National Register of Historic Places
The National Register of Historic Places is the United States federal government's official list of districts, buildings and objects deemed worthy of preservation for their historical significance. A property listed in the National Register, or located within a National Register Historic District, may qualify for tax incentives derived from the total value of expenses incurred preserving the property; the passage of the National Historic Preservation Act in 1966 established the National Register and the process for adding properties to it. Of the more than one million properties on the National Register, 80,000 are listed individually; the remainder are contributing resources within historic districts. For most of its history the National Register has been administered by the National Park Service, an agency within the United States Department of the Interior, its goals are to help property owners and interest groups, such as the National Trust for Historic Preservation, coordinate and protect historic sites in the United States.
While National Register listings are symbolic, their recognition of significance provides some financial incentive to owners of listed properties. Protection of the property is not guaranteed. During the nomination process, the property is evaluated in terms of the four criteria for inclusion on the National Register of Historic Places; the application of those criteria has been the subject of criticism by academics of history and preservation, as well as the public and politicians. Historic sites outside the country proper, but associated with the United States are listed. Properties can be nominated in a variety of forms, including individual properties, historic districts, multiple property submissions; the Register categorizes general listings into one of five types of properties: district, structure, building, or object. National Register Historic Districts are defined geographical areas consisting of contributing and non-contributing properties; some properties are added automatically to the National Register when they become administered by the National Park Service.
These include National Historic Landmarks, National Historic Sites, National Historical Parks, National Military Parks, National Memorials, some National Monuments. On October 15, 1966, the Historic Preservation Act created the National Register of Historic Places and the corresponding State Historic Preservation Offices; the National Register consisted of the National Historic Landmarks designated before the Register's creation, as well as any other historic sites in the National Park system. Approval of the act, amended in 1980 and 1992, represented the first time the United States had a broad-based historic preservation policy; the 1966 act required those agencies to work in conjunction with the SHPO and an independent federal agency, the Advisory Council on Historic Preservation, to confront adverse effects of federal activities on historic preservation. To administer the newly created National Register of Historic Places, the National Park Service of the U. S. Department of the Interior, with director George B.
Hartzog Jr. established an administrative division named the Office of Archeology and Historic Preservation. Hartzog charged OAHP with creating the National Register program mandated by the 1966 law. Ernest Connally was the Office's first director. Within OAHP new divisions were created to deal with the National Register; the division administered several existing programs, including the Historic Sites Survey and the Historic American Buildings Survey, as well as the new National Register and Historic Preservation Fund. The first official Keeper of the Register was an architectural historian. During the Register's earliest years in the late 1960s and early 1970s, organization was lax and SHPOs were small and underfunded. However, funds were still being supplied for the Historic Preservation Fund to provide matching grants-in-aid to listed property owners, first for house museums and institutional buildings, but for commercial structures as well. A few years in 1979, the NPS history programs affiliated with both the U.
S. National Parks system and the National Register were categorized formally into two "Assistant Directorates." Established were the Assistant Directorate for Archeology and Historic Preservation and the Assistant Directorate for Park Historic Preservation. From 1978 until 1981, the main agency for the National Register was the Heritage Conservation and Recreation Service of the United States Department of the Interior. In February 1983, the two assistant directorates were merged to promote efficiency and recognize the interdependency of their programs. Jerry L. Rogers was selected to direct this newly merged associate directorate, he was described as a skilled administrator, sensitive to the need for the NPS to work with SHPOs, local governments. Although not described in detail in the 1966 act, SHPOs became integral to the process of listing properties on the National Register; the 1980 amendments of the 1966 law further defined the responsibilities of SHPOs concerning the National Register.
