Edward Robinson (scholar)
Edward Robinson was an American biblical scholar. He studied in the United States and Germany, a center of biblical scholarship and exploration of the Bible as history, he translated scriptural works from classical languages, as well as German translations. His Greek and English Lexicon of the New Testament became a standard authority in the United States, was reprinted several times in Great Britain, his magnum opus, Biblical Researches in Palestine, the first major work in Biblical Geography and Biblical Archaeology and conducted in the Ottoman-ruled Palestine region in the late 1830s and 1850s, earned him the epithets "Father of Biblical Geography" and "Founder of Modern Palestinology." Robinson was born in Southington and raised on a farm. His father was a minister in the Congregational Church of the town for four decades; the younger Robinson taught at schools in East Haven and Farmington in 1810–11 to earn money for college. He attended Hamilton College, in Clinton, New York, where his maternal uncle, Seth Norton, was a professor.
He graduated in 1816. In 1821 he went to Andover, where he published his translation of books i–ix, xviii and xix of the Iliad. There he aided Moses Stuart in the preparation of the second edition of the latter's Hebrew Grammar, he translated into English Wahl's Clavis Philologica Novi Testamenti. Robinson went to Europe to study ancient languages in Halle and Berlin. While in Halle, in 1828 he married the German writer Therese Albertine Luise. After the couple returned to the United States, Robinson was appointed professor extraordinary of sacred literature at Andover Theological Seminary. Robinson founded the Biblical Repository, he established the Bibliotheca Sacra, into, merged the Biblical Repository. He spent three years in Boston working on a lexicon of scriptural Greek. Illness caused him to move to New York City, he was appointed as professor of biblical literature at Union Theological Seminary, serving from 1837 until his death. In 1836 Robinson published both a translation of Wilhelm Gesenius' Hebrew Lexicon and a Greek New Testament Lexicon.
Robinson traveled to Palestine in 1838 in the company of Rev. Eli Smith, he published Biblical Researches in Palestine in 1841, for which he was awarded the Gold Medal of the Royal Geographical Society in 1842. He was elected a Fellow of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences in 1847. Robinson, together with Smith, made scores of identifications of ancient places referred to the Bible, his work established his enduring reputation as a "Founder" of Biblical archeology, influenced much of future archaeological field work. Examples of his finds in Jerusalem include the Siloam tunnel and Robinson's Arch in the Old City; the two men returned to Ottoman Palestine in 1852 for further investigations. In 1856 the enlarged edition of Biblical Researches was published in English and German. Among those who acknowledged Robinson’s stature, in 1941 G. Ernest Wright, reviewing the pioneering survey contained in Nelson Glueck's The Other Side of the Jordan, makes a just comparison and fitting testimonial: "Glueck's explorations are second to none, unless it is those of Edward Robinson."
Dictionary of the Holy Bible for the Use of Schools and Young Persons Greek and English Lexicon of the New Testament, based on the Clavis Philologica Novi Testamenti of Christian A. Wahl; this work superseded his translation of Wahl's work, becoming a standard authority in the United States. It was several times reprinted in Great Britain. Biblical Researches in Palestine and Adjacent Countries Greek Harmony of the Gospels English Harmony of the Gospels Memoir of Rev. William Robinson, with some Account of his Ancestors in this Country This is a sketch of his father, who for 41 years was pastor of the Congregational church in Southington, Connecticut. Physical Geography of the Holy Land; this is a supplement to his Biblical Researches, was edited by Mrs. Robinson after his death. Revised editions of the Greek and English Harmonies, edited by Matthew B. Riddle, were published in 1885 and 1886 after Robinson's death. Robinson edited and translated: Philipp Karl Buttmann, Greek Grammar Georg Benedikt Winer, Grammar of New Testament Greek, with Moses Stuart Christian Abraham Wahl, Clavis Philologica Novi Testamenti Wilhelm Gesenius, Hebrew Lexicon of the Old Testament, including the Biblical Chaldee He revised: Augustine Calmet, Dictionary of the Bible R. D. Hitchcock, The Life and Character of Edward Robinson "The Development of Palestine Exploration: Being the Ely Lectures for 1903", Frederick Jones Bliss.
