The Ibaizabal is a river that drains southeastern Biscay to the Estuary of Bilbao. It is 43 kilometres long from its source at Elorrio to the Nervión, it passes by the towns of Durango and Amorebieta and joins the Nervion river at Basauri. Both rivers run together for a short length until they merge with the sea at Bilbao, it is disputed which river is the one that reaches Bilbao. It is agreed that it is the Nervion, but there are some who argue that the Ibaizabal carries more water. List of rivers of Spain
Eibar is a city and municipality within the province of Gipuzkoa, in the Basque Country of Spain. It is the head town of one of the comarcas of Gipuzkoa. Eibar has 27,138 inhabitants, its chief industry is metal manufacturing, has been known since the 16th century for the manufacture of armaments finely engraved small arms. It was the home of Serveta scooters, it is home to the SD Eibar football team in La Liga. Eibar lies at an altitude of 121m above sea level, in the west of the province of Gipuzkoa, right next to Biscay. Eibar has an oceanic climate; the town lies in a narrow valley in a mountainous area, the highest mountains are between 700 and 800 metres high. Eibar is traversed by river Ego, a tributary of the Deba. Apart from the urban area, the municipality consists of five rural neighbourhoods: Otaola-Kinarraga, Arrate and Gorosta; the city was chartered by Alfonso XI of Castile in 1346, receiving the name of Villanueva de San Andrés de Heybar. The feudal families that dominated the territory engaged in the War of the Bands.
Eibar, like the rest of settlements in the valley, had an industry based on finery forges and the manufacture of arms. In 1766, Eibar got engaged in a social revolt known as the Machinada, years in 1794, it was attacked by the French, who destroyed the town. In the 19th century, industrialisation transformed the production systems in the city and was accompanied by an important social movement. In the Carlist Wars, Eibar sided with the Liberals. Labour movement and socialism became strong in Eibar. In 1931, Eibar was the first city in Spain to proclaim the Second Spanish Republic. In the Spanish Civil War, Eibar was destroyed; the rebuilding brought important industrial development and a demographic increase, as Eibar reached nearly 40,000 inhabitants in a few years. Due to the lack of space for enlargements, several factories moved to Álava; the industrial crisis in the 1980s made Eibar lose a great part of its population. At the beginning of the 21st century, Eibar's economy is based on industry and services.
Church of San Andrés, built during the 16th and 17th centuries, it has a Gothic style with Renaissance and Baroque elements. Sanctuary of the Virgin of Arrate, from the beginning of the 17th century. Hermitage of Azitain, it contains an odd 17th-century beardless Christ. Palace of Unzueta, from the 17th century. Palace of Aldatze, from the 17th century. Palace of Markeskua, from the 16th century. City Hall, built in concrete over the river Ego, designed by architect Ramón Cortázar and inaugurated on 14 September 1901. Coliseo Theatre, inaugurated in 1947 and refurbished in 2007. RoadEibar is traversed by the AP-8 motorway connecting Bilbao and the French border, the N-634 road running pararell to it; the AP-1 motorway connects Vitoria-Gasteiz. AP-8 and AP-1 meet at the Maltzaga motorway junction located in the east of Eibar. Regular and frequent bus services under Lurraldebus connect Eibar to neighbouring towns, San Sebastián, Vitoria-Gasteiz and Bilbao Airport. BizkaiBus provides frequent bus services to and from Bilbao.
ALSA runs a daily service to and from Madrid-Barajas Madrid. Eibar has an urban bus service called Udalbus. Railway Eibar is located on the Bilbao-San Sebastián narrow gauge railway line. Trains operated by Euskotren run and to Bilbao-Matiko station and Donostia-Amara station. Services are more frequent in the Ermua-Eibar-Elgoibar section; the Industrial Technical Engineering School of Eibar is part of the University of the Basque Country. The Escuela de Armería, founded in 1913, is the oldest vocational training school in Spain. FootballEibar is home to SD Eibar; the team plays at the Ipurua Municipal Stadium. Basque pelotaThe Astelena fronton, nicknamed the Cathedral of Basque Hand-pelota, is a regular venue of the hand-pelota professional circuit competitions the Bare-handed Pelota First League, the Bare-handed Pelota First League Doubles and the Cuatro y Medio Euskadi Championship. CyclingSince 2009, the city hosts an annual stage finish in the Tour of Basque Country after the riders have climbed the Alto de Arrate.
