Erwin Olaf Springveld, professionally known as Erwin Olaf, is a Dutch photographer from Hilversum. Erwin Olaf Springveld was born on 2 July 1959 in Netherlands. Springveld is most famous for his personal work, he has been commissioned to photograph advertising campaigns for large international companies such as Levi's, Microsoft and Nokia. Some of his most famous photographic series include "Grief", "Rain", "Royal Blood". Never one to shy away from controversy, Springveld's work is daring and provocative. Humorously however, one of his early photographs was once expelled from a show on the basis of not containing nudity, his work has received many awards and he has held exhibitions around the world. Springveld studied journalism in the School of Journalism in Utrecht, his work is shown in galleries and museums all around the world, for example at Wagner + Partner, Berlin. Springveld designed the 2014 Dutch euro coins with the portrait of King Willem-Alexander. 2019: Anniversary Solo Show, Gemeente Museum The Hague & The Hague Museum of Photography, The Hague, The Netherlands 2017: Album 13 d'Indochine, Galerie Rabouan Moussin, France Human&Nature, Gallery Kong, Republic of Korea 2016: Erwin Olaf - Four Series, Centro de Arte Contemporaneo de Málaga, Málaga, Spain Cell of Emotions, National Art Gallery, Bulgaria Homage Louis Gallait, The Pushkin State Museum of Fine Arts, Russia 2015: A Corps Perdu, Magda Danysz Gallery, Paris Erwin Olaf: The Empire of Illusion, Museo de Arte Contemporaine de Rosario, Argentina "Retrospective", Fondation Oriente Museu, Chine 2014: Art & Fashion, Magda Danysz Gallery, Paris 2013: « Erwin Olaf - Berlin », Rabouan Moussion Gallery, Paris « Erwin Olaf - Waiting», Rabouan Moussion Gallery, Paris « Émotions - Installations », La Sucrière, Lyon « Berlin », Hasted Kraeutler Gallery, New York « Berlin », Hamiltons Gallery, Londres 2012: The Dark Side, Rabouan Moussion Gallery, Paris « Works 2000 - 2010 », Art Statements Gallery, Hong Kong « Erwin Olaf », Kong Gallery, Séoul « Short Stories », Wagner Gallery, Berlin 2011: « Erwin Olaf », Art Statements Gallery, Tokyo « Paradise the club », Rabouan Moussion Gallery, Paris « High Tension », Dubaï « Captured senses », Cer Modern, Ankara « Erwin Olaf », Nordic Light International Festival of Photography, Kristiansund 2010: « Erwin Olaf Hotel », Magda Danysz Gallery, Paris « Erwin Olaf Hotel », Paris-Benijing Gallery, Pékin « Erwin Olaf - Recent Work », Hamiltons Gallery, Londres « Hotel, Dawn & Dusk », Hasted Kraeutler Gallery, New York 2009: « Série Laboral Escena », Magda Danysz Gallery, Paris « Rain, Grief & Fall », Institut Netherlands, Paris « Darts of Pleasure », Domus Artium Museum, Salamanque « Moving Targets », Haifa Museum of Art, Haïfa Studio Erwin Olaf, official website Galerie WAGNER + PARTNER Magda Danysz Gallery
Bruno Ninaber van Eyben
Bruno Ninaber van Eyben is a Dutch jewellery and industrial designer. He designed the last series of Dutch guilder coins and the obverse side of all circulating Dutch euro coins. Bruno Ninaber van Eyben is born on 3 November 1950 in Boxtel in the Netherlands, he lives in Delft. In 1971 Bruno Ninaber van Eyben graduated cum laude from the College of Art in Maastricht as a jewellery designer. In the 1970s he designed a bracelet watch, a pendant watch, a fluorescent lighting system. In 1979 he received a Dutch award for industrial design. In 1980 he designed the last series of Dutch guilder coins, which were in circulation from 1982 until the introduction of the euro in 2002. In 1997 he started. In May 1998 he won the contest for the design of the reverse side of the Dutch euro coins. Since 2003 he is professor of Design at the Delft University of Technology. Bruno Ninaber van Eyben design+production
Symbols of Europe
A number of symbols of Europe have emerged since antiquity, notably the mythological figure of Europa herself. Several symbols were introduced in the 1960s by the Council of Europe; the European Communities have created additional symbols for itself in 1985, which were inherited by the European Union in 1993. Such symbols of the European Union now represent political positions in support of EU policies and European integration as advocated by the EU rather than Europe as a continent or cultural sphere. Europa was used as a geographical term, for one of the great divisions of the known world, by Herodotus, it became the geographical term for the landmass west of the Tanais in the Roman-era geography by Strabo and Ptolemy. Europa first began to be used in a cultural sense, denoting the territory of Latin Christendom, in the Carolingian period. Europa is a feminine name, the name of a nymph in Hesiod, in a legend first related by Herodotus, the name of a Phoenician noble-woman abducted by Greeks.
