Ian Richard Swingland is a British conservationist, convicted in 2017 of conspiring to commit fraud by false representation. He founded DICE at the University of Kent in 1989, recognised as one of the first interdisciplinary research and postgraduate training institutes in the world concentrating on biodiversity and sustainable development. While at DICE he served as director and was elected to the first chair in Conservation Biology in the United Kingdom. Swingland is the only child of Flora Mary, recruited by Special Operations Executive before working as a senior lecturer in the Polytechnic of Central London, Hugh Maurice Webb Swingland, an electrical engineer who rose to the rank of Director, MoD Procurement Executive after serving in the Royal Navy North Sea minesweepers during World War II. Swingland was educated at Haberdashers' Aske's Boys' School, followed by London and Oxford Universities. At London University, he read zoology and social anthropology and published his first scientific paper on the location of memory in a vertebrate in Nature in 1969 while an undergraduate.
After working for Shell Research International for a short time, he took a PhD in ecology in the Forestry and Natural Resources Department at Edinburgh University on a Department for International Development Scholarship and subsequently worked as a research and management biologist in the Kafue National Park, Zambia for the Government. In 1974, Swingland joined Oxford University Zoology Department for five years to work on the giant tortoises of Aldabra Atoll, western Indian Ocean, he has been, or is, a visiting professor at the University of Michigan, University of Florence, University of Auckland, Manchester Metropolitan University and Beijing Forestry University and has worked as a research mathematician for Royal Dutch Shell at Sittingbourne, in Kent, England. In 1979 he was appointed to the University of Kent to create their Natural Science Continuing Education programme and ten years founded DICE, The Durrell Institute of Conservation and Ecology, a multi-disciplinary research and postgraduate conservation training institute.
The name was chosen in recognition of Swingland’s friend, Gerald Durrell, his commitment to conservation. Swingland retired from the University in 1999 but serves as Professor Emeritus, as Patron of the Durrell Trust for Conservation Biology which raises grants and endowments for DICE so that it can expand its mission. Swingland founded the Herpetological Conservation Trust in 1989, an international NGO and the international journal Biodiversity and Conservation in 1992, the first multidisciplinary journal in biodiversity management and sustainable development, he co-founded a number of companies which apply business and market approaches to benefiting conservation and people on an integrated and ethical basis and co-founded, with Neil Wates and Sir Colin Spedding, the think-tank RURAL in 1980. One of these companies, Sustainable Forestry Management Limited, was incorporated in Bermuda in October 1999 and liquidated in 2011. Swingland was a draftsman of part of the Convention on Biological Diversity concerning fair and equitable sharing of benefits and was asked by Sir Peter Scott to create the IUCN/SSC Tortoise Specialist Group in 1981, now the Tortoise and Freshwater Turtle Specialist Group.
He directed the First World Congress of Herpetology 1989. He is a co-founder and former chair of the Rural Regeneration Unit, a social enterprise dedicated to self-help projects and a substantial food co-operative, the Durrell Trust for Conservation Biology, the trust dedicated to supporting DICE, he has served on the RSPCA Council 1990-1995 and as chair of its Wildlife Committee 1985-1990, as well as delivering their 150th Anniversary Lecture. Since 1985 he has served at various times on the Council of Fauna & Flora International and has been the longest standing board member to the Darwin Initiative, which funds multi-sectoral international projects in biodiversity management for the UK government, he was chair of the Apple and Pear Research Council from 1997, now part of the Agriculture and Horticulture Development Board since 2003, is a benefactor of Victoria University of Wellington, New Zealand and Ambassador to the Galapagos Conservation Trust. He supported the founding of Great Oaks Small School, Sandwich which specialises in those who have difficulty in benefiting from conventional mainstream education.