Before 2009, this was a traditional finish in the Euskal Bizikleta, which originated in Eibar as Bicicleta Eibarresa. The Arrate-finish has been included in the Vuelta a España in 1972, 1974 and 2012. Francisco de Ibarra and conqueror Martín Ignacio de Loyola and navigator Ignacio de Soroeta, Governor of Paraguay Juan Antonio Mogel, writer Ignacio Zuloaga, painter Ciriaco Errasti, footballer Baltasar Albéniz, football manager Roberto Etxebarria Arruti, footballer Miguel Gallastegui, Basque pelotari Alberto Ormaetxea and football manager Luis Aranberri and journalist Javier Aguirresarobe, cinematographer Koldo Zuazo, linguist Enrique Zuazua, mathematician Maite Zúñiga, athlete Pedro Horrillo, cyclist Markel Susaeta, footballer Jon Errasti, footballer Markel Alberdi, swimmer Mikel Oyarzabal, footballer Official website eibar.org Eibar's pages EIBAR in the Bernardo Estornés Lasa - Auñamendi Encyclopedia
The Autopista AP-8 is a highway in the north of Spain and crosses the Basque Country from east to west. It connects the French Border with Bilbao; this toll road passes Donostia-San Sebastián, Zarautz and Durango. At Bilbao the Autopista AP-8 changes into the Autovía A-8, which continues along the Spanish northern coast to Gijón and the region of Galicia
Henry IV of Castile
Henry IV of Castile, King of Castile, nicknamed the Impotent, was the last of the weak late medieval kings of Castile. During Henry's reign the nobles increased in power and the nation became less centralised, he was born in 1425 at the Casa de las Aldabas in Teresa Gil street of Valladolid. He was the son of John II of Castile and Maria of daughter of King Ferdinand I of Aragon, he displaced his older sister and became heir apparent to the Castilian throne as the Prince of Asturias. At the time of his birth, Castile was under control of Álvaro de Luna, Duke of Trujillo, who intended to select Henry's companions and direct his education; the companions of his own age included Juan Pacheco. The struggles and intrigues for power among the aristocracy, Álvaro de Luna, the Infantes of Aragon would be constant. On 10 October 1444, he became the only prince of Jaén. In 1445 he won the First Battle of Olmedo. After the victory at Olmedo, Álvaro de Luna's power waned, Prince Henry and Juan Pacheco's influence grew.
Henry IV's father died on July 20, 1454 and he was proclaimed king the following day. One of King Henry's first priorities was the alliance with Portugal, he achieved this by marrying a second time to Joan of Portugal, daughter of King Edward of Portugal, in 1455. His other main concerns were the possibility of intervention from King John II of Navarre, establishing peace with France and Aragon, pardoning various aristocrats. Henry IV convened the Cuéllar Courts to launch an offensive against the Emirate of Granada; the campaigns of 1455 and 1458 developed into a war of attrition based on punitive raids and avoiding pitched battles. It was not popular with the people. Juan Pacheco, the Marquis of Villena, his brother Pedro Girón were put in charge of government decisions. King Henry took other advisors, such as Beltrán de la Cueva, Miguel Lucas de Iranzo, Gómez de Cáceres to balance against their influence. In 1458, King Alfonso V of Aragon was succeeded by his brother, John II of Navarre. King John II resumed his interference in Castillian politics, supporting the aristocratic opposition to Juan Pacheco's ambitions.
With the support of the King Henry, Pacheco moved to seize Álvaro de Luna's assets, but his widow allied herself with the Mendoza family, causing a division among the aristocracy. This process resulted in the formation of a League of Nobles in March 1460, they raised a large number of noblemen, took control of expenditure, gained the acceptance of Alfonso of Castille, the King Henry's half-brother and Prince of Asturias. To counteract King John II's politicking, Henry IV reacted by invading Navarre in support of Charles, Prince of Viana. Charles was the heir to Navarre, he revolted against his father John II in 1450 when he refused to cede the throne of Navarre; the campaign was a military success, but King Henry made peace with the League of Nobles in August 1461 to ward off the power of the Mendozas, which had allowed John II to intervene in Castille. King John II was in conflict with the Principality of Catalonia, on the death of his eldest son, Charles of Viana, the principality elected Henry IV to be Count of Barcelona on August 11, 1462.