The classical legend of Europa being abducted not by Greek pirates but by Zeus in the shape of a bull is told in Ovid's Metamorphoses. According to this account, Zeus took the guise of a tame white bull and mixed himself with the herds of Europa's father. While Europa and her female attendants were gathering flowers, she saw the bull, got onto his back. Zeus took that opportunity and ran to the sea and swam, with her on his back, to the island of Crete. There he revealed his true identity, Europa became the first queen of Crete. Zeus gave her a necklace made by Hephaestus and three additional gifts: Talos, Laelaps and a javelin that never missed. Zeus re-created the shape of the white bull in the stars, now known as the constellation Taurus. In addition to being a frequent motif in European art since Greco-Roman times, the founding myth of Europa and the bull has been alluded to in relation to the continent and by the modern European Union, can thus be considered not only a piece of toponymy, but as a symbol, or national personification of Europe.
For instance, statues of Europa and the bull are located outside several of the European Union's institutions, as well as on the Greek €2 coin. Europa's name appeared on postage stamps commemorating the Council of Europe, which were first issued in 1956. Furthermore, the dome of the European Parliament's Paul-Henri Spaak building contains a large mosaic by Aligi Sassu portraying the abduction of Europa with other elements of Greek mythology; the bull is in the top-left corner of the new design of the residence permit card of all European Union countries. Europa regina is the cartographic depiction of the European continent as a queen. Introduced and made popular during the mannerist period, Europa Regina is standing upright with the Iberian Peninsula forming her crowned head, Bohemia her heart, other European regions shown as a sceptre and a globus cruciger; the first map to depict Europe in this manner was made by Johannes Bucius Aenicola in 1537. Though much about the origination and initial perception of this map is uncertain, it is known that Putsch maintained close relations with Holy Roman Emperor Ferdinand I of Habsburg, that the map's popularity increased during the second half of the 16th century.
At the time, Holy Roman Emperor Charles V had united the lands of the Habsburg's in his hands, including Spain. Thus, the map is oriented westwards to have Spain as the crowned head, pointing at the Habsburgs' claim to be universal emperors of Europe; the most conspicuous reference to the Holy Roman Empire is the Carolingian hoop crown. Another connection to Charles V is the gown, which resembles the contemporary dress code at the Habsburg court, the face of the queen, which some say resembles Charles V's wife Isabella; as in contemporary portraits of couples, Europa regina has her head turned to her right and she holds the orb with her right hand, interpreted as facing and offering power to her imaginary husband, the emperor. More general, Europe is shown as the res publica christiana, the united Christendom in medieval tradition, great or dominant power in the world. Another allegory is the attribution of Europe as the paradise by special placement of the water bodies; as contemporary iconography depicted the paradise as a closed form, Europa regina is enclosed by seas and rivers.
The Danube river is depicted in a way that it resembles the course of the biblical river flowing through the paradise, with its estuary formed by four arms. That Europa regina is surrounded by water is an allusion to the mythological Europa, abducted by Zeus and carried over the water. Europa regina belongs to the Early Modern allegory of Europa triumphans, as opposed to Europa deplorans. Charlemagne known as Charles the Great, is considered the founder of the French and German monarchies. Known as Pater Europae, he established an empire that represented the most expansive European unification since the fall of the Western Roman Empire and brought about a renaissance that formed a pan-European identity whilst marking the end of the Dark Ages. There was a contemporary intellectual and cultural revival which profoundly marked the history of Western Europe; this gave Charlemagne a legendary standing. For many centuries, European royal houses sought to associate themselves with the Carolingian heritage.
The crowns of the Holy Roman Empire and Napoleon Bonaparte were for i
President of the European Central Bank
The President of the European Central Bank is the head of the European Central Bank, the institution responsible for the management of the euro and monetary policy in the Eurozone of the European Union. The President heads the executive board, governing council and general council of the ECB, he represents the bank abroad, for example at the G20. The President is appointed by a qualified majority vote of the European Council, de facto by those who have adopted the euro, for an eight-year non-renewable term; however the first President, did not serve his full term Wim Duisenberg was the President of the European Monetary Institute when it became the ECB, just prior to the launch of the euro, on 1 June 1998. Duisenberg became the first President of the ECB; the French interpretation of the agreement made with the installation of Wim Duisenberg as ECB President was that Duisenberg would resign after just four years of his eight-year term, would be replaced by the Frenchman Jean-Claude Trichet. Duisenberg always denied that such an agreement was made and stated in February 2002 that he would stay in office until his 68th birthday on 9 July 2003.