Several 1992 amendments of the NHPA added a category to the National Register, known as Traditional Cultural Properties: those properties associated with Native American or Hawaiian groups
Pittsburgh Public Schools
Pittsburgh Public Schools is the public school district in Pittsburgh, United States and adjacent Mount Oliver. The combined land area of these municipalities is 58.3 square miles with a population of 342,503 according to the 2000 census. In March 2012, Linda Lane was named as the superintendent, she has a performance-based contract until Jan 2014. Lane served as Deputy Superintendent from 2006 until her promotion. In June 2016, Anthony Hamlet was confirmed as the new Superintendent after a month-long controversy over his credentials; the school district operates 54 schools with 3,900 full-time employees and serves 24,652 students with a 2016 General Fund Budget of $570.4 million, or $23,100/ student. Locations: Administration Building—341 S. Bellefield Avenue, Pittsburgh, PA 15213—40.444716°N 79.950660°W / 40.444716. This act provided government aid for the establishment of a city school system which included the creation of four wards that were self-governed. Twenty years the wards were disbanded, the Central Board of Education was founded.
This board would govern the entire school district which would consist of nine wards or sub- districts. The first city superintendent of schools was elected in 1868. In 1911, the School Code of the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania modified the existing system to include a Board of Public education that would oversee sixty-one sub-districts and two central boards; the Public School Code of 1949 further regulated the provisions and establishment of Pennsylvania state schools.. The following 2012-2013 rankings are based on mandatory Pennsylvania System of School Assessment testing of 11th grade students in reading and math. Only public high schools participate in PSSA testing. Taylor Allderdice High School: Ranked 382 out of 592 Pennsylvania Public High Schools Carrick High School: Ranked 492 out of 592 Pennsylvania Public High Schools Brashear High School: Ranked 521 out of 592 Pennsylvania Public High Schools Perry Traditional Academy HS: Ranked 557 out of 592 Pennsylvania Public High Schools Milliones University Prep HS: No test results listed Westinghouse High School: No test results listed The following City of Pittsburgh high schools serve the denoted City of Pittsburgh neighborhoods: Taylor Allderdice High School Glen Hazel, Hazelwood, Lincoln Place, East Hills, New Homestead, Park Place, Point Breeze, Squirrel Hill and Swisshelm Park.
Carrick High School Allentown, Arlington Heights, Bon Air, Overbrook, Mt. Oliver, Southside Slopes and St. Clair. Brashear High School Banksville, Brookline, Chartiers City, Crafton Heights, Duquesne Heights, East Carnegie, Esplen, Mount Washington, Ridgemont, South Shore, Southside Flats, West End and Windgap. Perry Traditional Academy High School Allegheny Center, Allegheny West, Brighton Heights, California-Kirkbride, Central Northside, East Allegheny, Manchester, Marshall-Shadeland, North Shore, Northview Heights, Perry North, Perry South, Spring Garden, Spring Hill-City View, Summer Hill and Troy Hill. Milliones University Preparatory High School Bedford Dwellings, Bluff, Central Business District, Central Lawrenceville, Crawford-Roberts, Garfield, Lower Lawrenceville, Middle Hill, Polish Hill, Stanton Heights, Strip District, Terrace Village, Upper Hill, Upper Lawrenceville and West Overland. Westinghouse High School East Hills, East Liberty, Highland Park, Homewood North, Homewood South, Homewood West, Lincoln-Lemington-Belmar and Point Breeze North.
As part of the final right-sizing plan approved by the Board in February 2006, eight of the poorer performing schools were transformed into Accelerated Learning Academies. The eight schools were: Arlington Accelerated Learning Academy, Colfax Accelerated Learning Academy, Fort Pitt Accelerated Learning Academy, Martin Luther King Accelerated Learning Academy, Murray Accelerated Learning Academy, Northview Accelerated Learning Academy, A. J. Rooney Accelerated Learning Academy, Weil Technology Accelerated Learning Academy; these schools were put on a longer school year calendar with 10 extra days, as well as a longer school day adding 45 minutes of instructional time. The ALAs use the America's Choice Design Model, developed by the National Center on Education and the Economy. In early 2006 the district contracted with Kaplan K12 Learning Services to develop a core curriculum for grades 6 through 12; the core curriculum will be phased in over the course of three years: during the 2006-7 school year the district will implement the new curriculum for English in grades 6–10 and Math in grades 6, 9 and 10.
