The Ancestral Puebloans are believed to have developed, at least in part, from the Oshara Tradition, who developed from the Picosa culture. They lived in a range of structures that included small family pit houses, larger structures to house clans, grand pueblos, the Ancestral Puebloans possessed a complex network that stretched across the Colorado Plateau linking hundreds of communities and population centers. They held a distinct knowledge of celestial sciences that found form in their architecture, the kiva, a congregational space that was used chiefly for ceremonial purposes, was an integral part of this ancient peoples community structure. In contemporary times, the people and their culture were referred to as Anasazi for historical purposes. The Navajo, who were not their descendants, called them by this term, reflecting historic traditions, the term was used to mean ancient enemies. Contemporary Puebloans do not want this term used, archaeologists continue to debate when this distinct culture emerged.
The current agreement, based on terminology defined by the Pecos Classification, suggests their emergence around the 12th century BC, beginning with the earliest explorations and excavations, researchers identified Ancestral Puebloans as the forerunners of contemporary Pueblo peoples. Three UNESCO World Heritage Sites located in the United States are credited to the Pueblos, Mesa Verde National Park, Chaco Culture National Historical Park and Taos Pueblo. Pueblo, which means village in Spanish, was a term originating with the Spanish explorers who used it to refer to the particular style of dwelling. The Navajo now use the term in the sense of referring to ancient people or ancient ones, Hopi people used the term Hisatsinom, meaning ancient people, to describe the Ancestral Puebloans. The Ancestral Puebloans were one of four major prehistoric archaeological traditions recognized in the American Southwest and this area is sometimes referred to as Oasisamerica in the region defining pre-Columbian southwestern North America.
The others are the Mogollon and Patayan, in relation to neighboring cultures, the Ancestral Puebloans occupied the northeast quadrant of the area. The Ancestral Puebloan homeland centers on the Colorado Plateau, but extends from central New Mexico on the east to southern Nevada on the west. Structures and other evidence of Ancestral Puebloan culture has been found extending east onto the American Great Plains, in areas near the Cimarron and Pecos Rivers and resources within this large region vary greatly. The plateau regions have high elevations ranging from 4,500 to 8,500 feet, extensive horizontal mesas are capped by sedimentary formations and support woodlands of junipers and ponderosa pines, each favoring different elevations. Wind and water erosion have created steep-walled canyons, and sculpted windows, in areas where resistant strata, such as sandstone or limestone, overlie more easily eroded strata such as shale, rock overhangs formed. The Ancestral Puebloans favored building under such overhangs for shelters and defensive building sites, all areas of the Ancestral Puebloan homeland suffered from periods of drought, and wind and water erosion.
Summer rains could be unreliable and often arrived as destructive thunderstorms, while the amount of winter snowfall varied greatly, the Ancestral Puebloans depended on the snow for most of their water
The Clovis culture appears around 11, 500–11,000 uncal RCYBP, at the end of the last glacial period, and is characterized by the manufacture of Clovis points and distinctive bone and ivory tools. Archaeologists most precise determinations at present suggest that this age is equal to roughly 13,200 to 12,900 calendar years ago. Clovis people are considered to be the ancestors of most of the cultures of the Americas. The only human burial that has been associated with tools from the Clovis culture included the remains of an infant boy named Anzick-1. Researchers from the United States and Europe conducted paleogenetic research on Anzick-1s ancient nuclear, the results of these analyses reveal that Anzick-1 is closely related to modern Native American populations, which lends support to the Beringia hypothesis for the peopling of the Americas. The Clovis culture was replaced by more localized regional cultures from the time of the Younger Dryas cold climate period onward. Post-Clovis cultures include the Folsom tradition, Suwannee-Simpson, Plainview-Goshen, each of these is commonly thought to derive directly from Clovis, in some cases apparently differing only in the length of the fluting on their projectile points.