In the meanwhile Jean-Claude Trichet was not cleared of legal accusations before 1 June 2002, so he was not able to begin his term after Duisenberg's first four years. On 9 July 2003 Trichet was not cleared, therefore Duisenberg remained in office until 1 November 2003. Duisenberg died on 31 July 2005. Jean-Claude Trichet served during the European sovereign debt crisis. Trichet's strengths lay in keeping consensus and visible calm in the ECB. During his tenure, Trichet has had to fend off criticism from French President Nicolas Sarkozy who demanded a more growth-orientated policy at the ECB. Germany supported Trichet in demanding the bank's independence be respected. However, he was criticised from straying from his mandate during the crisis by buying the government bonds of eurozone member states. ECB board members Axel A. Weber and Jürgen Stark resigned in protest at this policy if it helped prevent states from defaulting. IMF economist Pau Rabanal argued that Trichet "maintained a expansionary monetary policy," but "sacrificed the ECB's inflation target for the sake of greater economic growth and jobs creation, not the other way round."
While straying from his mandate, he has however still kept interest rates under control and maintained greater price stability than the Deutsche Bundesbank did before the euro. As well as defending the ECB's independence and balancing its commitment to interest rates and economic stability, Trichet fought Sarkozy for automatic sanctions in the EU fiscal reforms and against Angela Merkel against private sector involvement in bail outs so as not to scare the markets, he had however made some mistakes during the crisis, for example by: raising interest rates just after inflation topped out and just prior to the recession triggered by the Lehman Brothers collapse. In his final appearance before the European Parliament, Trichet called for more political unity, including, he asserted that the ECB's role in maintaining price stability throughout the financial crisis and the oil price rises should not be overlooked. He stated, in response to a question from a German newspaper attacking the ECB's credibility following its bond-buying.
Mario Draghi was chosen to become the next President of the ECB on 24 June 2011. He is President since 1 November 2011. Pascal Canfin, Member of the European Parliament, asserted that Draghi had been involved in swaps for European governments, namely Greece, trying to disguise their countries' economic status. Draghi responded that the deals were "undertaken before my joining Goldman Sachs I had nothing to do with" them, in the 2011 European Parliament nomination hearings. List of presidents since the establishment of the bank on 1 June 1998. Vice President Christian Noyer was only appointed for four years so that his resignation would coincide with the expected resignation of Duisenberg, his successors, starting with Lucas Papademos, are granted eight-year terms. Organisation of the ECB President's CV EU Treaties.
The florin is the currency of Aruba. It is subdivided into 100 cents; the florin was introduced in 1986. Although the Aruban florin is pegged to the United States dollar at the rate of 1.79 florin per USD, the used street value is at 1.75 florin per USD. In 1986, coins were introduced in 10, 25 and 50 cents and 1 and 2 1⁄2 florin; the 5-florin banknote was replaced by a square coin and the 2 1⁄2-florin coin was removed from circulation. The 5-florin was replaced in 2005 with a round gold-coloured coin, because the old square 5-florin coin was too easy to counterfeit. All coins are struck in nickel-bonded steel with exception of the 5-florin, an alloy of copper and other metals; the 50-cent is the only square-shaped coin remaining commonly referred to as a "yotin" by the locals. On the back of each 1-, 2 1⁄2- and 5-florin coin is a profile view of the current head of state of the Kingdom of the Netherlands. From 1986 to 2013, this was queen Beatrix and since 2014 it has been king Willem-Alexander.