King Henry's intervention was framed as a rivalry between him and John II, making Catalonia an unstable point in the Crown of Aragon. But he was unsuccessful, the Castillian economy would suffer from an enmity with France, who had supported John II with the Treaty of Bayonne. Henry IV therefore agreed to a settlement in the Judgment of Bayonne, resulting in the abandonment of the Catalans. During his reign as king, Henry IV spent a lot of time at the Royal Alcazar of Madrid where he would stay there for long periods of time; the Royal Alcazar was replaced with the Royal Palace of Madrid by the rulers of Spain. Prince Henry celebrated his marriage to Blanche of Navarre in 1440; the cardinal Juan de Cervantes presided over the official ceremony. Her parents were John II of Navarre; the marriage had been agreed in 1436 as part of the peace negotiations between Navarre. The dowry included territories and villas that had belonged to Navarre but had been won by the Castillian side during the war, the Castillians agreed to hand the lands back provided they would be given them back again as part of this dowry.
In May 1453, the bishop of Segovia Luis Vázquez de Acuña annulled the marriage of Henry and Blanche, on the grounds of Henry's sexual impotence due to a curse. This neatly reflected the recent political changes: Castille had supported Charles, Prince of Viana in his fight against John II of Aragon for the Navarrese throne since 1451, Álvaro de Luna, Duke of Trujillo had been executed in May 1453, leaving Henry with greater control of Castille. Henry alleged that he had been incapable of sexually consummating the marriage, despite having tried for over three years, the minimum period required by the church. Other women, prostitutes from Segovia, testified that they had had sexual relations with Henry, why he blamed his inability to consummate the marriage on a spell. Henry's alleged. Blanche and Henry were cousins, he was a cousin of Joan of Portugal, whom he wanted to marry instead. Therefore, the reason he used to seek the annulment was the sort of spell that only affected his ability to consummate this one marriage, would not cause any problems for him with other women.
Pope Nicholas V corroborated the d
BizkaiBus is the name for bus services serving the province of Biscay, Spain. It is named after the Basque name of Bizkaia; the buses can be identified by their distinctive green livery. The bus network is integrated in the Creditrans ticket system. BizkaiBus is the result of the combination of several companies that offered bus travel services in the province of Biscay, TCSA, CAV, PESA, Euskotren and Autobuses de Lujua; the service is funded by the authority of Biscay or Diputacion Foral and operates as many as 100 bus lines. Some of the lines are seasonal, only operate during certain months, for example a number of summer season lines to beach areas. Various bus companies have joined the Bizkaibus consortium over the years; the bus lines of EuskoTren joined in the year 2002, Adnor joined in 2005, Autobuses de Lujua in 2006. Of the original companies offering bus public transport in Biscay Vigiola remains the only non-affiliated bus operator. In 2006 the line between Bilbao and Castro Urdiales was excluded from Bizkaibus, as the line was funded by the Biscay local authority and the town of Castro Urdiales lies in the province of Cantabria.
The service was used by over 30 million passengers during 2007 six per cent less than a year before. The expansion of Metro Bilbao along the left bank of the Greater Bilbao metropolitan area has affected Bizkaibus since the year 2002, when the first stations of the underground were opened in Barakaldo. Subsequent extensions to Sestao in 2005 and Portugalete in 2007 have affected passenger numbers; the busiest lines during 2006 were the following: A3129: Lutxana - Cruces/Gurutzeta - Santurtzi: 1,874,251 A3135: Sestao - Kabiezes: 1,771,347 A3142: Santurtzi - Barakaldo - Retuerto: 1,421,398 A3115: Bilbao - Santurtzi: 1,419,939 A3621: Bilbao - Basauri - Galdakao: 946,658 There are around 100 lines operated by Bizkaibus. The numbering system depends on the zone of Biscay; the routes in Uribe Kosta begin with 21, University routes begin with 23, the routes on the left bank of Greater Bilbao begin with 31, those of the right bank of Greater Bilbao are prefixed 34, the River Nervion area routes are designated with the number 36, the Encartaciones region 33, the routes operated by the company CAV the number 35, PESA the number 39.