Recent preliminary carbon dating shows a culture from around or prior to 13,000 years ago, along with horse, camel, a hallmark of the toolkit associated with the Clovis culture is the distinctively shaped, fluted stone spear point, known as the Clovis point. The Clovis point is bifacial and typically fluted on both sides, the culture was originally named for a small number of artifacts found between 1932 and 1936 at Blackwater Locality No. 1, a site between the towns of Clovis and Portales, New Mexico. These finds were deemed especially important due to their association with mammoth sp. Clovis sites have since been identified throughout much, but not all, of the contiguous United States, as well as Mexico and Central America and it is generally accepted that Clovis people hunted mammoths, as Clovis points have repeatedly been found in sites containing mammoth remains. In total, more than 125 species of plants and animals are known to have used by Clovis people in the portion of the Western Hemisphere they inhabited.
The oldest Clovis site in North America is believed to be El Fin del Mundo in northwestern Sonora, Mexico and it features occupation dating around 13,390 calibrated years BP. In 2011, remains of Gomphothere were found, the evidence suggests that humans did in fact two of them here. Theres the Aubrey site in Denton County, which produced a date that is almost identical. After this time, Clovis-style fluted points were replaced by other fluted-point traditions with an uninterrupted sequence across North. An effectively continuous cultural adaptation proceeds from the Clovis period through the ensuing Middle, whether the Clovis culture drove the mammoth, and other species, to extinction via overhunting – the so-called Pleistocene overkill hypothesis – is still an open, and controversial, question
Nathanial Cook Nathan Meeker was a 19th-century United States journalist, homesteader and Indian agent for the federal government. He is noted for his founding in 1870 of the Union Colony, in 1878, he was appointed U. S. Agent at the White River Indian Agency in western Colorado, the next year, he was killed by Ute warriors in what became known as the Meeker Massacre, during the White River War. His wife and adult daughter were taken captive for three weeks. The town of Meeker and Mount Meeker in Rocky Mountain National Park are named for him, Nathan Cook Meeker was born in Euclid, Ohio on July 12,1817, to Enoch and Lurana Meeker. Meeker was a writer and submitted articles to area publications when he was a boy and he left home at 17 years-of-age for New Orleans, where he worked as a copy boy for the New Orleans Picayune. In the late 1830s, Meeker returned to Ohio, where he attended and graduated from Oberlin College, after college, Meeker worked as a school teacher in Cleveland and Philadelphia.
He saved up his money to move to New York, hoping to fulfill a desire to become a poet, in New York, he became a contributor to the Mirror, which was owned by N. P. Willis. Unable to support himself, he moved back to Euclid and was a traveling salesman, Meeker married Arvilla Delight Smith, a Congregationalist, on April 8,1844. He was baptized a Disciple of Christ to address her concern about his lack of faith, Smith was concerned that Meeker was younger than her. So, he stated that his year of birth was 1814 on their marriage certificate, the couple settled in the Trumbull Phalanx colony in Ohio. The colony was based upon the theories of Charles Fourier. Arvilla taught kindergarten and Nathan was a teacher, auditor, secretary, in 1845, their son Ralph Lovejoy was born. Two years George Columbus was born at the colony, the Trumbull Phalanx colony failed due to financial and health issues in the fall of 1847. In 1847, Meeker opened a store with his brothers in Cleveland, rozene was born in 1849 in Munson.