Lecture V "Edward Robinson" pp. 184 ff. A Centennial Symposium on Edward Robinson: The Critical Faculty of Edward Robinson by W. F. Stinespring Journal of Biblical Literature, Vol. 58, No. 4. Pp. 379–387 Williams, Jay G. The Times and Life of Edward Robinson: Connecticut Yankee in King Solomons Court. Atlanta: Society of Biblical Literature, 1999. Yehoshua Ben-Arieh, The Rediscovery of the Holy Land in the Nineteenth Century, Magnes Press/Hebrew University/Wayne State University Press, 1979 Renaud Soler, Edward Robinson et l'émergence de l'archéologue biblique, Geuthner, 2014 Works by Edward Robinson at
Mihrab is a semicircular niche in the wall of a mosque that indicates the qibla. The wall in which a mihrab appears is thus the "qibla wall". Mihrab should not be confused with the minbar, the raised platform from which an Imam addresses the congregation; the mihrab is located to the left of the minbar. The word is derived from Iranian mythology; the word mihrab had a non-religious meaning and denoted a special room in a house. The Fath al-Bari, on the authority of others, suggests the mihrab is "the most honorable location of kings" and "the master of locations, the front and the most honorable." The Mosques in Islam, in addition to Arabic sources, cites Theodor Nöldeke and others as having considered a mihrab to have signified a throne room. The term was subsequently used by the Islamic prophet Muhammad to denote his own private prayer room; the room additionally provided access to the adjacent mosque, the Prophet would enter the mosque through this room. This original meaning of mihrab – i.e. as a special room in the house – continues to be preserved in some forms of Judaism where mihrabs are rooms used for private worship.
In the Qur'an, the word mihrab refers to a sanctuary/place of worship. During the reign of Uthman ibn Affan, the Caliph ordered a sign to be posted on the wall of the mosque at Medina so that pilgrims could identify the direction in which to address their prayers; the sign was however just a sign on the wall, the wall itself remained flat. Subsequently, during the reign of Al-Walid ibn Abd al-Malik, Al-Masjid al-Nabawi was renovated and the governor of Medina, Umar ibn AbdulAziz, ordered that a niche be made to designate the qibla wall, it was in this niche that Uthman's sign was placed; the niche came to be universally understood to identify the qibla wall, so came to be adopted as a feature in other mosques. A sign was no longer necessary; the Qur'anic passage that refers to a mihrab – "then he came forth to his people from the sanctuary/place of worship" – is inscribed on or over some mihrabs. Today, Mihrabs vary in size, are ornately decorated and designed to give the impression of an arched doorway or a passage to Mecca.
In exceptional cases, the mihrab does not follow the qibla direction. One example is the Mezquita of Spain that points south instead of southeast. Among the proposed explanations, there is the localization of the ancient Roman cardo street besides the old temple the Mezquita was built upon. Another is the Mosque of the Two Qiblas; this is where the Prophet Muhammad received the command to change the direction of prayer from Jerusalem to Mecca, thus has two prayer niches. In the 21st Century the mosque was renovated, the old prayer niche facing Jerusalem was removed, the one facing Mecca was left. Exedra Diez, Ernst, "Mihrāb", Encyclopaedia of Islam, 3, Leiden: Brill, pp. 559–565. Fehérvári, Geza, "Mihrāb", Encyclopaedia of Islam, New edition, 7, Leiden: Brill, pp. 7–15
The Ayyubid dynasty was a Muslim dynasty of Kurdish origin founded by Saladin and centred in Egypt. The dynasty ruled large parts of the Middle East during the 13th centuries. Saladin had risen to vizier of Fatimid Egypt in 1169, before abolishing the Fatimids in 1171. Three years he was proclaimed sultan following the death of his former master, the Zengid ruler Nur al-Din. For the next decade, the Ayyubids launched conquests throughout the region and by 1183, their domains encompassed Egypt, Upper Mesopotamia, the Hejaz and the North African coast up to the borders of modern-day Tunisia. Most of the Crusader states including the Kingdom of Jerusalem fell to Saladin after his victory at the Battle of Hattin in 1187. However, the Crusaders regained control of Palestine's coastline in the 1190s. After Saladin's death in 1193, his sons contested control of the sultanate, but Saladin's brother al-Adil became the paramount sultan in 1200. All of the Ayyubid sultans of Egypt were his descendants. In the 1230s, the emirs of Syria attempted to assert their independence from Egypt and the Ayyubid realm remained divided until Sultan as-Salih Ayyub restored its unity by conquering most of Syria, except Aleppo, by 1247.