Lesson plans and curriculum coaching will be provided to teachers, the students will undergo benchmark testing every 6 weeks to assess student progress. Each school will have curriculum coaches on-site to aid teachers and provide them with professional development; the Key Concepts presented in the curriculum will be aligned with the state standards tested for in the Pennsylvania System of School Assessment annual tests. In July, 2010, Bill Gates note
Benno Janssen was an American architect. Benno Janssen was born in St. Louis, the son of Oscar Janssen and Thekla Susenbeth. Janssen studied at the University of Kansas. In 1899, he began working in architecture in Massachusetts, he continued his studies at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. In 1902, Janssen headed for Paris and further studied at the École des Beaux-Arts. In 1905, he returned to the United States to work in Pittsburgh, for the architectural firm MacClure & Spahr. Janssen left that firm, along with Franklin Abbott, to form their own partnership in 1906, Janssen & Abbott, which remained active until Abbott's retirement in 1918. Janssen next joined with William York Cocken in 1922, together they started the architectural firm Janssen & Cocken, he is best known for monumental buildings such as the Pittsburgh Athletic Association, the Masonic Temple, William Penn Hotel, Mellon Institute, the Longue Vue Club, Rolling Rock Club and Stables, the T. W. Phillips Gas & Oil Company, the Keystone Athletic Club, the Washington Crossing Bridge called the 40th Street Bridge.
Janssen designed many fine residences, including the country estate of George Calvert. D. Phillips in Butler, Pennsylvania. Janssen received many Kaufmann commissions over the years; the prevailing architectural motif of these Benno Janssen homes was a picturesquely irregular configuration of buildings rambling around a central courtyard. Other features these homes shared include: complex slate roofs with many gables, large groups of rectangular windows, rich oriel and bay windows, interesting chimney treatments, intricately carved stone detailing. Many of Janssen's buildings boast museum-quality wrought-iron by noted Philadelphia artisan Samuel Yellin. Janssen collaborated with Yellin for 25 years, resulting in gracious iron details in his most important projects. Benno Janssen married Edith Patton, the daughter of Central Pennsylvania businessman and future State Senator Alexander Ennis Patton and Mary Boynton Dill, on December 28, 1889, in Curwensville, Clearfield County, Pennsylvania; the Janssens were the parents of Mary Patton Janssen, Benno Janssen, Jr. and Alexander Patton Janssen.
Janssen retired in 1939 and died in Charlottesville, October 14, 1964. Miller, Donald; the Architecture of Benno Janssen. Pittsburgh: Madison Books. ISBN 0-9660955-0-2. Family information courtesy of AnGenealogy by Angelynn Jane Rainbow on rootsweb.com
Pennsylvania the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania, is a state located in the northeastern and Mid-Atlantic regions of the United States. The Appalachian Mountains run through its middle; the Commonwealth is bordered by Delaware to the southeast, Maryland to the south, West Virginia to the southwest, Ohio to the west, Lake Erie and the Canadian province of Ontario to the northwest, New York to the north, New Jersey to the east. Pennsylvania is the 33rd-largest state by area, the 6th-most populous state according to the most recent official U. S. Census count in 2010, it is the 9th-most densely populated of the 50 states. Pennsylvania's two most populous cities are Philadelphia, Pittsburgh; the state capital and its 10th largest city is Harrisburg. Pennsylvania has 140 miles of waterfront along the Delaware Estuary; the state is one of the 13 original founding states of the United States. Part of Pennsylvania, together with the present State of Delaware, had earlier been organized as the Colony of New Sweden.
It was the second state to ratify the United States Constitution, on December 12, 1787. Independence Hall, where the United States Declaration of Independence and United States Constitution were drafted, is located in the state's largest city of Philadelphia. During the American Civil War, the Battle of Gettysburg was fought in the south central region of the state. Valley Forge near Philadelphia was General Washington's headquarters during the bitter winter of 1777–78. Pennsylvania is 170 miles north to south and 283 miles east to west. Of a total 46,055 square miles, 44,817 square miles are land, 490 square miles are inland waters, 749 square miles are waters in Lake Erie, it is the 33rd-largest state in the United States. Pennsylvania has 51 miles of coastline along Lake Erie and 57 miles of shoreline along the Delaware Estuary. Of the original Thirteen Colonies, Pennsylvania is the only state that does not border the Atlantic Ocean; the boundaries of the state are the Mason–Dixon line to the south, the Twelve-Mile Circle on the Pennsylvania-Delaware border, the Delaware River to the east, 80° 31' W to the west and the 42° N to the north, with the exception of a short segment on the western end, where a triangle extends north to Lake Erie.
