A personal computer is a multi-purpose computer whose size and price make it feasible for individual use. Personal computers are intended to be operated directly by an end user, rather than by a computer expert or technician. Unlike large costly minicomputer and mainframes, time-sharing by many people at the same time is not used with personal computers. Institutional or corporate computer owners in the 1960s had to write their own programs to do any useful work with the machines. While personal computer users may develop their own applications these systems run commercial software, free-of-charge software or free and open-source software, provided in ready-to-run form. Software for personal computers is developed and distributed independently from the hardware or operating system manufacturers. Many personal computer users no longer need to write their own programs to make any use of a personal computer, although end-user programming is still feasible; this contrasts with mobile systems, where software is only available through a manufacturer-supported channel, end-user program development may be discouraged by lack of support by the manufacturer.
Since the early 1990s, Microsoft operating systems and Intel hardware have dominated much of the personal computer market, first with MS-DOS and with Microsoft Windows. Alternatives to Microsoft's Windows operating systems occupy a minority share of the industry; these include free and open-source Unix-like operating systems such as Linux. Advanced Micro Devices provides the main alternative to Intel's processors; the advent of personal computers and the concurrent Digital Revolution have affected the lives of people in all countries. "PC" is an initialism for "personal computer". The IBM Personal Computer incorporated the designation in its model name, it is sometimes useful to distinguish personal computers of the "IBM Personal Computer" family from personal computers made by other manufacturers. For example, "PC" is used in contrast with "Mac", an Apple Macintosh computer.. Since none of these Apple products were mainframes or time-sharing systems, they were all "personal computers" and not "PC" computers.
The "brain" may one day come down to our level and help with our income-tax and book-keeping calculations. But this is speculation and there is no sign of it so far. In the history of computing, early experimental machines could be operated by a single attendant. For example, ENIAC which became operational in 1946 could be run by a single, albeit trained, person; this mode pre-dated the batch programming, or time-sharing modes with multiple users connected through terminals to mainframe computers. Computers intended for laboratory, instrumentation, or engineering purposes were built, could be operated by one person in an interactive fashion. Examples include such systems as the Bendix G15 and LGP-30of 1956, the Programma 101 introduced in 1964, the Soviet MIR series of computers developed from 1965 to 1969. By the early 1970s, people in academic or research institutions had the opportunity for single-person use of a computer system in interactive mode for extended durations, although these systems would still have been too expensive to be owned by a single person.
In what was to be called the Mother of All Demos, SRI researcher Douglas Engelbart in 1968 gave a preview of what would become the staples of daily working life in the 21st century: e-mail, word processing, video conferencing, the mouse. The demonstration required technical support staff and a mainframe time-sharing computer that were far too costly for individual business use at the time; the development of the microprocessor, with widespread commercial availability starting in the mid 1970's, made computers cheap enough for small businesses and individuals to own. Early personal computers—generally called microcomputers—were sold in a kit form and in limited volumes, were of interest to hobbyists and technicians. Minimal programming was done with toggle switches to enter instructions, output was provided by front panel lamps. Practical use required adding peripherals such as keyboards, computer displays, disk drives, printers. Micral N was the earliest commercial, non-kit microcomputer based on a microprocessor, the Intel 8008.
It was built starting in 1972, few hundred units were sold. This had been preceded by the Datapoint 2200 in 1970, for which the Intel 8008 had been commissioned, though not accepted for use; the CPU design implemented in the Datapoint 2200 became the basis for x86 architecture used in the original IBM PC and its descendants. In 1973, the IBM Los Gatos Scientific Center developed a portable computer prototype called SCAMP based on the IBM PALM processor with a Philips compact cassette drive, small CRT, full function keyboard. SCAMP emulated an IBM 1130 minicomputer in order to run APL/1130. In 1973, APL was available only on mainframe computers, most desktop sized microcomputers such as the Wang 2200 or HP 9800 offered only BASIC; because SCAMP was the first to emulate APL/1130 performance on a portable, single user computer, PC Magazine in 1983 designated SCAMP a "revolutionary concept" and "the world's first personal computer". This seminal, single user portable computer now resides in the Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D.