By local Muslim dynasties had driven out the Ayyubids from Yemen, the Hejaz and parts of Mesopotamia. After his death in 1249, as-Salih Ayyub was succeeded in Egypt by al-Mu'azzam Turanshah. However, the latter was soon overthrown by his Mamluk generals who had repelled a Crusader invasion of the Nile Delta; this ended Ayyubid power in Egypt. In 1260, the Mongols conquered the Ayyubids' remaining territories soon after; the Mamluks, who expelled the Mongols, maintained the Ayyubid principality of Hama until deposing its last ruler in 1341. During their short tenure, the Ayyubids ushered in an era of economic prosperity in the lands they ruled, the facilities and patronage provided by the Ayyubids led to a resurgence in intellectual activity in the Islamic world; this period was marked by an Ayyubid process of vigorously strengthening Sunni Muslim dominance in the region by constructing numerous madrasas in their major cities. The progenitor of the Ayyubid dynasty, Najm ad-Din Ayyub ibn Shadhi, belonged to the Kurdish Rawadiya tribe, itself a branch of the Hadhabani confederation.
Ayyub's ancestors settled in northern Armenia. The Rawadiya were the dominant Kurdish group in the Dvin district, forming part of the political-military elite of the town. Circumstances became unfavorable in Dvin when Turkish generals seized the town from its Kurdish prince. Shadhi left with Asad ad-Din Shirkuh, his friend Mujahid ad-Din Bihruz—the military governor of northern Mesopotamia under the Seljuks—welcomed him and appointed him governor of Tikrit. After Shadhi's death, Ayyub succeeded him in governance of the city with the assistance of his brother Shirkuh. Together they managed the affairs of the city well, gaining them popularity from the local inhabitants. In the meantime, Imad ad-Din Zangi, the ruler of Mosul, was defeated by the Abbasids under Caliph al-Mustarshid and Bihruz. In his bid to escape the battlefield to Mosul via Tikrit, Zangi took shelter with Ayyub and sought his assistance in this task. Ayyub complied and provided Zangi and his companions boats to cross the Tigris River and safely reach Mosul.
As a consequence for assisting Zangi, the Abbasid authorities sought punitive measures against Ayyub. In a separate incident, Shirkuh killed a close confidant of Bihruz on charges that he had sexually assaulted a woman in Tikrit; the Abbasid court issued arrest warrants for both Ayyub and Shirkuh, but before the brothers could be arrested, they departed Tikrit for Mosul in 1138. When they arrived in Mosul, Zangi provided them with all the facilities they needed and he recruited the two brothers into his service. Ayyub was made commander of Shirkuh entered the service of Zangi's son, Nur ad-Din. According to historian Abdul Ali, it was under the care and patronage of Zangi that the Ayyubid family rose to prominence. In 1164, Nur al-Din dispatched Shirkuh to lead an expeditionary force to prevent the Crusaders from establishing a strong presence in an anarchic Egypt. Shirkuh enlisted Saladin, as an officer under his command, they drove out Dirgham, the vizier of Egypt, reinstated his predecessor Shawar.