Meeker opened another store in Hiram in 1852 and he was asked to help found the Western Reserve Institute by the Disciples of Christ, but he was furious when his claim was held up because he sold whiskey. He only sold whiskey by prescription, but was so angry over the misunderstanding that he left the church, in 1854, Mary was born in Hiram, and three years Josephine was born there. Meeker lost his store and property during the Great Panic of 1857 and he moved to Dongola, where he opened a small store and grew fruit
The Comanche people are federally recognized as the Comanche Nation, headquartered in Lawton, Oklahoma. Post-contact, the Comanches were hunter-gatherers with a horse culture, there may have been as many as 45,000 Comanches in the late 18th century. They were the dominant tribe on the Southern Plains and often took captives from weaker tribes during warfare, selling them as slaves to the Spanish and they took thousands of captives from the Spanish and American settlers. Today, the Comanche Nation has 15,191 members, approximately 7,763 of whom reside in tribal jurisdictional area around the Lawton, Fort Sill, the Comanche Nation Homecoming Powwow is held annually in Walters, Oklahoma in mid-July. The Comanche language is a Numic language of the Uto-Aztecan family, only about 1% of Comanches speak their language today. The name Comanche is from the Ute name for them, kɨmantsi, the Comanche Nation is headquartered in Lawton, Oklahoma. Their tribal jurisdictional area is located in Caddo, Cotton, Jefferson, Stephens, membership of the tribe requires a 1/8 blood quantum.
The tribe operates its own housing authority and issues tribal vehicle tags and they have their own Department of Higher Education, primarily awarding scholarships and financial aid for members college educations. Additionally, they operate the Comanche Nation College in Lawton and they own ten tribal smoke shops and four casinos. The casinos are Comanche Nation Casino in Lawton, Comanche Red River Casino in Devol, Comanche Spur Casino, in Elgin, in 2002, the tribe founded the Comanche Nation College, a two-year tribal college in Lawton. Each July Comanches from across the United States gather to celebrate their heritage and culture in Walters, the Comanche Nation Fair is held every September. The Comanche Little Ponies host two annual dances—one over New Years and one in May, the Comanche emerged as a distinct group shortly before 1700, when they broke off from the Shoshone people living along the upper Platte River in Wyoming. In 1680, the Comanche acquired horses from the Pueblo Indians after the Pueblo Revolt and they separated from the Shoshone after this, as the horses allowed them greater mobility in their search for better hunting grounds.
The horse was a key element in the emergence of a distinctive Comanche culture and they only just fall short of possessing all of the conveniences of the earth, and have no need to covet the trade pursued by the rest of the Indians. Their original migration took them to the southern Great Plains, into a sweep of territory extending from the Arkansas River to central Texas. They reached present-day New Mexico and the Texas Panhandle by 1700, forcing the Lipan Apache people ever southward, by 1777, the Lipan Apache had retreated to the Rio Grande and the Mescalero Apache to Coahuila. The Comanche never formed a single cohesive unit, but were divided into almost a dozen autonomous groups. These groups shared the language and culture, and rarely fought each other
Battle of Beecher Island
In addition, they found incentive in the warfare that had been waged specifically against their clans by the military in 1867, and by memories of such atrocities as the Sand Creek massacre. The latter during the summer of 1867 had successfully avoided a large expedition commanded by Maj. Gen. Winfield S, as the Indians fought dispersed battles composed of small bands of warriors all over the frontier, U. S. Army troops and units were at a premium. General Sheridan decided to try an unusual tactic and they were to seek out and engage the marauders using their tactics, rather than those of the traditional Army. Forsyth hand-picked 48 men at Forts Harker and Hays and armed them with Spencer repeating rifles, Forsyths executive officer was Lieutenant Fredrick H. Beecher of the 3rd Infantry, a decorated veteran of the Battle of Gettysburg. His company rode northwest nearly to Nebraska, turned southwest, brevet Colonel Forsyth and his group of scouts departed Fort Wallace with orders to counter the raid.
Col. Forsyth took his command to investigate and they learned that a force of about 25 Indians had taken part in the attack. They followed their trail into what is now Yuma County, the scouts trailed the Indian raiding party from Sheridan into Colorado, signs indicated that the opposing force considerably outnumbered the scouts, but the unit nonetheless pressed on. Around dusk on the 16th, Forsyth and his men arrived in the vicinity of the Dry Fork of the Republican River and they camped only 12 miles downstream from a large encampment of two Lakota villages, one of Cheyenne Dog Soldiers and a few lodges of Arapaho. At dawn on the 17th, Forsyth sensed trouble and spotted the silhouette of a feathered head against the skyline and he fired his weapon, instantly killing the Indian warrior. Forsyth gave orders to saddle the horses, seeing that no escape route was open, he directed his men to take cover on a sand bar in the middle of the Arikaree. The numbers of attacking Indians varies widely, with estimates including 200,600 to 1,000, the initial assault by the Indians was cut down by the accurate, quick-firing Spencer rifles.