Cities include Philadelphia, Reading and Lancaster in the southeast, Pittsburgh in the southwest, the tri-cities of Allentown and Easton in the central east. The northeast includes the former anthracite coal mining cities of Scranton, Wilkes-Barre and Hazleton. Erie is located in the northwest. State College serves the central region while Williamsport serves the commonwealth's north-central region as does Chambersburg the south-central region, with York and the state capital Harrisburg on the Susquehanna River in the east-central region of the Commonwealth and Altoona and Johnstown in the west-central region; the state has five geographical regions, namely the Allegheny Plateau and Valley, Atlantic Coastal Plain and the Erie Plain. New York Ontario Maryland Delaware West Virginia New Jersey Ohio Pennsylvania's diverse topography produces a variety of climates, though the entire state experiences cold winters and humid summers. Straddling two major zones, the majority of the state, with the exception of the southeastern corner, has a humid continental climate.
The southern portion of the state has a humid subtropical climate. The largest city, has some characteristics of the humid subtropical climate that covers much of Delaware and Maryland to the south. Summers are hot and humid. Moving toward the mountainous interior of the state, the winter climate becomes colder, the number of cloudy days increases, snowfall amounts are greater. Western areas of the state locations near Lake Erie, can receive over 100 inches of snowfall annually, the entire state receives plentiful precipitation throughout the year; the state may be subject to severe weather from spring through summer into fall. Tornadoes occur annually in the state, sometimes in large numbers, such as 30 recorded tornadoes in 2011; as of 1600, the tribes living in Pennsylvania were the Algonquian Lenape, the Iroquoian Susquehannock & Petun and the Siouan Monongahela Culture, who may have been the same as a little known tribe called the Calicua, or Cali. Other tribes who entered the region during the colonial era were the Trockwae, Saponi, Nanticoke, Conoy Piscataway, Iroquois Confederacy—possibly among others.
Other tribes, like the Erie, may have once held some land in Pennsylvania, but no longer did so by the year 1600. Both the Dutch and the English claimed both sides of the Delaware River as part of their colonial lands in America; the Dutch were the first to take possession. By June 3, 1631, the Dutch had begun settling the Delmarva Peninsula by establishing the Zwaanendael Colony on the site of present-day Lewes, Delaware. In 1638, Sweden established the New Sweden Colony, in the region of Fort Christina, on the site of present-day Wilmington, Delaware. New Sweden claimed and, for the most part, controlled the lower Delaware River region (parts of present-day Delaware, New Jersey, Pe
Herbert Clark Hoover was an American engineer and politician who served as the 31st president of the United States from 1929 to 1933. A member of the Republican Party, he held office during the onset of the Great Depression. Prior to serving as president, Hoover led the Commission for Relief in Belgium, served as the director of the U. S. Food Administration, served as the 3rd U. S. Secretary of Commerce. Born to a Quaker family in West Branch, Hoover took a position with a London-based mining company after graduating from Stanford University in 1895. After the outbreak of World War I, he became the head of the Commission for Relief in Belgium, an international relief organization that provided food to occupied Belgium; when the U. S. entered the war, President Woodrow Wilson appointed Hoover to lead the Food Administration, Hoover became known as the country's "food czar". After the war, Hoover led the American Relief Administration, which provided food to the inhabitants of Central Europe and Eastern Europe.
Hoover's war-time service made him a favorite of many progressives, he unsuccessfully sought the Republican nomination in the 1920 presidential election. After the 1920 election, newly-elected Republican President Warren G. Harding appointed Hoover as Secretary of Commerce. Hoover was an unusually active and visible cabinet member, becoming known as "Secretary of Commerce and Under-Secretary of all other departments", he was influential in the development of radio and air travel and led the federal response to the Great Mississippi Flood of 1927. Hoover won the Republican nomination in the 1928 presidential election, decisively defeated the Democratic candidate, Al Smith; the stock market crashed shortly after Hoover took office, the Great Depression became the central issue of his presidency. Hoover pursued a variety of policies in an attempt to lift the economy, but opposed directly involving the federal government in relief efforts. In the midst of an ongoing economic crisis, Hoover was decisively defeated by Democratic nominee Franklin D. Roosevelt in the 1932 presidential election.