After being reinstated, Shawar ordered Shirkuh to withdraw his forces from Egypt, but Shirkuh refused, claiming it was Nur al-Din's will that he remain. Over the course of several years and Saladin defeated the combined forces of the Crusaders and Shawar's troops, first at Bilbais at a site near Giza, in Alexandria, where Saladin would stay to protect while Shirkuh pursued Crusader forces in Lower Egypt. Shawar died in 1169 and Shirkuh became vizier, but he too died that year. After Shirkuh's death, Saladin was appointed vizier by the Fatimid caliph al-Adid because there was "no one weaker or younger" than Saladin, "not one of the emirs obeyed him or served him", according to medieval Muslim chronicler Ibn al-Athir. Saladin soon found himself more independent than before in his career, much to the dismay of Nur al-Din who attempted to influence events in Egypt, he permitted Saladin's elder brother, Turan-Shah, to supervise Saladin in a bid to cause dissension within the Ayyubid family and thus undermining its position in Egypt.
Nur al-Din satisfied Saladin's request. However, Ayyub was sent to ensure th
Society of Jesus
The Society of Jesus is a scholarly religious congregation of the Catholic Church for men founded by Ignatius of Loyola and approved by Pope Paul III. The members are called Jesuits; the society is engaged in evangelization and apostolic ministry in 112 nations. Jesuits work in education, intellectual research, cultural pursuits. Jesuits give retreats, minister in hospitals and parishes, sponsor direct social ministries, promote ecumenical dialogue. Saint Ignatius of Loyola, a Basque nobleman from the Pyrenees area of northern Spain, founded the society after discerning his spiritual vocation while recovering from a wound sustained in the Battle of Pamplona, he composed the Spiritual Exercises to help others follow the teachings of Jesus Christ. In 1534, Ignatius and six other young men, including Francis Xavier and Peter Faber and professed vows of poverty and obedience, including a special vow of obedience to the Pope in matters of mission direction and assignment. Ignatius's plan of the order's organization was approved by Pope Paul III in 1540 by a bull containing the "Formula of the Institute".
Ignatius was a nobleman who had a military background, the members of the society were supposed to accept orders anywhere in the world, where they might be required to live in extreme conditions. Accordingly, the opening lines of the founding document declared that the society was founded for "whoever desires to serve as a soldier of God to strive for the defence and propagation of the faith and for the progress of souls in Christian life and doctrine." Jesuits are thus sometimes referred to colloquially as "God's soldiers", "God's marines", or "the Company", which evolved from references to Ignatius' history as a soldier and the society's commitment to accepting orders anywhere and to endure any conditions. The society participated in the Counter-Reformation and in the implementation of the Second Vatican Council; the Society of Jesus is consecrated under the patronage of Madonna Della Strada, a title of the Blessed Virgin Mary, it is led by a Superior General. The headquarters of the society, its General Curia, is in Rome.
The historic curia of Ignatius is now part of the Collegio del Gesù attached to the Church of the Gesù, the Jesuit mother church. In 2013, Jorge Mario Bergoglio became the first Jesuit to be elected Pope, taking the name Pope Francis; as of 2012, the Jesuits formed the largest single religious order of priests and brothers in the Catholic Church. The Jesuits have experienced a decline in numbers in recent decades; as of 2017 the society had 16,088 members, 11,583 priests and 4,505 Jesuits in formation, which includes brothers and scholastics. This represents a 42.6 percent decline since 1977, when the society had a total membership of 28,038, of which 20,205 were priests. This decline is most pronounced in Europe and the Americas, with modest membership gains occurring in Asia and Africa. There seems to be no "Pope Francis effect" in counteracting the fall of vocations among the Jesuits; the society is divided into 83 provinces along with six independent regions and ten dependent regions. On 1 January 2007, members served in 112 nations on six continents with the largest number in India and the US.
Their average age was 57.3 years: 63.4 years for priests, 29.9 years for scholastics, 65.5 years for brothers. The current Superior General of the Jesuits is Arturo Sosa; the society is characterized by its ministries in the fields of missionary work, human rights, social justice and, most notably, higher education. It operates colleges and universities in various countries around the world and is active in the Philippines and India. In the United States the Jesuits have historical ties to 28 colleges and universities and 61 high schools; the degree to which the Jesuits are involved in the administration of each institution varies. As of September 2018, 15 of the 28 Jesuit universities in the US had non-Jesuit lay presidents. According to a 2014 article in The Atlantic, "the number of Jesuit priests who are active in everyday operations at the schools isn’t nearly as high as it once was". Worldwide it runs 172 colleges and universities. A typical conception of the mission of a Jesuit school will contain such concepts as proposing Christ as the model of human life, the pursuit of excellence in teaching and learning, lifelong spiritual and intellectual growth, training men and women for others.