The combined force of Oglala Sioux and Cheyenne Indians were surprised and changed their tactics, during the early morning of the first day of battle, small parties of Indians dashed up to the sand bar on horseback several times, but they did little damage to the scouts. The scouts killed their horses for breastworks and dug pits into the sand behind them. When the scouts opened fire, the Indians attacked the island on both sides, they crawled through the grass and shot through the grass. Several scouts who were killed or wounded were hit by the Indian snipers hidden in the grass, the Indians surrounded the island and repeatedly attacked the Scouts. Three scouts hidden in hole on the shot several Indians from the shore. Roman Nose was shot on the riverbank at the west end of the sand bar and he jumped back into the grass where other warriors retrieved him. He died at 10 pm that night, many other warriors fell, while four of the scouts including Beecher, Acting Surgeon J. H. Mooers, George W. Culver, and William Wilson were killed
Panhandle culture is a prehistoric culture of the southern High Plains during the Middle Ceramic Period from AD1200 to 1400. Panhandle sites are primarily in the panhandle and west central Oklahoma, the culture was likely an outgrowth of the Woodland phase or a migration of people from north-central Kansas. Antelope Creek focus is the primary, and to some the only, the Optima focus was defined for sites in west central Oklahoma, but after further study, these sites were defined as Antelope Creek focus. In 1975 Robert G. Campbell defined the Apishapa culture of southeastern Colorados Chaquaqua Plateau as a Panhandle culture and their material goods indicated other trading influences, such as plains pottery, sea-shells, and Smoky Hill jasper from northwestern Kansas. Single or multi-roomed stone structures, often with altars at the back of the structures, people camped or used sites with limited purposes. People were hunter-gatherers of large and small mammals and wild plants, nuts, a primary good for trade for the Panhandle culture was Alibates agatized dolomite, such as that found at the Alibates Flint Quarries National Monument.
Most of the sites are centered on the Canadian River and North Canadian River or its tributaries, primarily Antelope Creek and Cottonwood Creek, Dixon Creek, Panhandle culture sites were found on the Archie King Ranch
The Comanche campaign is a general term for military operations by the United States government against the Comanche tribe in the newly settled west. Between 1867 and 1875, military units fought against the Comanche people in a series of expeditions and campaigns until the Comanche surrendered and relocated to a reservation. Western settlement brought the Spanish, French and American settlers into regular contact with the tribes of the region. Many of these Indians were friendly, and received the new settlers gladly, offering to trade and coexist peacefully, the idea of Manifest Destiny as well as the Homestead Act pushed American and immigrant settlers further west, thereby creating more competition for a finite amount of land. This competition for land created tension between the Anglo settlers and the Natives of the region, in an effort to prevent conflicts in the area, many treaties were signed promising land and peace between the two parties, but such treaties were rarely honored. The Comanche tribe was one of the sources of native resistance in the region that became Oklahoma and Texas.
With the outbreak of the Civil War, some Indian tribes attempted to align themselves with what they believed would be the winning side. In the case of the Comanche, the signed a treaty with the Confederacy. This did little to end the cycle of raiding which had come to typify this region, spreading over a large expanse of the southern plains, the Comanche fought hard diplomatically to maintain power in the region they controlled. In the Treaty of Little Arkansas in 1865, the Comanche tribe was awarded a large piece of land spanning parts of Oklahoma, some parts of this region, called the Comancheria, soon became part of the reservation system. This treaty was followed by the Medicine Lodge Treaty in 1867. These policies eventually became part of President Ulysses S. Grant’s Peace Policy, President Grant’s Peace Policy became an important part of the white-Indian relations for a number of years. A faction of the Comanche tribe, the Quahadi, was arguably the most resistant towards the Anglo settlers, skeptical of what they would bring, the Quahadi avoided contact with these men.