C.. Successful demonstrations of the 1973 SCAMP prototype led to the IBM 5100 portable microcomputer launched in 1975 with the ability to be programmed in both APL and BASIC for engineers, analysts and other business problem-solvers. In the late 1960s such a machine would have been nearly as large as two desks and would have weigh
1,1,1,2-Tetrafluoroethane is a hydrofluorocarbon and haloalkane refrigerant with thermodynamic properties similar to R-12 but with insignificant ozone depletion potential and a somewhat lower global warming potential. It has a boiling point of − 26.3 °C at atmospheric pressure. R-134a cylinders are colored light blue. Attempts at phasing out its use as a refrigerant with substances that have lower global warming potential, such as HFO-1234yf, are underway. 1,1,1,2-Tetrafluoroethane is a non-flammable gas used as a "high-temperature" refrigerant for domestic refrigeration and automobile air conditioners. These devices began using 1,1,1,2-tetrafluoroethane in the early 1990s as a replacement for the more environmentally harmful R-12 and retrofit kits are available to convert units that were R-12-equipped. Other uses include plastic foam blowing, as a cleaning solvent, a propellant for the delivery of pharmaceuticals, wine cork removers, gas dusters, such as Dust-Off, in air driers for removing the moisture from compressed air.
1,1,1,2-Tetrafluoroethane has been used to cool computers in some overclocking attempts. It is the refrigerant used in plumbing pipe freeze kits, it is commonly used as a propellant for airsoft airguns. The gas is mixed with a silicone-based lubricant. 1,1,1,2-Tetrafluoroethane is being considered as an organic solvent suitable for extraction of flavor and fragrance compounds, as a possible alternative to other organic solvents and supercritical carbon dioxide. It can be used as a solvent in organic chemistry, both in liquid and supercritical fluid, it is used in the resistive plate chamber particle detectors in the Large Hadron Collider. It is used for other types of particle detectors, e.g. some cryogenic particle detectors. It can be used as an alternative to sulfur hexafluoride in magnesium smelting as a shielding gas.1,1,1,2-Tetrafluoroethane is being considered as an alternative to sulfur hexafluoride as a dielectric gas. Its arc-quenching properties are poor, but its dielectric properties are good.
1,1,1,2-tetrafluoroethane has been subject to use restrictions due to its contribution to climate change. It has a global warming potential of 1300; the Society of Automotive Engineers has proposed 1,1,1,2-tetrafluoroethane to be best replaced by a new fluorochemical refrigerant HFO-1234yf in automobile air-conditioning systems. California may prohibit the sale of canned 1,1,1,2-tetrafluoroethane to individuals to avoid non-professional recharge of air conditioners. A ban had been in place in Wisconsin since October 1994 under ATCP 136 prohibiting sales of container sizes holding less than 15 lbs of 1,1,1,2-tetrafluoroethane, but this restriction applied only when the chemical was intended to be a refrigerant. However, the ban was lifted in Wisconsin in 2012. During the time that it was active, this Wisconsin-specific ban contained loopholes. For example, it was legal for a person to purchase gas duster containers with any amount of the chemical because in that instance the chemical is neither intended to be a refrigerant nor is HFC-134a included in the § 7671a listing of class I and class II substances.
1,1,1,2-Tetrafluoroethane first appeared in the early 1990s as a replacement for dichlorodifluoromethane, which has ozone depleting properties. 1,1,1,2-Tetrafluoroethane has been atmospherically modeled for its impact on depleting ozone and as a contributor to global warming. Research suggests that over the past 10 years the concentration of 1,1,1,2-tetrafluoroethane has increased in the Earth's atmosphere, with a recent study revealing a doubling in atmospheric concentration between 2001 and 2004, it has insignificant ozone depletion potential, significant global warming potential and negligible acidification potential. Because of its high GWP, 1,1,1,2-tetrafluoroethane has been banned from use in the European Union, starting with cars in 2011 and phasing out by 2017. Tetrafluoroethane is made by reacting trichloroethylene with hydrogen fluoride: CHCl=CCl2 + 4 HF → CH2FCF3 + 3 HCl Mixtures with air of the gas 1,1,1,2-tetrafluoroethane are not flammable at atmospheric pressure and temperatures up to 100 °C.