Moreover, only these three denominations have writing on their edge, namely "God Zij Met Ons" meaning'God Be With Us'. The Central Bank of Aruba introduced banknotes in denominations of 5, 10, 25, 50 and 100 florin and dated January 1, 1986. In 1990, the bank issued the same denominations in a colorful new family of notes designed by Aruban artist Evelino Fingal; as director of the Archaeological Museum, Fingal found inspiration in old Indian paintings and pot shards. Fingal combined decorative motifs found on pre-Columbian pottery with pictures of animals unique to the island; the 500-florin notes were introduced in 1993, with the 5-florin note replaced by a square coin in 1995. As of 2003 a new print was started of the already existing banknotes of 10, 25, 50, 100 and 500 florin; these new banknotes were made with new safety features to counteract counterfeiting, but retained their look. Economy of Aruba Central banks and currencies of the Caribbean Banknotes of Aruba Nos Florin
Desiderius Erasmus Roterodamus, known as Erasmus or Erasmus of Rotterdam, was a Dutch Christian humanist, the greatest scholar of the northern Renaissance. Trained as a Catholic priest, Erasmus was an important figure in classical scholarship who wrote in a pure Latin style. Among humanists he enjoyed the sobriquet "Prince of the Humanists", has been called "the crowning glory of the Christian humanists". Using humanist techniques for working on texts, he prepared important new Latin and Greek editions of the New Testament, which raised questions that would be influential in the Protestant Reformation and Catholic Counter-Reformation, he wrote On Free Will, In Praise of Folly, Handbook of a Christian Knight, On Civility in Children, Copia: Foundations of the Abundant Style, Julius Exclusus, many other works. Erasmus lived against the backdrop of the growing European religious Reformation, but while he was critical of the abuses within the Catholic Church and called for reform, he kept his distance from Luther, Henry VIII and John Calvin and continued to recognise the authority of the pope, emphasizing a middle way with a deep respect for traditional faith and grace, rejecting Luther's emphasis on faith alone.
Erasmus remained a member of the Roman Catholic Church all his life, remaining committed to reforming the church and its clerics' abuses from within. He held to the Catholic doctrine of free will, which some Reformers rejected in favor of the doctrine of predestination, his middle road approach disappointed, angered, scholars in both camps. Erasmus died in Basel in 1536 while preparing to return to Brabant, was buried in Basel Minster, the former cathedral of the city. A bronze statue of Erasmus was erected in 1622 in his city of birth, replacing an earlier work in stone. Desiderius Erasmus is reported to have been born in Rotterdam on 28 October in the late 1460s, he was named after Saint Erasmus of Formiae, whom Erasmus's father Gerard favored. A 17th-century legend has it that Erasmus was first named Geert Geerts. A well-known wooden picture indicates: Goudæ conceptus, Roterodami natus. According to an article by historian Renier Snooy, Erasmus was born in Gouda; the exact year of his birth is controversial, but most agree it was in 1466.
Evidence confirming the year of Erasmus' birth in 1466 can be found in his own words: fifteen out of twenty-three statements he made about his age indicate 1466. He was christened "Erasmus" after the saint of that name. Although associated with Rotterdam, he lived there for only four years, never to return. Information on his family and early life comes from vague references in his writings, his parents were not married. His father, was a Catholic priest and curate in Gouda. Little is known of his mother, although her known name was Margaretha Rogerius and she was the daughter of a doctor from Zevenbergen, she may have been Gerard's housekeeper. Although he was born out of wedlock, Erasmus was cared for by his parents until their early deaths from the plague in 1483; this solidified his view of his origin as a stain, cast a pall over his youth. Erasmus was given the highest education available to a young man of his day, in a series of monastic or semi-monastic schools. At the age of nine, he and his older brother Peter were sent to one of the best Latin schools in the Netherlands, located at Deventer and owned by the chapter clergy of the Lebuïnuskerk, though some earlier biographies assert it was a school run by the Brethren of the Common Life.
During his stay there the curriculum was renewed by the principal of Alexander Hegius. For the first time Greek was taught at a lower level than a university in Europe, this is where he began learning it, he gleaned there the importance of a personal relationship with God but eschewed the harsh rules and strict methods of the religious brothers and educators. His education there ended when plague struck the city about 1483, his mother, who had moved to provide a home for her sons, died from the infection. Most in 1487, poverty forced Erasmus into the consecrated life as a canon regular of St. Augustine at the canonry of Stein, in South Holland, he took vows there in late 1488, was ordained to the Catholic priesthood at about the age of 25, in 1492. It is said that he never seemed to have worked as a priest for a longer time, certain abuses in religious orders were among the chief objects of his calls to reform the Church from within. While at Stein, Erasmus fell in love with a fellow canon, Servatius Rogerus, wrote a series of passionate letters in which he called Rogerus "half my soul".
