Gasoline Alley." After King began the daily Gasoline Alley strip, The Rectangle appeared sporadically and came to an end on February 8, 1920. King credited his wife, for providing a "woman's angle" to Gasoline Alley; the central character of Walt was based on King's brother-in-law, Walter White Drew, he used his own son, Robert Drew King, as the model for Skeezix. Tomah's Dr. Johnson was the inspiration for the character of Doc, Bill in the strip was based on Bill Gannon. King hired young Bill Perry from the Chicago Tribune's mail room and trained him to work as his assistant. Although King leaned toward a homespun simplicity in his Sunday story situations, he introduced some unusual experiments with time and space, as noted by comics critic Paul Gravett: Other precedents from America’s newspaper supplements were occasional experiments by Frank King in his Gasoline Alley Sunday pages where he would turn the whole page into one continuous landscape.
For example, on 24 May 1931, King uses an unrealistic isometric perspective to turn the page into a single image, like a diagram viewed from above, of the neighborhood and its assorted residents. This angled aerial view he divides into 12 equal panels, each containing at least one fresh character to contribute their own moment of comedy. In more of an ensemble of jokes than a linear narrative, no characters appear here more than once. King went further, however, in 1934 when over three consecutive weeks he used the whole page as one image to portray a house being built, from bare site to construction to finishing touches; the first of these, dated 25 March 1934, presents repeated images of Skeezix and his pal Whimpy as they play around the foundations dug out of their favorite baseball diamond and meet a local girl. Here the threesome move around 12 identical square panels and time unfolds in sequence, although jumping ahead sometimes by a considerable period from one to the next; the s
MusicBrainz is a project that aims to create an open data music database, similar to the freedb project. MusicBrainz was founded in response to the restrictions placed on the Compact Disc Database, a database for software applications to look up audio CD information on the Internet. MusicBrainz has expanded its goals to reach beyond a compact disc metadata storehouse to become a structured open online database for music. MusicBrainz captures information about artists, their recorded works, the relationships between them. Recorded works entries capture at a minimum the album title, track titles, the length of each track; these entries are maintained by volunteer editors. Recorded works can store information about the release date and country, the CD ID, cover art, acoustic fingerprint, free-form annotation text and other metadata; as of 21 September 2018, MusicBrainz contained information about 1.4 million artists, 2 million releases, 19 million recordings. End-users can use software that communicates with MusicBrainz to add metadata tags to their digital media files, such as FLAC, MP3, Ogg Vorbis or AAC.
MusicBrainz allows contributors to upload cover art images of releases to the database. Internet Archive provides the bandwidth and legal protection for hosting the images, while MusicBrainz stores metadata and provides public access through the web and via an API for third parties to use; as with other contributions, the MusicBrainz community is in charge of maintaining and reviewing the data. Cover art is provided for items on sale at Amazon.com and some other online resources, but CAA is now preferred because it gives the community more control and flexibility for managing the images. Besides collecting metadata about music, MusicBrainz allows looking up recordings by their acoustic fingerprint. A separate application, such as MusicBrainz Picard, must be used for this. In 2000, MusicBrainz started using Relatable's patented TRM for acoustic fingerprint matching; this feature allowed the database to grow quickly. However, by 2005 TRM was showing scalability issues as the number of tracks in the database had reached into the millions.
This issue was resolved in May 2006 when MusicBrainz partnered with MusicIP, replacing TRM with MusicDNS. TRMs were phased out and replaced by MusicDNS in November 2008. In October 2009 MusicIP was acquired by AmpliFIND; some time after the acquisition, the MusicDNS service began having intermittent problems. Since the future of the free identification service was uncertain, a replacement for it was sought; the Chromaprint acoustic fingerprinting algorithm, the basis for AcoustID identification service, was started in February 2010 by a long-time MusicBrainz contributor Lukáš Lalinský. While AcoustID and Chromaprint are not MusicBrainz projects, they are tied with each other and both are open source. Chromaprint works by analyzing the first two minutes of a track, detecting the strength in each of 12 pitch classes, storing these 8 times per second. Additional post-processing is applied to compress this fingerprint while retaining patterns; the AcoustID search server searches from the database of fingerprints by similarity and returns the AcoustID identifier along with MusicBrainz recording identifiers if known.
Since 2003, MusicBrainz's core data are in the public domain, additional content, including moderation data, is placed under the Creative Commons CC-BY-NC-SA-2.0 license. The relational database management system is PostgreSQL; the server software is covered by the GNU General Public License. The MusicBrainz client software library, libmusicbrainz, is licensed under the GNU Lesser General Public License, which allows use of the code by proprietary software products. In December 2004, the MusicBrainz project was turned over to the MetaBrainz Foundation, a non-profit group, by its creator Robert Kaye. On 20 January 2006, the first commercial venture to use MusicBrainz data was the Barcelona, Spain-based Linkara in their Linkara Música service. On 28 June 2007, BBC announced that it has licensed MusicBrainz's live data feed to augment their music Web pages; the BBC online music editors will join the MusicBrainz community to contribute their knowledge to the database. On 28 July 2008, the beta of the new BBC Music site was launched, which publishes a page for each MusicBrainz artist.
Amarok – KDE audio player Banshee – multi-platform audio player Beets – automatic CLI music tagger/organiser for Unix-like systems Clementine – multi-platform audio player CDex – Microsoft Windows CD ripper Demlo – a dynamic and extensible music manager using a CLI iEatBrainz – Mac OS X deprecated foo_musicbrainz component for foobar2000 – Music Library/Audio Player Jaikoz – Java mass tag editor Max – Mac OS X CD ripper and audio transcoder Mp3tag – Windows metadata editor and music organizer MusicBrainz Picard – cross-platform album-oriented tag editor MusicBrainz Tagger – deprecated Microsoft Windows tag editor puddletag – a tag editor for PyQt under the GPLv3 Rhythmbox music player – an audio player for Unix-like systems Sound Juicer – GNOME CD ripper Zortam Mp3 Media Studio – Windows music organizer and ID3 Tag Editor. Freedb clients can access MusicBrainz data through the freedb protocol by using the MusicBrainz to FreeDB gateway service, mb2freedb. List of online music databases Making Metadata: The Case of Mus