However, mixtures with high concentrations of air at elevated pressure and/or temperature can be ignited. Contact of 1,1,1,2-tetrafluoroethane with flames or hot surfaces in excess of 250 °C may cause vapor decomposition and the emission of toxic gases including hydrogen fluoride and carbonyl fluoride. 1,1,1,2-Tetrafluoroethane itself has an LD50 of 1,500 g/m3 in rats, making it non-toxic, apart from the dangers inherent to inhalant abuse. Its gaseous form will displace air in the lungs; this can result in asphyxiation. This is. Aerosol cans containing 1,1,1,2-tetrafluoroethane, become effective freeze sprays. Under pressure, 1,1,1,2-tetrafluoroethane is compressed into a liquid, which upon vaporization absorbs a significant amount of thermal energy; as a result, it will lower the temperature of any object it contacts as it evaporates. This can result in frostbite. For its medical uses, 1,1,1,2-tetrafluoroethane has the generic name norflurane, it is used as propellant for some metered dose inhalers.
It is considered safe for this use. In combination with pentafluoropropane, it is used as a topical vapocoolant spra
Gas duster known as canned air, is a product used for cleaning or dusting electronic equipment and other sensitive devices that cannot be cleaned using water. The products are most a can that, when a trigger is pressed, blasts a stream of compressed gas through a nozzle. Despite the name "canned air", the cans contain gases that are compressable into liquids. True liquid air is not practical, as it cannot be stored in metal spray cans due to extreme pressure and temperature requirements. Common duster gases are 1,1,1-trifluoroethane, or 1,1,1,2-tetrafluoroethane. Hydrocarbons, like butane, were used in the past, but their flammable nature forced manufacturers to use fluorocarbons; when inhaled, gas duster fumes may produce psychoactive effects and may be harmful to health, sometimes causing death. Canned air can be used for cleaning dust off surfaces such as keyboards, as well as sensitive electronics in which moisture is not desired; when using canned air, it is recommended to not hold the can upside down, as this can result in spraying liquid on to the surface.
The liquid, when released from the can, boils at a low temperature cooling any surface it touches. This can cause mild to moderate frostbite on contact with skin if the can is held upside down; the can gets cold during extended use. A dust spray can be used as a freeze spray. Many gas dusters contain HFC-134a, used as a propellant and refrigerant. HFC-134a sold for those purposes is sold at a higher price, which has led to the practice of using gas dusters as a less expensive source of HFCs for those purposes. Adapters have been built for such purposes, though in most cases, use of such adapters will void the warranty on the equipment they are used with. One example of this practice is the case of airsoft gas guns, which use HFC-134a as the compressed gas. Several vendors sell "duster adapters" for use with airsoft guns, though it is necessary to add a lubricant when using gas dusters to power airsoft guns. Since gas dusters are one of the many inhalants that can be abused, many manufacturers have added a bittering agent to deter people from inhaling the product.
Because of the generic name "canned air", it is mistakenly believed that the can only contains normal air or contains a less harmful substance. However, the gases used are denser than air, such as difluoroethane; when inhaled, the gas displaces the oxygen in the lungs and removes carbon dioxide from the blood causing the user to suffer from hypoxia which results in the euphoric feeling abusers desire. This type of inhalant abuse can cause a plethora of negative effects including brain and nerve damage, serious injury, or death. Since gas dusters are contained in pressure vessels, they are considered explosively volatile. Global warming: Difluoroethane and non-flammable tetrafluoroethane are potent greenhouse gases. According to the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, the global warming potential of HFC-152a, HFC-143a, HFC-134a are 124, 4470, 1430, respectively. GWP refers to global warming effect in comparison to CO2 for unit mass. 1 kg of HFC-152a is equivalent to 124 kg of CO2Ozone layer depletion: Gas dusters sold in many countries are ozone safe as they use "zero ODP" gases.