Ignatius laid out his original vision for the new order in the "Formula of the Institute of the Society of Jesus", "the fundamental charter of the order, of which all subsequent official documents were elaborations and to which they had to conform." He ensured that his formula was contained in two papal bulls signed by Pope Paul III in 1540 and by Pope Julius III in 1550. The formula expressed the nature, community life, apostolate of the new religious order, its famous opening statement echoed Ignatius' military background: Whoever desires to serve as a soldier of God beneath the banner of the Cross in our Society, which we desire to be designated by the Name of Jesus, to serve the Lord alone and the Church, his spouse, under the Roman Pontiff, the Vicar of Christ on earth, after a solemn vow of perpetual chastity and obedience, keep what follows in mind. He is a member of a Society founded chiefly for this purpose: to strive for the defence and propagation of the faith and for the progress of souls in Christian life and doctrine, by means of public preaching and any other ministration whatsoever of the Word of God, further by means of ret
History of ancient Lebanon
The history of ancient Lebanon traces the course of events in what is now known as Lebanon from the beginning of history to the beginning of Arab rule. The earliest known settlements in Lebanon date back to earlier than 5000 BC. In Byblos, considered to be the oldest continuously inhabited city in the world, archaeologists have discovered remnants of prehistoric huts with crushed limestone floors, primitive weapons, burial jars which are evidence of the Neolithic and Chalcolithic fishing communities who lived on the shore of the Mediterranean Sea over 8,000 years ago; the area now known as Lebanon first appeared in recorded history around 4000 BC as a group of coastal cities and a forested hinterland. It was inhabited by the Canaanites, a Semitic people, whom the Greeks called "Phoenicians" because of the purple dye they sold; these early inhabitants referred to themselves as "men of Sidon" or the like, according to their city of origin, called the country "Lebanon." Because of the nature of the country and its location, the Phoenicians turned to the sea, where they engaged in trade and navigation.
Each of the coastal cities was an independent kingdom noted for the special activities of its inhabitants. Tyre and Sidon were important trade centers. Gubla was the first Phoenician city to trade with Egypt and the pharaohs of the Old Kingdom, exporting cedar, olive oil, wine, while importing gold and other products from the Nile Valley. Before the end of the 17th century BC, Lebanese-Egyptian relations were interrupted when the Hyksos, a nomadic Semitic people, conquered Egypt. After about three decades of Hyksos rule, Ahmose I, Theban prince, launched the Egyptian liberation war. Opposition to the Hyksos increased, reaching a peak during the reign of the pharaoh Thutmose III, who invaded Syria, put an end to Hyksos domination, incorporated Lebanon into the Egyptian Empire. Toward the end of the 14th century BC, the Egyptian Empire weakened, Lebanon was able to regain its independence by the beginning of the 12th century BC; the subsequent three centuries were a period of prosperity and freedom from foreign control during which the earlier Phoenician invention of the alphabet facilitated communications and trade.
The Phoenicians excelled not only in producing textiles but in carving ivory, in working with metal, above all in making glass. Masters of the art of navigation, they founded colonies wherever they went in the Mediterranean Sea and established trade routes to Europe and western Asia; these colonies and trade routes flourished until the invasion of the coastal areas by the Assyrians. Assyrian rule deprived the Phoenician cities of their independence and prosperity and brought repeated, unsuccessful rebellions. In the middle of the 8th century BC, Tyre and Byblos rebelled, but the Assyrian ruler, Tiglath-Pileser III, subdued the rebels and imposed heavy tributes. Oppression continued unabated, Tyre rebelled again, this time against Sargon II, who besieged the city in 721 BC and punished its population. During the 7th century BC, Sidon rebelled and was destroyed by Esarhaddon. Esarhaddon built a new city on Sidon's ruins. By the end of the 7th century BC, the Assyrian Empire, weakened by the successive revolts, had been destroyed by the Median Empire.