Goods were never exchanged between the groups, and because of this seclusion they were unaffected by the cholera plagues in 1816 and 1849. The Quahadi were noted for their nature, so much so that other Comanche feared them. They were the wealthiest of the Comanche in terms of horses and cattle and it was this faction of the Comanche that gave the American troops the most trouble during this period. Following on the heels of the Civil War, the Army had a low number of recruits, approximately 5,000 enlisted men, divided into ten regiments made up the American forces that would face the powerful Comanche. General Sherman picked Ranald S. Mackenzie, described by President Grant as “the most promising young officer in the army, ” commanding the 4th Cavalry and his men developed a style of fighting designed to slowly defeat the Comanche rather than face them in open battle
The Arapaho are a tribe of Native Americans historically living on the plains of Colorado and Wyoming. They were close allies of the Cheyenne tribe and loosely aligned with the Lakota and Dakota, the Arapaho language, Heenetiit, is an Algonquian language closely related to Gros Ventre, whose people are seen as an early offshoot of the Arapaho. Blackfeet and Cheyenne are the other Algonquian-speakers on the Plains, by the 1850s, Arapaho bands formed two tribes, the Northern Arapaho and Southern Arapaho. Since 1878, the Northern Arapaho have lived with the Eastern Shoshone on the Wind River Reservation in Wyoming and are recognized as the Arapahoe Tribe of the Wind River Reservation. The Southern Arapaho live with the Southern Cheyenne in Oklahoma, their members are enrolled as the federally recognized Cheyenne and Arapaho Tribes. It is uncertain where the word Arapaho came from and it may have come from the Pawnee word for trader, iriiraraapuhu, or it may have been a corruption of a Crow word for tattoo.
The Arapaho autonym is Hinonoeino or Inun-ina, when referring to the tribe they use Hinonoeiteen and they were known as Hitanwoiv or Hetanevoeo/Hetanevoeoo by their Cheyenne allies or Mahpíyato by Dakota, Maȟpíya thó by Lakota and Assiniboine. The Caddo called them Detsekayaa, the Wichita Niarharis-kûrikiwaahûski, and the Comanche Saria Tʉhka / Säretika, to Pawnee and other tribes they were known as “dog-eaters”. The Northern Arapaho were known as BSakuunena, the Cheyenne adapted the Arapaho terms and referred to the Northern Arapaho as Vanohetan or Vanohetaneo/ Vánoétaneoo and to the Southern Arapaho as Nomsennat or Nomseneo. The Arapaho recognize among themselves five main divisions, each speaking a different dialect and apparently representing as many originally distinct, through much of Arapaho history, each tribal-nation maintained a separate ethnic identity, although they occasionally came together and acted as political allies. Each spoke mutually intelligible dialects, but there existed a degree of difference from Arapaho proper, the Haaninin and Hinonoeino were closely related.
Arapaho elders claimed that the Hánahawuuena dialect was the most difficult to comprehend of all the dialects, Hánahawuuena, Hananaxawuunenan or Aanûnhawa, occupying territory adjacent to, but further north of the Nanwacinahaana, spoke the now extinct Haanahawunena dialect. Hinonoeino or Hinanaeinan, they spoke the Arapaho language Beesowuunenno, Baasanwuunenan or Bäsawunena and their war parties used temporary brush shelters like the dome-shaped shade or Sweat lodge of the Great Lakes Algonquian peoples. They are said to have left their old homes more recently than the other Arapaho tribes, before their historic geo-political ethnogensis, each tribal-nation had a principal headman. The exact date of the fusion or fission of each social division is not known. Both sacred objects traditionally were kept by the Beesowuunenno, the different tribal-nations lived together and the Beesowuunenno have dispersed for at least 150 years among the former distinct Arapaho tribal groups. They keep the sacred tribal articles, and are considered the nucleus or mother tribe of the Arapaho and they absorbed the historic Hánahawuuena and Beesowuunenno.