This is a separate issue from the global warming concern. True "air dusters" using ordinary air are available in the market; these have much shorter run times than a chemical duster, but are refillable. Both hand pump and electric compressor models have been marketed; the maximum pressure for an aerosol can is 10 bar at 20 C. Therefore, a compressed air duster will exhaust air about 10 times the can volume. Electronic versions which only use air have become viable alternatives that are preferred by many large corporations due to the fact that they contain no hazardous chemicals, are safe for the environment, do not freeze and they cannot be abused; the leading plug-in alternatives are made by ITDusters, DataVac and Airrow and the leading cordless alternative is made by Canless Air System. Another mechanical alternative is a camera air blower. Inhalant abuse List of cleaning products Freeze spray
Casualty evacuation known as CASEVAC or by the callsign Dustoff or colloquially Dust Off, is a military term for the emergency patient evacuation of casualties from a combat zone. Casevac can be done by both air. "DUSTOFF" is the callsign specific to U. S. Army Air Ambulance units. CASEVACs by air today are exclusively done by helicopter, a practice begun on a small scale toward the end of World War II. Casevac aircraft are a non-standardized and non-dedicated vehicle that does not have en route care, used to get a casualty back to another location where they can be treated by professional medical staff; the primary difference between a CASEVAC and a medical evacuation is that a MEDEVAC uses a standardized and dedicated vehicle providing en route care. On the other hand, CASEVAC uses non-standardized and non-dedicated vehicles that may or may not provide en route care. CASEVACs are referred to as "a lift/flight of opportunity". If a corpsman/medic on the ground calls for a CASEVAC, the closest available unit with space could be called to assist, regardless of its medical capabilities.
This could include U. S. Marine Corps aircraft such as the MV-22 Osprey, U. S. Navy SH-60 Seahawk CH-46 Sea Knight helicopters; the guiding principle in a CASEVAC is to transport casualties that are in dire need for evacuation from the battlefield and do not have time to wait on a MEDEVAC. MEDEVAC aircraft and ground transport are mandated by the Geneva Convention to be unarmed and well marked. Firing on "clearly marked and identified" MEDEVAC vehicles would be considered a war crime under Article II of the Geneva Convention, in the same sense as firing on a hospital ship would be a war crime. CASEVAC transport are allowed to be armed since they are used for other purposes but carry no penalties for engagement by hostile forces."Dust Off" was the tactical call sign for medical evacuation missions first used in 1963 by Major Lloyd E. Spencer, Commander of the U. S. Army 57th Medical Detachment; the name lasted the rest of the war. Air ambulances transport wounded soldiers categorized as "urgent" patients from point of injury to a medical facility within an hour of soldier being wounded.
Flying into an active landing zone to pick up wounded was a dangerous job. Peter Dorland and James Nanney wrote in Dust Off: Army Aeromedical Evacuation in Vietnam, "... more a third of the aviators became casualties in their work, the crew chiefs and medical corpsmen who accompanied them suffered similarly. The danger of their work was further borne out by the high rate of air ambulance loss to hostile fire: 3.3 times that of all other forms of helicopter missions in the Vietnam War."All members of the US Armed Forces today are trained in some form of basic first aid. While lacking advanced life saving equipment and medical personnel in regular vehicles, all personnel today enter the combat zone with an Improved First Aid Kit on their equipment; the IFAK has basic medical supplies such as bandages, a tourniquet, QuikClot gauze. Most units burn blankets in their vehicles. In addition each unit is staffed by a corpsman or medic; these professionals are trained in Tactical Combat Casualty Care.