Swingland was invited by the Swedish Research Council for Environment, Agricultural Sciences and Spatial Planning and Swedish Research Council Vetenskapsrådet to evaluate their biodiversity and Linnaeus research programmes throughout the country. Swingland has been an advisor on conservation and biodiversity management to the World Bank, the Global Environment Facility, the Asian Development Bank, the UK Government, has been employed as a research and management biologist in the Kafue National Park, helping to write the management plan. Swingland has been involved with the Iwokrama International Centre for Rain Forest Conservation and Development, the largest biodiversity project belonging to the Commonwealth and was appointed Chairman of the International Board of Trustees by the president of Guyana and the Secretary General of the Commonwealth Secretariat under the patronage of HRH The Prince of Wales, he advised China on integrated ecosystem
Conservation biology is the management of nature and of Earth's biodiversity with the aim of protecting species, their habitats, ecosystems from excessive rates of extinction and the erosion of biotic interactions. It is an interdisciplinary subject drawing on natural and social sciences, the practice of natural resource management; the conservation ethic is based on the findings of conservation biology. The term conservation biology and its conception as a new field originated with the convening of "The First International Conference on Research in Conservation Biology" held at the University of California, San Diego in La Jolla, California in 1978 led by American biologists Bruce A. Wilcox and Michael E. Soulé with a group of leading university and zoo researchers and conservationists including Kurt Benirschke, Sir Otto Frankel, Thomas Lovejoy, Jared Diamond; the meeting was prompted by the concern over tropical deforestation, disappearing species, eroding genetic diversity within species.
The conference and proceedings that resulted sought to initiate the bridging of a gap between theory in ecology and evolutionary genetics on the one hand and conservation policy and practice on the other. Conservation biology and the concept of biological diversity emerged together, helping crystallize the modern era of conservation science and policy; the inherent multidisciplinary basis for conservation biology has led to new subdisciplines including conservation social science, conservation behavior and conservation physiology. It stimulated further development of conservation genetics which Otto Frankel had originated first but is now considered a subdiscipline as well; the rapid decline of established biological systems around the world means that conservation biology is referred to as a "Discipline with a deadline". Conservation biology is tied to ecology in researching the population ecology of rare or endangered species. Conservation biology is concerned with phenomena that affect the maintenance and restoration of biodiversity and the science of sustaining evolutionary processes that engender genetic, population and ecosystem diversity.
The concern stems from estimates suggesting that up to 50% of all species on the planet will disappear within the next 50 years, which has contributed to poverty and will reset the course of evolution on this planet. Conservation biologists research and educate on the trends and process of biodiversity loss, species extinctions, the negative effect these are having on our capabilities to sustain the well-being of human society. Conservation biologists work in the field and office, in government, non-profit organizations and industry; the topics of their research are diverse, because this is an interdisciplinary network with professional alliances in the biological as well as social sciences. Those dedicated to the cause and profession advocate for a global response to the current biodiversity crisis based on morals and scientific reason. Organizations and citizens are responding to the biodiversity crisis through conservation action plans that direct research and education programs that engage concerns at local through global scales.
Conscious efforts to conserve and protect global biodiversity are a recent phenomenon. Natural resource conservation, has a history that extends prior to the age of conservation. Resource ethics grew out of necessity through direct relations with nature. Regulation or communal restraint became necessary to prevent selfish motives from taking more than could be locally sustained, therefore compromising the long-term supply for the rest of the community; this social dilemma with respect to natural resource management is called the "Tragedy of the Commons". From this principle, conservation biologists can trace communal resource based ethics throughout cultures as a solution to communal resource conflict. For example, the Alaskan Tlingit peoples and the Haida of the Pacific Northwest had resource boundaries and restrictions among clans with respect to the fishing of sockeye salmon; these rules were guided by clan elders who knew lifelong details of each river and stream they managed. There are numerous examples in history where cultures have followed rules and organized practice with respect to communal natural resource management.
The Mauryan emperor Ashoka around 250 B. C. issued edicts restricting the slaughter of animals and certain kinds of birds, as well as opened veterinary clinics. Conservation ethics are found in early religious and philosophical writings. There are examples in the Tao, Hindu and Buddhist traditions. In Greek philosophy, Plato lamented about pasture land degradation: "What is left now is, so to say, the skeleton of a body wasted by disease. In the bible, through Moses, God commanded to let the land rest from cultivation every seventh year. Before the 18th century, much of European culture considered it a pagan view to admire nature. Wilderness was denigrated. However, as early as AD 680 a wildlife sanctuary was founded on the Farne Islands by St Cuthbert in response to his religious beliefs. Natural history was a major preoccupation in the 18th century, with grand expeditions and the opening of popular public displays in Europe and North America. By 1900 there were 150 natural history museums in Germany, 250 in Great Britain, 250 in the United States, 300 in France.