There are still about 50 people of Beesowuunenno-lineage among the Northern Arapaho, Southern Arapaho, Náwunena or Noowunenno, are called by the Northern Arapaho Nawathineha, the Kiowa know them as Ähayädal, the name for the wild plum
In the Navajo culture the pictographs are credited to people who lived before the flood. The Fremont River itself is named for John Charles Frémont, an American explorer and it inhabited sites in what is now Utah and parts of Nevada and Colorado from AD1 to 1300. It was adjacent to, roughly contemporaneous with, but distinctly different from the Ancestral Pueblo peoples located to their south, Fremont Indian State Park in the Clear Creek Canyon area in south-central Utah contains the biggest Fremont culture site in Utah. Thousand-year-old pit houses and other Fremont artifacts were discovered at Range Creek, nearby Nine Mile Canyon has long been known for its large collection of Fremont rock art. Other sites are found in The San Rafael Swell, Capitol Reef National Park, Dinosaur National Monument, Zion National Park, Fremont culture people foraged wild food sources and grew corn. The culture participated in a continuum of fairly reliable subsistence strategies that no doubt varied from place to place, other unifying characteristics include the manufacture of relatively expedient gray ware pottery and a signature style of basketry and rock art.
Most of the Fremont lived in single and extended family units comprising villages ranging from two to a dozen pithouse structures, with only a few having been occupied at any one time. The Fremont are sometimes thought to have begun as a group of the Ancestral Pueblo people. According to archaelogist Dean Snow, Fremont people generally wore moccasins like their Great Basin ancestors rather than sandals like the Ancestral Puebloans and they were part-time farmers who lived in scattered semi-sedentary farmsteads and small villages, never entirely giving up traditional hunting and gathering for more risky full-time farming. Snow notes that Fremont culture declined due to changing climate conditions c.950 CE, the culture moved to the then-marshy areas of northwestern Utah, which sustained them for about 400 years. Traces of Fremont and Rock Art in Ancient Utah, text by Steven R. Simms, photographs by Francois Gohier. ISBN 978-1-60781-011-7 Snow, Dean R. Archaeology of Native North America, video on Fremont culture- Scientific American Frontiers
Cynthia Irwin-Williams was an archaeologist of the prehistoric American Southwest. She received a B. A. in Anthropology from Radcliffe College in 1957, in 1963 she completed her educational career in Anthropology with a PhD. from Harvard University. Beginning her career in the 1950s, Irwin-Williams was considered a ground-breaker in the field for women, like her friend. She worked with her brother, Henry Irwin, a fellow archaeologist, in 1966 Irwin-Williams and her brother published a book of her findings from the Magic Mountain Site excavation performed for the Peabody Museum of Harvard University in 1959-1960. They worked on the nearby and related LoDaisKa Site between 1958-1960, in the 1960s she defined the Picosa culture, an Archaic culture of people from three locations with interconnected artifacts and lifestyles. It was named by Irwin-Williams for those areas, Pinto Basin, Cochise Tradition and San Jose, Irwin-Williams developed the sequence of Archaic culture for the Oshara Tradition, which followed the Picosa culture, during her work in the Arroyo Cuervo area of northwestern New Mexico.