The U. S. military has worked to ensure dedicated MEDEVAC platforms with trained medical personnel are available in the event of a casualty. This has, in part, led to a 90.6% casualty survival rate, compared to 80.9% in World War II. In Australian military terminology, a CASEVAC refers to the evacuation of a small number of troops just one. Aeromedical Evacuation Air Ambulance Medical evacuation Battlefield medicine
Mike Bell (wrestler)
Michael Bell was an American professional wrestler who worked for the World Wrestling Federation and Extreme Championship Wrestling as Mike "Mad Dog" Bell. He was the brother of Mark Bell and Chris Bell, the 2015 follow up documentary, Prescription Thugs, in which Mike Bell's life and death by prescription drugs are explored. Bell worked as a jobber for WWE during the early-1990s performing on its flagship TV show, Monday Night Raw. Like many jobbers of that era, Bell worked on a match-by-match basis for the WWF, never being under continuous contract with the promotion. Bell worked with the original ECW, including performing at the Mid-Hudson Civic Center. Bell was well known in the wrestling community for a 2001 incident with Perry Saturn during a taped WWF match for Jakked/Metal. Bell botched a snapmare armdrag of Saturn. Saturn legitimately attacked Bell in retaliation for this perceived lack of professionalism and in-ring ethic, at one point tossing Bell out of the ring and causing Bell himself to land on his head on the safety mat.
Neither performer sustained serious injury, both were able to resume their respective roles and finish the match as planned, without most spectators realizing what had happened. Bell, who had a history with substance abuse, was featured in the documentary Bigger, Faster along with his two brothers. Bell can be seen in Prescription Thugs, a documentary created by his brother about prescription drug abuse in America. On December 14, 2008, he was found dead at a rehabilitation facility in California, it was ruled that he died of an inhalation-induced heart attack brought on by an accidental inhalation of difluoroethane in Dust-Off. Bell was 37 years old. Ultimate Pro Wrestling UPW Heavyweight Championship List of premature professional wrestling deaths Mike "Mad Dog" Bell Obituary Mike Bell on IMDb Mike Bell's profile at Cagematch.net
Cleveland is a major city in the U. S. state of Ohio, the county seat of Cuyahoga County. The city proper has a population of 385,525, making it the 51st-largest city in the United States, the second-largest city in Ohio. Greater Cleveland is ranked as the 32nd-largest metropolitan area in the U. S. with 2,055,612 people in 2016. The city anchors the Cleveland–Akron–Canton Combined Statistical Area, which had a population of 3,515,646 in 2010 and is ranked 15th in the United States; the city is located on the southern shore of Lake Erie 60 miles west of the Ohio-Pennsylvania state border. It was founded in 1796 near the mouth of the Cuyahoga River, it became a manufacturing center due to its location on both the river and the lake shore, as well as being connected to numerous canals and railroad lines. Cleveland's economy relies on diversified sectors such as manufacturing, financial services and biomedicals. Cleveland is home to the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame. Cleveland residents are called "Clevelanders".
The city has many nicknames, the oldest of which in contemporary use being "The Forest City". Cleveland was named on July 22, 1796, when surveyors of the Connecticut Land Company laid out Connecticut's Western Reserve into townships and a capital city, they named it "Cleaveland" after General Moses Cleaveland. Cleaveland oversaw design of the plan for what would become the modern downtown area, centered on Public Square, before returning home, never again to visit Ohio; the first settler in Cleaveland was Lorenzo Carter, who built a cabin on the banks of the Cuyahoga River. The Village of Cleaveland was incorporated on December 23, 1814. In spite of the nearby swampy lowlands and harsh winters, its waterfront location proved to be an advantage, giving access to Great Lakes trade; the area began rapid growth after the 1832 completion of the Erie Canal. This key link between the Ohio River and the Great Lakes connected the city to the Atlantic Ocean via the Erie Canal and Hudson River, via the St. Lawrence Seaway.