Preservationist or conservationist sentiments are a development of the late 18th to early 20th centuries. Before C
Canterbury is a historic English cathedral city and UNESCO World Heritage Site, situated in the heart of the City of Canterbury, a local government district of Kent, England. It lies on the River Stour; the Archbishop of Canterbury is the primate of the Church of England and the worldwide Anglican Communion owing to the importance of St Augustine, who served as the apostle to the pagan Kingdom of Kent around the turn of the 7th century. The city's cathedral became a major focus of pilgrimage following the 1170 martyrdom of Thomas Becket, although it had been a well-trodden pilgrim destination since the murder of St Alphege by the men of King Canute in 1012. A journey of pilgrims to Becket's shrine served as the frame for Geoffrey Chaucer's 14th century classic The Canterbury Tales. Canterbury is a popular tourist destination: one of the most-visited cities in the United Kingdom, the city's economy is reliant upon tourism; the city has been occupied since Paleolithic times and served as the capital of the Celtic Cantiaci and Jute Kingdom of Kent.
Many historical structures fill the area, including a city wall founded in Roman times and rebuilt in the 14th century, the ruins of St Augustine's Abbey and a Norman castle, the oldest extant school in the world, the King's School. Modern additions include the Marlowe Theatre and the St Lawrence Ground, home of the Kent County Cricket Club. There is a substantial student population, brought about by the presence of the University of Kent, Canterbury Christ Church University, the University for the Creative Arts, the Girne American University Canterbury campus. Canterbury remains, however, a small city in terms of geographical size and population, when compared with other British cities; the Roman settlement of Durovernum Cantiacorum occupied the location of an earlier British town whose ancient British name has been reconstructed as *Durou̯ernon, although the name is sometimes supposed to have derived from various British names for the Stour. In Sub-Roman Britain, it was known in Old Welsh as Cair Ceint.
Occupied by the Jutes, it became known in Old English as Cantwareburh, which developed into the present name. The Canterbury area has been inhabited since prehistoric times. Lower Paleolithic axes, Neolithic and Bronze Age pots have been found in the area. Canterbury was first recorded as the main settlement of the Celtic tribe of the Cantiaci, which inhabited most of modern-day Kent. In the 1st century AD, the Romans named it Durovernum Cantiacorum; the Romans rebuilt the city, with new streets in a grid pattern, a theatre, a temple, a forum, public baths. Although they did not maintain a major military garrison, its position on Watling Street relative to the major Kentish ports of Rutupiae and Lemanae gave it considerable strategic importance. In the late 3rd century, to defend against attack from barbarians, the Romans built an earth bank around the city and a wall with seven gates, which enclosed an area of 130 acres. Despite being counted as one of the 28 cities of Sub-Roman Britain, it seems that after the Romans left Britain in 410 Durovernum Cantiacorum was abandoned for around 100 years, except by a few farmers and decayed.
Over the next 100 years, an Anglo-Saxon community formed within the city walls, as Jutish refugees arrived intermarrying with the locals. In 597, Pope Gregory the Great sent Augustine to convert its King Æthelberht to Christianity. After the conversion, being a Roman town, was chosen by Augustine as the centre for his episcopal see in Kent, an abbey and cathedral were built. Augustine thus became the first Archbishop of Canterbury; the town's new importance led to its revival, trades developed in pottery and leather. By 630, gold coins were being struck at the Canterbury mint. In 672, the Synod of Hertford gave. In 842 and 851, Canterbury suffered great loss of life during Danish raids. In 978, Archbishop Dunstan refounded the abbey built by Augustine, named it St Augustine's Abbey; the Siege of Canterbury saw a large Viking army besiege Canterbury in 1011, culminating in the city being pillaged and the eventual murder of Archbishop Alphege in 19 April 1012. Remembering the destruction caused by the Danes, the inhabitants of Canterbury did not resist William the Conqueror's invasion in 1066.
William ordered a wooden motte-and-bailey castle to be built by the Roman city wall. In the early 12th century, the castle was rebuilt with stone. After the murder of Archbishop Thomas Becket at the cathedral in 1170, Canterbury became one of the most notable towns in Europe, as pilgrims from all parts of Christendom came to visit his shrine; this pilgrimage provided the framework for Geoffrey Chaucer's 14th-century collection of stories, The Canterbury Tales. Canterbury Castle was captured by the French Prince Louis during his 1215 invasion of England, before the death of John caused his English supporters to desert his cause and support the young Henry III. Canterbury is associated with several saints from this period who lived in Canterbury: Saint Augustine of Canterbury Saint Anselm of Canterbury Saint Thomas Becket Saint Mellitus Saint Theodore of Tarsus Saint Dunstan Saint Adrian of Canterbury Saint Alphege Saint Æthelberht of Kent The Black Death hit Canterbury in 1348. At 10,000, Canterbury had the 10th largest population in England.