Irwin contended that the Ancient Pueblo People, or Anasazi, developed, at least in part, in 1962, Irwin-Williams led the team that first excavated the Hueyatlaco site in Mexico. The site became mired in controversy about the age of human habitation in the site, Cynthia Irwin-Williams was born April 14,1936 in Denver, Colorado. After a long illness, Irwin-Williams died on June 15,1990 in Reno. Irwin, Henry J. Irwin, Cynthia C, excavations at Magic Mountain, A Diachronic Study of Plains-Southwest Relations. Denver Museum of Natural History Proceedings Number 12, Irwin-Williams, and C. Vance Haynes, Jr. Climatic Change and Early Population Dynamics in the Southwestern United States. The Oshara Tradition, Origins of Anasazi Culture, Eastern New Mexico University Contributions in Anthropology. 5 Portales, Eastern New Mexico University Paleo-Indian Institute, post-Pleistocene Archaeology, 7000-2000 B. C. in Handbook of North American Indians. Investigations at the Salmon Site, The Structure of Chacoan Society in the Northern Southwest, Eastern New Mexico University Publications in Anthropology.
Irwin-Williams, Baker, Larry L. Baker, Anasazi Puebloan Adaptation in Response to Climatic Stress, Prehistory of the Middle Rio Puerco Valley. On file, Bureau of Land Management, Albuquerque, NM
The City of Durango is the county seat and the most populous municipality of La Plata County, United States. It is home to Fort Lewis College, the United States Census Bureau reported a population of 16,887 in the 2010 census. The city is a Home Rule Municipality, the town was organized in September 1880 to serve the San Juan mining district. The Denver and Rio Grande Railroad chose the site on the Animas River for its depot following a brief and most likely perfunctory negotiation with Animas City, according to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 6.8 square miles. According to the Köppen climate classification system, Durango has a warm-summer, the average annual precipitation is 19.33 in. As of the 2000 census, there were 13,922 people,5,492 households, the population density was 2,052.4 people per square mile. There were 5,819 housing units at a density of 857.8 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 86. 84% White. 5% African American,5. 51% Native American,0.
74% Asian,0. 11% Pacific Islander,4. 12% from other races, and 2. 17% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 10. 31% of the population,31. 8% of all households were made up of individuals and 9. 0% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.23 and the family size was 2.83. In the city,16. 6% of residents are under the age of 18,26. 1% from 18 to 24,27. 2% from 25 to 44,19. 4% from 45 to 64, the median age is 29 years. For every 100 females there are 104.1 males, for every 100 females age 18 and over, there are 103.8 males. The median income for a household in the city is $34,892, males have a median income of $31,812 versus $25,022 for females. The per capita income for the city is $19,352,17. 2% of the population and 7. 3% of families live below the poverty line. 11. 2% of those younger than 18 and 8. 9% of those 65, Durango is nestled in the Animas River Valley surrounded by the San Juan Mountains. The Animas River—El Río de las Animas —runs through downtown and boasts gold medal fly fishing waters, Durango is popular for outdoor activities like hiking, mountain biking, road biking, slacklining, rock climbing, off-roading, year-round fishing, and golfing.
Durango is near five major ski areas, including Purgatory, formerly known as Durango Mountain Resort, the city is located thirty-five miles east of Mesa Verde National Park, a UNESCO World Heritage Site best known for its Ancestral Puebloans cliff dwellings. The annual Durango Ragtime & Early Jazz Festival features noted musicians from around the country and it is held in the Strater Hotel, a historic Victorian hotel in Durango
In the classification of Archaeological cultures of North America, the term Plainview points refer to Paleoindian projectile points dated between 10, 000–9,000 Before Present. At least twenty-eight specimens were recovered from this location, which was the site of a Bison antiquus kill, however this approach was rejected and revised leading to new projectile point classifications. The Golondrina point was one of these types mistakenly named as Plainview, Plainview is described as having parallel or convex sides with a concave base. It is considered to be a Plano point, Plainview complex, distinguished by the Plainview point, is similar to the Goshen complex. Due to the diversity of points found at the site in Plainview, the complex has been widely interpreted, and may be grouped with Agate Basin, Golondrina. Plainview kill and butchering sites are found in New Mexico, Nebraska and Texas