Its products could reach markets on the Gulf of Mexico via the Mississippi River. Growth continued with added railroad links. Cleveland incorporated as a city in 1836. In 1836, the city located only on the eastern banks of the Cuyahoga River, nearly erupted into open warfare with neighboring Ohio City over a bridge connecting the two. Ohio City remained an independent municipality until its annexation by Cleveland in 1854; the city's prime geographic location as a transportation hub on the Great Lakes has played an important role in its development as a commercial center. Cleveland serves as a destination for iron ore shipped from Minnesota, along with coal transported by rail. In 1870, John D. Rockefeller founded Standard Oil in Cleveland. In 1885, he moved its headquarters to New York City, which had become a center of finance and business. Cleveland emerged in the early 20th century as an important American manufacturing center, its businesses included automotive companies such as Peerless, People's, Jordan and Winton, maker of the first car driven across the U.
S. Other manufacturers located in Cleveland produced steam-powered cars, which included White and Gaeth, as well as the electric car company Baker; because of its significant growth, Cleveland was known as the "Sixth City" of the US during this period. By 1920, due in large part to the city's economic prosperity, Cleveland became the nation's fifth-largest city; the city counted Progressive Era politicians such as the populist Mayor Tom L. Johnson among its leaders, its industrial jobs had attracted waves of European immigrants from southern and eastern Europe, as well as both black and white migrants from the rural South. In commemoration of the centennial of Cleveland's incorporation as a city, the Great Lakes Exposition debuted in June 1936 along the Lake Erie shore north of downtown. Conceived as a way to energize the city after the Great Depression, it drew four million visitors in its first season, seven million by the end of its second and final season in September 1937; the exposition was housed on grounds that are now used by the Great Lakes Science Center, the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame, Burke Lakefront Airport, among others.
Following World War II, Cleveland continued to enjoy a prosperous economy. In sports, the Indians won the 1948 World Series, the hockey team, the Barons, became champions of the American Hockey League, the Browns dominated professional football in the 1950s; as a result, along with track and boxing champions produced, Cleveland was dubbed "City of Champions" in sports at this time. Businesses proclaimed that Cleveland was the "best location in the nation". In 1940, non-Hispanic whites represented 90.2% of Cleveland's population. Wealthy patrons supported development of the city's cultural institutions, such as the art museum and orchestra; the city's population reached its peak of 914,808, in 1949 Cleveland was named an All-America City for the first time. By the 1960s, the economy slowed, residents sought new housing in the suburbs, reflecting the national trends of suburban growth following the subsidized highways. In the 1950s and 1960s, African Americans worked in numerous cities to gain constitutional rights and relief from racial discrimination.
As change lagged despite federal laws to enforce rights and racial unrest occurred in Cleveland and numerous other industrial cities. In Cleveland, the Hough Riots erupted from July 18 to 23, 1966; the Glenville Shootout took place from July 23 to 25, 1968. In November 1967, Cleveland became the first major American city to elect a black mayor, Carl Stokes. Industrial restructuring in the railroad and steel industries, resulted in the loss of numerous
Thirteen (2003 film)
Thirteen is a 2003 American independent drama film directed by Catherine Hardwicke, written by Hardwicke and Nikki Reed, starring Evan Rachel Wood, Holly Hunter, Reed. Loosely based on Reed's life from ages 12 to 13, the film's plot follows Tracy, a junior high school student in Los Angeles who begins dabbling in substance abuse and crime after being befriended by a troubled classmate, it features Brady Corbet, Deborah Kara Unger, Kip Pardue, Vanessa Anne Hudgens in supporting roles. The screenplay for Thirteen was written over a period of six days by Hardwicke and the then-14-year-old Reed. Filming took place on location in Los Angeles in 2002 shot with hand-held cameras, evoking a cinéma vérité visual style. Upon the film's debut at the Sundance Film Festival in January 2003, Hardwicke won the Sundance Directing for the film. Fox Searchlight Pictures subsequently acquired Thirteen for distribution, giving the film a limited release in the United States beginning on August 20, 2003. Though it received numerous favorable reviews from critics, Thirteen generated some controversy for its depiction of youth drug use, underage sexual behavior, self-harm.