In 1363, during the Hundred Years' War, a Commission of Inquiry found that disrepai
Universities at Medway
The Universities at Medway is a tri-partite collaboration of the University of Greenwich, the University of Kent and Canterbury Christ Church University on a single campus in Chatham, South East England. The historic HMS Pembroke barracks buildings, which form a part of the World Heritage Site application for Chatham Dockyard and its Defences, are the heart of the campus. In 2007, the Pilkington Building and the Drill Hall Library were both joint winners of the Building Renovation category of the Kent Design Awards; the Medway Building at the University of Kent as part of the Universities at Medway campus, was nominated for Best Public Building at the 2010 Kent Design Awards. The following subjects are taught on campus: University of Greenwich School of Science. Universities at Medway home page
Woolf College, Kent
Woolf College is the University of Kent's fifth college and the first new college for 35 years. This college offers 503 en suite bedrooms in flats of 5 to 8 occupants and 41 studio apartments in 9 blocks, all with network connections and access to equipped kitchens. Tenancy at Woolf College for a fixed 51-week contract, managed by UPP. Woolf College is reserved for postgraduate students, it was named after the writer Virginia Woolf and has: 6 seminar rooms 1 lecture theatre 1 reception/foyer 1 social room
Academic dress of the University of Kent
The academic dress of the University of Kent is only worn at graduation ceremonies. In common with most British universities a graduand begins the ceremony wearing the dress of the degree to which they are being admitted; this is in contrast to the practice at some universities such as Oxford where a graduand only dons the dress of a degree after it has been conferred. Graduation ceremonies were held on campus, first in Eliot and in Rutherford dining halls. Since 2003, graduates of the University of Kent's Medway campus have had separate graduation ceremonies at Rochester Cathedral in Medway; the academical costume was believed for some time to have been designed by the Queen's dressmaker Sir Edwin Hardy Amies but further research has disproved this hypothesis. The specifications are as follows: For Bachelors, MPhil graduates a plain black gown is worn. For PhD graduates the gowns have facings of scarlet velvet. For Higher Doctorates the gown is scarlet with scarlet velvet facings and two bands of scarlet velvet on the sleeves.
The Doctor of Civil Law has facings of purple velvet. The Chancellor's gown is elaborately trimmed with gold lace, whilst the Vice-Chancellor's gown is black, adorned with gold lace in an oak leaf pattern; the hoods are a rare shape and represent a rare attempt by a 1960s university to break with the traditional design for academic dress. They are two-dimensional in a heart-shape and contain two colours, with the colour of the bulk of the hood indicating the rank of degree whilst a central panel denotes the faculty; because of the rareness of the hood design it has its own code in the Groves Classification of Academic Dress used by the Burgon Society. The actual title of the award does not make any difference and thus a holder of a Bachelor of Laws will have an identical hood to anyone holding a Bachelor of Arts or Bachelor of Science in a social science. Foundation Degree - Bronze Bachelor's - Silver Undergraduate Master's - Silver Postgraduate Master's - Gold PhD - Cardinal red Higher Doctorates - Scarlet Humanities - Green Social Sciences - Grey Science, Technology & Medical Sciences - Royal blue Affiliated & Associate institutions - Pale blue Doctor of Civil Law - Black Non-degree awards use a different shaped hood of the Aberdeen style made up of one or two colours: Certificates - Navy blue Diplomas - Burgundy Postgraduate awards - Navy blue and Burgundy Edexcel Higher National Diplomas & Higher National Certificates - Bright blue and red All Foundation degree holders and Masters wear a plain black mortarboard.
Doctors wear a plain black cloth Tudor bonnet with a coloured cord and tassel - gold for Doctors of Civil Law and Maroon for all others. The Chancellor wears a bonnet of forest green silk satin damask; the Vice-Chancellor wears a mortarboard with black silk tassel. Shaw, George W. Academical Dress of British and Irish Universities. ISBN 0-85033-974-X Academic Dress of the University of Kent