As the Babylonians defeated the Assyrians at Carchemish, much of Lebanon was in their hands, since much of it was seized from the collapsing Assyrian kingdom. In that time two Babylonian kings succeeded the throne, Nabopolassar who focused on ending Assyrian influence in the region, his son Nebuchadnezzar II whose reign witnessed several regional rebellions in Jerusalem. Revolts in Phoenician cities became more frequent during that period (685-636 BC, Tyre rebelled again and for thirteen years resisted a siege by the troops of Nebuchadnezzar 587-574 BC. After this long siege, the city capitulated; the Babylonian province of Phoenicia and its neighbors passed to Achaemenid rule with the conquest of Babylon by Cyrus the Great in 539/8 BC. The Syro-Phoenician coastal cities remained under Persian rule for the following two centuries; the Phoenician navy supported Persia during the Greco-Persian War. But when the Phoenicians were overburdened with heavy tributes imposed by the successors of Darius I, revolts and rebellions resumed in the Lebanese coastal cities.
The Persian Empire, including the Phoenician province fell to Alexander the Great, king of Macedonia in 4th century BC. Main rulers under the Achaemenid Empire: Eshmunazar II Tabnit Baalshillem II Abdashtart I Tennes The Persian Empire fell to Alexander the Great, king of Macedon, he attacked Asia Minor, defeated the Persian troops in 333 BC, advanced toward the Lebanese coast. The Phoenician cities made no attempt to resist, they recognized his suzerainty. However, when Alexander tried to offer a sacrifice to Melqart, Tyre's god, the city resisted. Alexander besieged Tyre in retaliation in early 332 BC. After six months of resistance, the city fell, its people were sold into slavery. Despite his early death in 323 BC, Alexander's conquest of the eastern Mediterranean Basin left a Greek imprint on the area; the Phoenicians, being a cosmopolitan people amenable to outside influences, adopted aspects of Greek civilization with ease. After Alexander's death, his empire was divided among his Macedonian generals.
The eastern pa
Shepherd Neolithic is a name given by archaeologists to a style of small flint tools from the Hermel plains in the north Beqaa Valley, Lebanon. The Shepherd Neolithic industry has been insufficiently studied and was provisionally named based on a limited typology collected by Jesuit archaeologist "Père" Henri Fleisch. Lorraine Copeland and Peter J. Wescombe suggested it was "of quite late date". Shepherd Neolithic material can be found dispersed over a wide area of the north Beqaa Valley in low concentrations. M. Billaux and Henri Fleisch suggested that the flints were of a higher quality than the brittle flint in the nearby conglomerates indicating origin from elsewhere. Three groups of flint could be determined. Characteristics of the industry include smallness in size between 2.5 cm and 4 cm and being quite thick, unlike geometric microliths. The small number of tools within the assemblage is another distinguishable characteristic, including short denticulated or notched blades, end scrapers, transverse racloirs on thin flakes and borers with strong points.
They display a lack of recognizable typology although Levallois technique was observed to have been used. They show signs of having been worked with cores being re-used and turned into scrapers. Fleisch suggested the industry was Epipaleolithic as it is evidently not Paleolithic, Mesolithic or Pottery Neolithic, he further suggested. The relationship and dividing line between the related Heavy Neolithic zone of the south Beqaa Valley could not be defined but was suggested to be in the area around Douris and Qalaat Tannour. Not enough exploration had been carried out to conclude whether the bands of Neolithic surface sites continues south into the areas around Zahle and Rayak; the type sites of the Shepherd Neolithic are at Qaa and Maqne I, with other sites with Shepherd Neolithic finds include Douris, Hermel II, Hermel III, Kamouh el Hermel, Qalaat Tannour, Wadi Boura I and at Rayak North, Riha Station and Serain
Shmustar spelled Shmistar or Chmistar is a Lebanese town located in Baalbek-Hermel Governorate, Lebanon between Baalbeck and Zahleh, on the eastern slope of Mount Sannine. It overlooks the Bekaa Valley from an altitude of 1,250 metres above sea level; the town is 21 km from Baalbek. Chmestar Municipality Chmestar Municipality, Localiban