Hoover enjoyed one of the longest retirements of any former president, he authored numerous works. After leaving office, Hoover became conservative, he criticized Roosevelt's foreign policy and New Deal domestic agenda. In the 1940s and 1950s, Hoover's public reputation was rehabilitated as he served for Presidents Harry S. Truman and Dwight D. Eisenhower in various assignments, including as chairman of the Hoover Commission. Hoover is not ranked in historical rankings of presidents of the United States. Herbert Hoover was born on August 1874 in West Branch, Iowa, his father, Jesse Hoover, was a blacksmith and farm implement store owner of German and English ancestry. Hoover's mother, Hulda Randall Minthorn, was raised in Norwich, Canada, before moving to Iowa in 1859. Like most other citizens of West Branch and Hulda were Quakers; as a child, Hoover attended schools, but he did little reading on his own aside from the Bible. Hoover's father, noted by the local paper for his "pleasant, sunshiny disposition", died in 1880 at the age of 34.
Hoover's mother died in 1884, leaving Hoover, his older brother and his younger sister, May, as orphans. In 1885, Hoover was sent to Newberg, Oregon to live with his uncle John Minthorn, a Quaker physician and businessman whose own son had died the year before; the Minthorn household was considered cultured and educational, imparted a strong work ethic. Much like West Branch, Newberg was a frontier town settled by Midwestern Quakers. Minthorn ensured that Hoover received an education, but Hoover disliked the many chores assigned to him and resented Minthorn. One observer described Hoover as "an orphan seemed to be neglected in many ways." Hoover attended Friends Pacific Academy, but dropped out at the age of thirteen to become an office assistant for his uncle's real estate office in Salem, Oregon. Though he did not attend high school, Hoover learned bookkeeping and mathematics at a night school. Hoover entered Stanford University in 1891, its inaugural year, despite failing all the entrance exams except mathematics.
During his freshman year, he switched his major from mechanical engineering to geology after working for John Casper Branner, the chair of Stanford's geology department. Hoover was a mediocre student, he spent much of his time working in various part-time jobs or participating in campus activities. Though he was shy among fellow students, Hoover won election as student treasurer and became known for his distaste for fraternities and sororities, he served as student manager of both the baseball and football teams, helped organize the inaugural Big Game versus the University of California. During the summers before and after his senior year, Hoover interned under economic geologist Waldemar Lindgren of the United States Geological Survey; when Hoover graduated from Stanford in 1895, the country was in the midst of the Panic of 1893, he struggled to find a job. He worked in various low-level mining jobs in the Sierra Nevada mountain range until he convinced prominent mining engineer Louis Janin to hire him.
After working as a mine scout for a year, Hoover was hired by Bewick, Moreing & Co. a London-based company that operated gold mines in Western Australia. Hoover first went to Coolgardie the center of the Eastern Goldfields. Though Hoover received a $5,000 salary, conditions were h
Name of Pittsburgh
The name of the city of Pittsburgh, has a complicated history. Pittsburgh is one of the few U. S. cities or towns to be spelled with an h at the end of a burg suffix. Pittsburgh was named in honor of William Pitt, 1st Earl of Chatham referred to as William Pitt the Elder to distinguish him from his son William Pitt the Younger; the suffix burgh is the Scots language and Scottish English cognate of the English language borough, which has other cognates in words and place names in several Indo-European languages. This morpheme was used in place names to describe a location as being defensible, such as a hill, a fort, or a fortified settlement. Pittsburgh was captured by British forces during the French and Indian War; the earliest known reference to the new name of the settlement is in a letter sent from General John Forbes to William Pitt the Elder, dated 27 November 1758, notifying Pitt that his name had been given to the place. In that letter, the spelling is given as "Pittsbourgh." As a Scotsman, General Forbes pronounced the name PITS-bər-ə, similar to the pronunciation of "Edinburgh" as a Scotsman would say it: ED-in-bər-ə.
