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Dutch Single Top 100

The Dutch Single Top 100 is a Dutch chart, based on official physical single sales, legal downloads and since July 2013 streaming and composed by Dutch Charts. It is one of the three official charts, the other two being the Dutch Top 40 and the Mega Top 50; the difference is that these charts include airplay data. The list is intended for the music industry and those who take an interest in charts. In Dutch TV programmes the Single Top 100 is cited, although it has not been broadcast since December 2006; the predecessor of the Single Top 100 started on 23 May 1969 as the Hilversum 3 Top 30. It was broadcast by the VPRO and since December 1970 by the NOS, it was presented by Willem van Kooten. In 1971 Felix Meurders hosted the radio show, he renamed it the Daverende Dertig. In June 1974 the Nationale Hitparade became the official chart of Hilversum 3, it was a top 30 until the number of entries was extended to 50 in June 1978. The TROS took over the programme in 1985. AVRO's popular music chart television programme TopPop used the chart from 1974 to 1978 and from 1981 to 1986.

The Nationale Hitparade became a top 100 in 1987. In February 1993 it was followed by the Mega Top 50 and in 1997 by the Mega Top 100; the Mega Top 50 should not be mixed up with the current 3FM Mega Top 50, a different chart, not being based on record sales. Throughout the years, the chart has had several names and lengths: 1969–1974: Hilversum 3 Top 30 1974–1993: Nationale Hitparade 1974–1978 a top 30 1978–1987 a top 50 1987–1989 Nationale Hitparade Top 100 1989–1993 Nationale Top 100 1993–1997: Mega Top 50 1997–2004: Mega Top 100 2004–present: Mega Top 50/Single Top 100 The Single Top 100 and predecessors have never had any rules which prevented records from rising in the chart after having dropped. Re-entries occur frequently; the first record that got up again to number 1 was Soley soley by Middle of the Road late 1971. Geef mij je angst by Guus Meeuwis and 4 Minutes by Madonna featuring Justin Timberlake and Timbaland rose 3 times to number one. Blijf bij mij by André Hazes and Gerard Joling rose 4 times to the top position in 2007.

Year-end charts of the Single Top 100 and predecessors were compiled from 1970 until 1978 by adding up points. From 1978 onwards they have been compiled on the basis of record sales. Album Top 100 Dutch Top 40 Single Top 100 at the compiler Dutch Charts's official site

Hinduism in Zimbabwe

Hinduism is a minority faith in Zimbabwe Hinduism in Zimbabwe came with indentured servants brought by the colonial British administrators in late 19th and early 20th-century to what was called British South Africa Company and Rhodesia. This Hindu migration was different from those in East African countries such as Kenya and Uganda where Hindus arrived voluntarily for jobs but without restrictive contracts. Most Hindus who arrived for these indentured plantation work were from Uttar Pradesh, Gujarat and Tamil Nadu, people escaping from major repetitive famines in colonial British India from 1860s to 1910s; these laborers came for a fixed period irrevocable contract of exclusive servitude, with an option to either go back to India with plantation paid return fare, or stay in a local settlement after the contract ended. Most chose to continue working for a salary. Ancient and medieval historyArchaeological studies in Zimbabwe and the Swahili coast have revealed evidence that suggests that Indian traders had a small presence and sporadic interaction with the African people during the Roman Empire period and thereafter, long pre-dating the European colonial era.

Genetic studies suggest a direct ancient African-Indian trade and cooperation because by the 1st millennium BCE African crops were adopted in India, Indian crops as well as the domesticated zebu cow were adopted in Africa, but these were missing from north Africa, the northeastern horn of Africa and Arabia during that age. The development of gold mining and processing methods among the Shona people in Zimbabwe highlands increased its trading activity with India before the 12th century through the city of Sofala. However, these traders did not engage in religious missionary activity and Hinduism was limited to the traders. Colonial era migrationHinduism came with indentured laborers brought to Zimbabwe, they were a part of a global movement of workers during the colonial era, to help with plantation and mining related projects when local skilled labor was unavailable, to build infrastructure projects, establish services, retail markets and for administrative support; the immigrants, some educated and skilled but poor and struggling in famine prone areas of India, came to escape starvation and work in plantations owned by the Europeans.

According to Ezra Chitando, the 19th- and early 20th-century encounters between European Christians with both Hinduism and African Traditional Religions in Zimbabwe were complex demonizing and dehumanizing both Hinduism and African religions, but the Christian missionaries never condemn Hinduism or African religions. The Christian officials identified some positive elements in both, but states Chitando called upon the Hindu Indian workers and local Africans to "abandon their traditions and embrace their version of reality". In contrast to Christian missionary approach, neither Hinduism nor African Traditional Religions were missionary in their approach or goals; as of 1995 there were about 16,200 Hindus in Zimbabwe. It reduced to 500 families, they are in the capital city of Harare. The Hindus in Zimbabwe is represented by the Hindoo Society Harare, it is a Hindu welfare organization registered in 1916. Hindu Religious and Cultural Institute was founded 60 years ago, it is dedicated to teaching the Sanatana Dharma to children born into Hindu families of Zimbabwe, but non-Hindus can study there.