He wrote, "I have wooed you both unhappily and relentlessly". This correspondence contrasts with the detached and much more restrained attitude he showed in his life. While tutoring in Paris, he was dismissed by the guardian of Thomas Grey; some have taken this as evidence of an illicit affair. No personal denunciation was made of Erasmus during his lifetime, he took pains in life to distance these earlier episodes by condemning sodomy in his works, praising sexual desire in marriage between men and women. Soon after his priestly ordination, he got his chance to leave the canonry when offered the post of secretary to the Bishop of Cambrai, Henry of Bergen, on account of his great skill in Latin and his reputation as a man of letters. To allow him to accept that post, he was given a temporary dispensation from his religious vows on the grounds of
The euro sign is the currency sign used for the euro, the official currency of the European Union and some non-EU countries. The design was presented to the public by the European Commission on 12 December 1996, it consists of a stylized letter E, crossed by two lines instead of one. The character is encoded in Unicode at U+20AC € EURO SIGN. In English, the sign precedes the value. In some style guides, the euro sign is not spaced; the euro currency sign was designed to be similar in structure to the old sign for the European Currency Unit. There were 32 proposals; these ten were put to a public survey. After the survey had narrowed the original ten proposals down to two, it was up to the European Commission to choose the final design; the other designs that were considered are not available for the public to view, nor is any information regarding the designers available for public query. The European Commission considers the process of designing to have been internal and keeps these records secret.
The eventual winner was a design created by a team of four experts whose identities have not been revealed. It is assumed that the Belgian graphic designer Alain Billiet was the winner and thus the designer of the euro sign. Inspiration for the € symbol itself came from the Greek epsilon – a reference to the cradle of European civilization – and the first letter of the word Europe, crossed by two parallel lines to ‘certify’ the stability of the euro; the official story of the design history of the euro sign is disputed by Arthur Eisenmenger, a former chief graphic designer for the European Economic Community, who claims he had the idea prior to the European Commission. The European Commission specified a euro logo with exact proportions and colours, for use in public-relations material related to the euro introduction. While the Commission intended the logo to be a prescribed glyph shape, type designers made it clear that they intended to design their own variants instead. Generating the euro sign using a computer depends on the operating system and national conventions.
Some mobile phone companies issued an interim software update for their special SMS character set, replacing the less-frequent Japanese yen sign with the euro sign. Mobile phones have both currency signs; the euro is represented in the Unicode character set with the character name EURO SIGN and the code position U+20AC as well as in updated versions of the traditional Latin character set encodings. In HTML, the &euro. An implicit character encoding, along with the fact that the code position of the euro sign is different in common encoding schemes, led to many problems displaying the euro sign in computer applications. While displaying the euro sign is no problem as long as only one system is used, mixed setups produced errors. One example is a content management system where articles are stored in a database using a different character set than the editor's computer. Another is legacy software which could only handle older encodings such as ISO 8859-1 that contained no euro sign at all. In such situations, character set conversions had to be made introducing conversion errors such as a question mark being displayed instead of a euro sign.
Care has been taken to avoid replacing an existing obsolete currency sign with the euro sign. That could create different currency signs for sender and receiver in e-mails or web sites, with confusions about business agreements as a result. Depending on keyboard layout and the operating system, the symbol can be entered as: AltGr+4 AltGr+5 AltGr+E AltGr+U Ctrl+Alt+4 Ctrl+Alt+5 Ctrl+Alt+e in Microsoft Word in United States layout Alt+0128 in Microsoft Windows Ctrl+⇧ Shift+u followed by 20ac in Chrome OS, in other operating systems using IBus. Ctrl+k followed by =e in the Vim text editor On the macOS operating system, a variety of key combinations are used depending on the keyboard layout, for example: ⌥ Option+2 in British layout ⌥ Option+⇧ Shift+2 in United States layout ⌥ Option+⇧ Shift+5 in Slovenian layout ⌥ Option+$ in French layout ⌥ Option+E in German and Italian layout ⇧ Shift+4 in Swedish layoutThe Compose key sequence for the euro sign is =E. Placement of the sign varies. Countries have sustained those of their former currencies.
For example, in Ireland and the Netherlands, where previous currency signs were placed before the figure, the euro sign is universally placed in the same position. In many other countries, including France, Germany, Spain and Lithuania, an amount such as €3.50 is written as 3,50 € instead in accordance with conventions for previous currencies. The European Union did indeed usher a guideline on the use of the euro sign, stating it should be placed in front of the amount without any space in English, but after the amount in most other languages. In English, the euro sign—like the dollar sign and the pound sign —is placed before the figure, unspaced, as used by publications such as the Financial Times and The Economist; when written out, "euro" is placed after the value in lower case. No official recommendation is made with regard to the use of a cent sign, usage differs between and within m