From Bailén street: A-3511 Bilbao - Galdakao - Larrabetzu A-3613 Bilbao - Ugao-Miraballes. Euskadi and Bilbao Exhibition Center A-3137 Bilbao - Barakaldo through Hurtado de Amézaga and Lutxana A-3144 Bilbao - Gurutzeta - Barakaldo through Ugarte, Max Center and Megapark A-3336 Bilbao - Muskiz through Ortuella A-3337 Bilbao - Muskiz through the N-634 road A-3514 Bilbao - Zornotza - Gernika A-3515 Bilbao - Zornotza - Gernika - Bermeo A-3911 Bilbao - Galdakao Hospital- Lemoa - Durango A-3912 Bilbao - Galdakao Hospital - Lemoa - Durango - Ermua - Eibar A-3917 Bilbao - Galdakao Hospital - Lemoa - Zeanuri A-3925 Bilbao - Lemoa - Otxandio - Ubide from Gran Vía de Don Diego López de Haro: A-3151 Bilbao - Santurtzi - Portugalete through freeway from Termibus: A-0651 Bilbao - Zalla - Balmaseda A-2153 Bilbao - Loiu - Aiartza A-2318 Termibús - UPV/EHU through freeway A-3247 Bilbao - Bilbao Airport A-3341 Bilbao - Sodupe - Arrespalditza A-3342 Bilbao - Sodupe - Artziniega A-3343 Bilbao - Sodupe A-3414 Bilbao - Getxo through the Artxanda tunnel A-3512 Bilbao - Lekeitio through freeway A-3513 Bilbao - Galdakao Hospital - Gernika - Ea - Lekeitio A-3523 Bilbao - Galdakao Hospital - Gernika - Lekeitio - Mendexa A-3915 Bilbao - Durango - Ondarroa A-3916 Bilbao - Ermua - Ondarroa A-3923 Bilbao - Durango - Elorrio A-3926 Bilbao - Ermua - Eibar through freeway A-3927 Bilbao - Lemona - Zeanuri through freeway A-3930 Bilbao - Galdakao through freeway A-3933 Bilbao - Durango through freeway from Arenal park: A-3216 Bilbao - Artxanda A-3223 Bilbao - Larrabetzu.
From Moyúa square: A-3224 Bilbao - Derio- Technologic Park A-3250 Bilbao - Technologic Park through the tunnel of Artxanda A-3516 Bilbao - Mungia through freeway A-3517 Bilbao - Derio - Mungia A-3518 Bilbao - Mungia - Bakio through freeway A-3527 Bilbao - Mungia - Bermeo through freeway from 10 Henao street: A-3411 Bilbao - Getxo through Erandio A-3413 Bilbao - Getxo - Aizkorri Official site
Provinces of Spain
Spain and its autonomous communities are divided into fifty provinces. Spain's provincial system was recognized in its 1978 constitution but its origin dates back to 1833. Ceuta and the Plazas de soberanía are not part of any provinces; the layout of Spain's provinces follows the pattern of the territorial division of the country carried out in 1833. The only major change of provincial borders since that time has been the subdivision of the Canary Islands into two provinces rather than one; the provinces served as transmission belts for policies enacted in Madrid, as Spain was a centralised state for most of its modern history. The importance of the provinces has declined since the adoption of the system of autonomous communities in the period of the Spanish transition to democracy, they remain electoral districts for national elections and as geographical references: for instance in postal addresses and telephone codes. A small town would be identified as being in, Valladolid province rather than the autonomous community of Castile and León.
The provinces were the "building-blocks". No province is divided between more than one of these communities. Most of the provinces—with the exception of Álava, Biscay, Guipúzcoa, Balearic Islands, La Rioja, Navarra — are named after their principal town. Only two capitals of autonomous communities — Mérida in Extremadura and Santiago de Compostela in Galicia — are not the capitals of provinces. Seven of the autonomous communities comprise no more than one province each: Asturias, Balearic Islands, Cantabria, La Rioja, Madrid and Navarra; these are sometimes referred to as "uniprovincial" communities. The table below lists the provinces of Spain. For each, the capital city is given, together with an indication of the autonomous community to which it belongs and a link to a list of municipalities in the province; the names of the provinces and their capitals are ordered alphabetically according to the form in which they appear in the main Wikipedia articles describing them. Unless otherwise indicated, their Spanish language names are the same.