There are two Hindu temples in Zimbabwe. The Omkar Temple in Harare is the first Hindu temple in Zimbabwe, its fountain Stone was laid in 1929. In 2017,the Hindus of Zimbabwe celebrated 25th anniversary of Omkar Temple; the "Hindu Religious and Cultural Institute" of Harare discusses Sanatana Dharma with children born into Hindu families of Zimbabwe, welcomes non-Hindus. The major centers of Hindu community of about 3,000 in Harare include various schools, the Goanese Association, the Hindu Society, the Tamil Sangam, the Brahma Kumaris yoga centers and the Ramakrishna Vedanta Society all of which are in Harare; the Krishna-oriented ISKCON has a centre at Marondera. Bharat Patel- served as justices of the Supreme Court. Hinduism in Uganda Hinduism in Kenya Steven Vertovec; the Hindu Diaspora: Comparative Patterns. Taylor & Francis. ISBN 978-1-136-36712-0. Richard Carver. Where Silence Rules: The Suppression of Dissent in Malawi. Human Rights Watch. ISBN 978-0-929692-73-9. Harare Hindu Society Hindus in Zimbabwe Hindu Associations in Zimbabwe Brahma Kumaris Centres in Zimbabwe

Planum Australe

Planum Australe is the southern polar plain on Mars. It extends southward of 75°S and is centered at 83.9°S 160.0°E / -83.9. The geology of this region was to be explored by the failed NASA mission Mars Polar Lander, which lost contact on entry into the Martian atmosphere. In July 2018, scientists reported the discovery, based on MARSIS radar studies, of a subglacial lake on Mars, 1.5 km below the southern polar ice cap, extending sideways about 20 km, the first known stable body of water on the planet. Planum Australe is covered by a permanent polar ice cap composed of frozen water and carbon dioxide about 3 km thick. A seasonal ice cap forms on top of the permanent one during the Martian winter, extending from 60°S southwards, it is, at the height of winter 1 meter thick. It is possible. Claims of more planetwide global warming based on imagery, ignore temperature data and global datasets. Spacecraft and microwave data indicate global average temperature is, at most and cooling. In 1966, Leighton and Murray proposed that the Martian polar caps provided a store of CO2 much larger than the atmospheric reservoir.

However it is now thought that both polar caps are made of water ice. Both poles have a thin seasonal covering of CO2, while in addition the southern pole has a permanent residual CO2 cap, about 8 to 10 metres thick, that lies on top of the water ice; the key argument that the bulk of the ice is water is that CO2 ice isn't mechanically strong enough to make a 3 km thick ice cap stable over long periods of time. Recent evidence from SHARAD ice penetrating radar has revealed a massive subsurface CO2 ice deposit equal to 80% of the current atmosphere, or 4-5 mbar, stored in Planum Australe. Data from ESA's Mars Express indicates; the most reflective part of the ice cap is 85% dry ice and 15% water ice. The second part, where the ice cap forms steep slopes at the boundary with the surrounding plain, is exclusively water ice; the ice cap is surrounded by permafrost fields that extend for tens of kilometres north away from the scarps. The centre of the permanent ice cap is not located at 90°S but rather 150 kilometres north of the geographical south pole.

The presence of two massive impact basins in the western hemisphere - Hellas Planitia and Argyre Planitia - creates an immobile area of low pressure over the permanent ice cap. The resulting weather patterns produce fluffy white snow; this is in contrast to the black ice that forms in the eastern part of the polar region, which receives little snow. There are two distinct subregions in Planum Australe - Promethei Lingula, it is dissected by Ultimum Chasma, Chasma Australe and Australe Sulci. It is theorised; the largest crater in Planum Australe is McMurdo Crater. The seasonal frosting and defrosting of the southern ice cap results in the formation of spider-like radial channels carved on 1 meter thick ice by sunlight. Sublimed CO2 increase pressure in their interior, producing geyser-like eruptions of cold fluids mixed with dark basaltic sand or mud; this process is rapid, observed happening in the space of a few days, weeks or months, a growth rate rather unusual in geology - for Mars. The Mars Geyser Hopper lander is a concept mission.

Climate of Mars List of plains on Mars Martian polar ice caps Planum Boreum, the northern polar plain Accumulation and erosion of south polar layered deposits in the Promethei Lingula region, Planum Australe, Mars Planum Australe on Google Mars. Stratigraphy and Topography of McMurdo Crater area, Planum Australe, Mars Topographic maps of the Martian South Pole USGS map of Planum Australe