The first recorded reference using the current spelling is found on a survey map made for the Penn family in 1769. In the city charter, granted on March 18, 1816, the Pittsburgh spelling is used on the original document, but due to an apparent printing error, the final'h' is omitted on official copies of the document printed at the time. Before the federal government endorsed the Pittsburg spelling in 1891, that orthographic variant was well-attested, its use by The Pittsburg Dispatch newspaper, for example, dates back at least to 1847. The city's name is misspelled as Pittsburg because innumerable cities and towns in America make use of the German -burg suffix, while few make use of the Scottish -burgh suffix; this problem is compounded by the fact that from 1891 to 1911, the spelling of the city's name was federally recognized as Pittsburg. In 1890, the United States Board on Geographic Names was created to establish uniform place name usage throughout the various departments and agencies of the federal government.
To guide its standardization efforts, the Board adopted thirteen general principles, one of, that place names ending in -burgh should drop the final -h. The Board compiled a report of place name "decisions" in 1891 in which the city's name was rendered Pittsburg. In support of its decision favoring the Pittsburg spelling, the Board referenced the printed copies of the 1816 city charter which featured that same spelling. Based on those copies of the city charter, the Board claimed that the official name of the city had always been Pittsburg. However, the members of the board seem to have been unaware that the original copy of the 1816 charter specified the name of the city to be Pittsburgh, that only the printed copies of the charter featured the erroneous spelling Pittsburg; the full decision and rationale from the Board follows: Pittsburg. Pennsylvania; the city was chartered in 1816, its name being spelled without the h, its official form is still Pittsburg. The h appears to have been added by the Post-Office Department, through that action local usage appears to have become divided.
While the majority of local newspapers print it without the h, certain others use the final h. The Board's decisions had effective power; the decisions were not, binding outside the federal government. Official city and state documents continued to use the old spelling, as did the Pittsburgh Gazette, the Pittsburgh Stock Exchange and the University of Pittsburgh. Responding to mounting pressure and, in the end, political pressure from senator George T. Oliver, the Board adopted the Pittsburgh spelling on July 19, 1911, reversing its previous decision on the matter; the letter sent to senator Oliver to announce this decision, dated July 20, stated: Hon. George T. Oliver, United States Senate: Sir: At a special meeting of the United States Geographic Board held on July 19, 1911, the previous decision with regard to the spelling of Pittsburgh without a final H was reconsidered and the form given below was adopted: Pittsburgh, a city in Pennsylvania. Respectfully, C. S. SLOAN, Secretary. Notwithstanding the Board's reversal, the'h'-less spelling variant remained in use for years.
Some local daily newspapers carried it in their titles until the early 1920s, when The Pittsburg Dispatch and The Pittsburg Leader ceased publication and The Pittsburg Press became The Pittsburgh Press. The confusion and controversy surrounding the alternative spellings means that both the Pittsburgh and the Pittsburg spelling were encountered around the turn of the 20th century, continued uses of Pittsburg still occur to this day. Many cities across the United States named after the city of Pittsburgh, such as Pittsburg, Pittsburg and West Pittsburg, continue to use the Pittsburg spelling in their names. Other independent municipalities, such as the borough of East Pittsburgh, reflect the modern spelling; the most familiar reference to the Pittsburg spelling is on the renowned 1909 T-206 baseball card of Pittsburgh Pirates legend Honus Wagner. Its scarcity at the time, combined with Wagner's reputation as one of the greatest players in baseball history, made it the most valuable sports card of all time, with one pristine specimen yielding $2.8 million at auction.