List of Spanish provinces by population List of Spanish provinces by area Spanish Federation of Municipalities and Provinces Autonomous communities of Spain Comarcas of Spain ISO 3166-2:ESGeneral: Political divisions of Spain Maps of the provinces of Spain Maps of Spain's Provinces List of municipalities of Spain listed by province from the Spanish INE
Durango Free and Sovereign State of Durango, is a state in northwest Mexico. With a population of 1,632,934, Durango has Mexico's second-lowest population density, after Baja California Sur; the city of Victoria de Durango is the state's capital, named after the first president of Mexico, Guadalupe Victoria. With 123,451.2 km2 or 12.3 million ha, Durango accounts for about 6.3% of the entire territory of Mexico and is its fourth largest state. The state lies at the extreme northwest of the Central Mexican Plateau, where it meets the Sierra Madre Occidental, where the state's highest peaks are; the state has an average altitude of 1,775 meters above sea level, with a mean altitude of 1,750 in the Valleys region and 2,450 meters in the Sierra region. The city of Durango is on the foothills of the Sierra Madre Occidental with an elevation of 1,857 meters above sea level; the state of Durango is landlocked, bordering the states of Chihuahua, Zacatecas and Sinaloa. It is divided into 39 municipalities, based off the 1917 Constitution with various divisions since then.
One of the main determining factors in the state's regional environments is the barrier that the Sierra Madre Occidental presents, determining altitudes and blocking moisture from the Pacific. The Quebradas region west of the mountain chain has a semi tropical humid climate; the rest of the state has a semi-arid climate with the exception of the highest altitudes. Temperatures are cold depending on altitude; the eastern part of the state is hottest and driest, with some temperate areas in the highest altitudes. Most of the state is covered in mountains and forested, with the Sierra Madre Occidental covering two-thirds of the state alone. However, like much of the rest of northern Mexico, Durango has worked to reforest many of the degraded forests in the Sierra Madre Occidental and Sierra Madre Oriental. Much of this work is not related to forests used for wood production and focuses on the planting of native tree species. More work needs to be done as many areas still have tree densities that are too low on the eastern slopes of the Sierra Madre Occidental where tree poaching and clearing for agricultural activities is problematic.
Most of the state inclines from south to north, meaning most of the rivers empty into the Pacific. Most rivers lead into other Mexican states; those which do not flow into the Pacific lead into the lake area of La Comarca and one, the Florida, makes its way to the Gulf of Mexico. Ecologically the state is divided into four regions: La Quebrada, the Sierra, the Valleys and the Semi-desert; the Semi-desert is located in the northeast of the state and includes the municipalities of Hidalgo, Mapimí, San Pedro del Gallo, San Luis del Cordero, Lerdo, Gómez Palacio, Cuencamé, Santa Clara, General Simón Bolívar and San Juan de Guadalupe. Most of the terrain here is flat and its climate is dry. Temperatures are hot in the summer; these municipalities are classified as either part of the Chihuahua Desert or in the transition zone. The area is flat with some mountain ranges and a slight incline towards the interior of the country; the area was at one time under the sea, but today the vegetation consists of scrub, nopal cactus, maguey plants, barrel cactus and other arid zone plants.
It is defined by two rivers: the Aguanaval. The region has two reservoirs: the Lázaro Cárdenas and the Francisco Zarco, located between the Cuencamé and Lerdo municipalities. Animals that can be found here include coyotes, various snakes, chameleons and scorpions. Most of the economically important natural resources come from mining, including deposits of gold, silver and mercury. There are large deposits of marble; the La Laguna is short for La Comarca de la Laguna or La Comarca Lagunera, an arid and semi-arid region that covers a significant portion of northeastern Durango and southeastern Coahuila. The area was created by sediments from torrential river flows deposited over large valleys; these river flows created lagoons which served to recharge underground aquifers or remain as intermittent surface waters. The rivers supported habitat for native grasses and ditch reed which provided habitat for various water birds and fish; the area is home to Durango's only caverns, the Rosario Caves are located near Ciudad Lerdo, as well as the Mapimí Biosphere, noted for various plants and the desert tortoise.
It is a protected area centering on where the states of Chihuahua and Durango meet. The Valleys are located in the center of the state and include the municipalities of Nombre de Dios, Nuevo Ideal, Canatlán, Guadalupe Victoria, Pánuco de Coronado, Poanas, Súchil, Vicente Guerrero, San Bernardo, Indé, Coneto de Comonfort, El Oro, San Juan del Río and Peñón Blanco; the region consists principally in river llanuras located among small mountain ranges. The main peaks in this area include the San Jacinto in the Silla Mountains and Peñon Blanco, which many schoolchildren in the area take trips to. Other major geographical formations in the Valleys Region include cliffs called Las Catedrales, along with those called Malpaís and La Breña, which were formed by lava flows over 250,000 hectares; the area is home to the Cerro de Mercado, important for its large deposit of iron. The valleys proper are flat and apt for agriculture with irrigation from the Nazas and Tunal Rivers. Reservoirs for this purpos