The film earned Holly Hunter an Academy Award nomination for Best Actress in a Supporting Role and Golden Globe nominations for Hunter and Evan Rachel Wood for Best Supporting Actress and Best Actress in a Drama, respectively. 13-year-old Tracy Freeland begins her school year as a smart and mild-mannered honors student at a middle school in Los Angeles. Her divorced mother Melanie is a recovering alcoholic, who struggles to support Tracy and her older brother Mason by working as a hairdresser. Tracy feels ignored by her mother, too busy with her fellow ex-addict boyfriend Brady to address Tracy's increasing depression. After being teased for her "Cabbage Patch" clothes, Tracy decides to shed her "little girl" image and gets her mother to purchase trendier clothes. Tracy wears one of her new outfits to school, catches the attention of Evie Zamora, one of the most popular girls in school. Evie invites Tracy to go shopping on Melrose Avenue in Hollywood, but gives her a fake phone number as a prank.
Tracy determinedly shows up on Melrose Avenue and meets with Evie and her friend Astrid. Tracy is uncomfortable with the two shoplifting and excuses herself to sit outside the store on a bench; when a distracted rich woman sits next to Tracy, Tracy takes the chance to steal the woman's wallet, which impresses Evie and Astrid. The three go on a shopping spree with the stolen money and Tracy and Evie become friends. Evie introduces Tracy to her world of sex and crime, much to Tracy's delight. Evie tells Melanie that Brooke, her adult cousin and guardian, is out of town for two weeks, Melanie agrees to let her stay at her home with Tracy. While staying there, Evie discovers that Tracy cuts herself to cope with stress. Although Melanie is concerned about the change in Tracy's behavior and worries about the extent of Evie's influence, she cannot find a way to intervene. Melanie attempts to send Evie home, but reluctantly lets her stay after Evie claims her guardian's boyfriend is physically abusive.
As Tracy and Evie become closer, Tracy shuts Melanie further out of her life. Evie and Tracy get out of control, each egging the other on; the pair attempt to seduce Tracy's neighbor Luke, a lifeguard in his early twenties, ditch a family movie night to get high on the streets in Hollywood. Mason is shocked when he bumps into Tracy wearing sexualized clothing, including thong underwear, but Tracy dismisses his concerns. On, the girls take turns inhaling from a can of gas duster for electronics and become so intoxicated that they start hitting and punching each other. Melanie attempts to break the girls' friendship by sending Tracy to live with her father, a preoccupied businessman, but he refuses. After Evie's stay extends over two weeks, Melanie unsuccessfully attempts to contact Brooke, visits Brooke's home with Evie and Tracy, they find. Evie asks Melanie to formally adopt her but Melanie refuses. Tracy meekly supports her mother's decision. Angry and hurt, a tearful Evie storms off. At school, Evie turns her friends against Tracy, Tracy begins to realize the negative effects of her lifestyle when she is told that she will have to repeat the seventh grade.
While walking home from school, Brady offers Tracy a ride and takes her home where Melanie and Brooke are sitting in the living room waiting for her. Brooke confronts Tracy about her drug use and stealing, having been convinced that Tracy was the bad influence on Evie. Outraged, Tracy insists that Evie was the instigator, but the skeptical Brooke refuses to listen and announces that she is moving Evie to Ojai to keep her away from Tracy. Melanie defends Tracy's innocence but Brooke pulls Tracy's sleeve up to show Melanie Tracy's self-harm scars. After a screaming match and Evie leave. Tracy attempts to fight against her mother's embrace, she tearfully pleads with Melanie to let go, with no success. The two fall asleep on Tracy's bed; the last scene shows a dream sequence of Tracy spinning alone and screaming on a park merry-go-round during the daytime. Director Catherine Hardwicke, who had worked prior as a film production designer, has called Nikki Reed a "surrogate daughter", having known her since she was fiv