It has been characterized as the "Holy Grail" of baseball cards. The city name displayed across Wagner's jersey on the card was an artistic addition that did not appear on the Pirates' unifo
Colin Luther Powell is an American statesman and a retired four-star general in the United States Army. During his military career, Powell served as National Security Advisor, as Commander of the U. S. Army Forces Command and as Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff, holding the latter position during the Persian Gulf War. Powell was the first, so far the only, Jamaican American to serve on the Joint Chiefs of Staff, he was the 65th United States Secretary of State, serving under U. S. President George W. Bush from 2001 to 2005, the first black person to serve in that position. Powell was raised in the South Bronx, his parents and Maud Powell, immigrated to the United States from Jamaica. Powell was educated in the New York City public schools, graduating from the City College of New York, where he earned a bachelor's degree in geology, he participated in ROTC at CCNY and received a commission as an Army second lieutenant upon graduation in June 1958. His further academic achievements include a Master of Business Administration degree from George Washington University.
Powell was a professional soldier for 35 years, during which time he held myriad command and staff positions and rose to the rank of 4-star General. His last assignment, from October 1, 1989 to September 30, 1993, was as the 12th Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff, the highest military position in the Department of Defense. During this time, he oversaw 28 crises, including Operation Desert Storm in the 1991 Persian Gulf War, he formulated the Powell Doctrine. Following his military retirement, Powell wrote My American Journey. In addition, he pursued a career as a public speaker, addressing audiences across the country and abroad. Prior to his appointment as Secretary of State, Powell was the chairman of America's Promise – The Alliance for Youth, a national nonprofit organization dedicated to mobilizing people from every sector of American life to build the character and competence of young people, he was nominated by President Bush on December 2000 as Secretary of State. After being unanimously confirmed by the U.
S. Senate, he was sworn in as the 65th Secretary of State on January 20, 2001. Powell is the recipient of numerous U. S. and foreign military awards and decorations. Powell's civilian awards include two Presidential Medal of Freedom, the President's Citizens Medal, the Congressional Gold Medal, the Secretary of State Distinguished Service Medal, the Secretary of Energy Distinguished Service Medal. Several schools and other institutions have been named in his honor and he holds honorary degrees from universities and colleges across the country. Powell is married to the former Alma Vivian Johnson of Alabama; the Powell family includes son Michael. In 2016, while not a candidate for that year's election, Powell received three electoral votes for the office of President of the United States. Powell was born on April 5, 1937, in Harlem, a neighborhood in the New York City borough of Manhattan, to Jamaican immigrants, Maud Arial and Luther Theophilus Powell, his parents were both of mixed Scottish ancestry.
Luther worked as Maud as a seamstress. Powell was raised in the South Bronx and attended Morris High School, from which he graduated in 1954. While at school, Powell worked at a local baby furniture store, where he picked up Yiddish from the eastern European Jewish shopkeepers and some of the customers, he served as a Shabbos goy, helping Orthodox families with needed tasks on the Sabbath. He received a Bachelor of Science degree in Geology from the City College of New York in 1958 and has said he was a'C average' student, he earned an MBA degree from the George Washington University in 1971, after his second tour in Vietnam. Despite his parents' pronunciation of his name as, Powell has pronounced his name since childhood, after the World War II flyer Colin P. Kelly Jr. Public officials and radio and television reporters have used Powell's preferred pronunciation. Powell was a professional soldier for 35 years, holding a variety of command and staff positions and rising to the rank of General.
Powell described joining the Reserve Officers' Training Corps during college as one of the happiest experiences of his life. According to Powell: It was only once I was in college, about six months into college when I found something that I liked, and, ROTC, Reserve Officer Training Corps in the military, and I not only liked it. That's what you have to look for in life, something that you like, something that you think you're pretty good at, and if you can put those two things together you're on the right track, just drive on. Cadet Powell joined the Pershing Rifles, the ROTC fraternal organization and drill team begun by General John Pershing. After he had become a general, Powell kept on his desk a pen set he had won for a drill team competition. Upon graduation, he received a commission as an Army second lieutenant. After attending basic training at Fort Benning, Powell was assigned to the 48th Infantry, in West Germany, as a platoon leader. In his autobiography, Powell said he is haunted by the nightmare of the Vietnam War and felt that the leadership was ineffective.
Captain Powell served a tour in Vietnam as a South Vietnamese Army advisor from 1962 to 1963. While on patrol in a Viet Cong-held area, he was wounded by stepping on a punji stake; the large infection