Rationing is the controlled distribution of scarce resources, goods, or services, or an artificial restriction of demand. Rationing controls the size of the ration, one's allowed portion of the resources being distributed on a particular day or at a particular time. There are many forms of rationing, in western civilization people experience some of them in daily life without realizing it. Rationing is done to keep price below the equilibrium price determined by the process of supply and demand in an unfettered market. Thus, rationing can be complementary to price controls. An example of rationing in the face of rising prices took place in the various countries where there was rationing of gasoline during the 1973 energy crisis. A reason for setting the price lower than would clear the market may be that there is a shortage, which would drive the market price high. High prices in the case of necessities, are undesirable with regard to those who cannot afford them. Traditionalist economists argue, that high prices act to reduce waste of the scarce resource while providing incentive to produce more.
Rationing using ration stamps is only one kind of non-price rationing. For example, scarce products can be rationed using queues; this is seen, for example, at amusement parks, where one pays a price to get in and need not pay any price to go on the rides. In the absence of road pricing, access to roads is rationed in a first come, first served queueing process, leading to congestion. Authorities which introduce rationing have to deal with the rationed goods being sold illegally on the black market. Rationing has been instituted during wartime for civilians. For example, each person may be given "ration coupons" allowing him or her to purchase a certain amount of a product each month. Rationing includes food and other necessities for which there is a shortage, including materials needed for the war effort such as rubber tires, leather shoes and fuel. Rationing of food and water may become necessary during an emergency, such as a natural disaster or terror attack. In the U. S. the Federal Emergency Management Agency has established guidelines for civilians on rationing food and water supplies when replacements are not available.
According to FEMA standards, every person should have a minimum of 1 US quart per day of water, more for children, nursing mothers and the ill. Military sieges have resulted in shortages of food and other essential consumables. In such circumstances, the rations allocated to an individual are determined based on age, race or social standing. During the Siege of Lucknow a woman received three quarters the food ration a man received and children received only half. During the Siege of Ladysmith in the early stages of the Boer War in 1900 white adults received the same food rations as soldiers while children received half that. Food rations for Indian people and black people were smaller; the first modern rationing systems were brought in during the First World War. In Germany, suffering from the effects of the British blockade, a rationing system was introduced in 1914 and was expanded over the following years as the situation worsened. Although Britain did not suffer from food shortages, as the sea lanes were kept open for food imports, panic buying towards the end of the war prompted the rationing of first sugar and meat.
It is said to have in the most part benefited the health of the country, through the'levelling of consumption of essential foodstuffs'. To assist with rationing, ration books were introduced on 15 July 1918 for butter, lard and sugar. During the war, average calories intake decreased only three percent, but protein intake six percent. Food rationing appeared in Poland after the First World War, ration stamps were in use until the end of the Polish–Soviet War. Rationing became common during the Second World War. Ration stamps were used; these were redeemable stamps or coupons, every family was issued a set number of each kind of stamp based on the size of the family, ages of children and income. The British Ministry of Food refined the rationing process in the early 1940s to ensure the population did not starve when food imports were restricted and local production limited due to the large number of men fighting the war. Rationing on a scientific basis was pioneered by Elsie Widdowson and Robert McCance at the Department of Experimental Medicine, University of Cambridge.
They worked on the chemical composition of the human body, on the nutritional value of different flours used to make bread. Widdowson studied the impact of infant diet on human growth, they studied the differing effects from deficiencies of salt and of water and produced the first tables to compare the different nutritional content of foods before and after cooking. They co-authored The Chemical Composition of Foods, first published in 1940 by the Medical Research Council, their book "McCance and Widdowson" became known as the dietician's bible and formed the basis for modern nutritional thinking. In 1939, they tested whether the United Kingdom could survive with only domestic food production if U-boats ended all imports. Using 1938 food-production data, they fed themselves and other volunteers a limited diet, while simulating the strenuous wartime physical work Britons would have to perform; the scientists found that the subjects' health and performance remained good after three months. They headed the first mandated addition of vitamins and mineral to food, beginning with adding calcium to bread.
Their work became the basis of the wartime austerity diet promoted by the Minister of Food Lord Woolton. Britons'
Royal Air Force
The Royal Air Force is the United Kingdom's aerial warfare force. Formed towards the end of the First World War on 1 April 1918, it is the oldest independent air force in the world. Following victory over the Central Powers in 1918 the RAF emerged as, at the time, the largest air force in the world. Since its formation, the RAF has taken a significant role in British military history. In particular, it played a large part in the Second World War where it fought its most famous campaign, the Battle of Britain; the RAF's mission is to support the objectives of the British Ministry of Defence, which are to "provide the capabilities needed to ensure the security and defence of the United Kingdom and overseas territories, including against terrorism. The RAF describes its mission statement as "... an agile and capable Air Force that, person for person, is second to none, that makes a decisive air power contribution in support of the UK Defence Mission". The mission statement is supported by the RAF's definition of air power.
Air power is defined as "the ability to project power from the air and space to influence the behaviour of people or the course of events". Today the Royal Air Force maintains an operational fleet of various types of aircraft, described by the RAF as being "leading-edge" in terms of technology; this consists of fixed-wing aircraft, including: fighter and strike aircraft, airborne early warning and control aircraft, ISTAR and SIGINT aircraft, aerial refueling aircraft and strategic and tactical transport aircraft. The majority of the RAF's rotary-wing aircraft form part of the tri-service Joint Helicopter Command in support of ground forces. Most of the RAF's aircraft and personnel are based in the UK, with many others serving on operations or at long-established overseas bases. Although the RAF is the principal British air power arm, the Royal Navy's Fleet Air Arm and the British Army's Army Air Corps deliver air power, integrated into the maritime and land environments. While the British were not the first to make use of heavier-than-air military aircraft, the RAF is the world's oldest independent air force: that is, the first air force to become independent of army or navy control.
Following publication of the "Smuts report" prepared by Jan Smuts the RAF was founded on 1 April 1918, with headquarters located in the former Hotel Cecil, during the First World War, by the amalgamation of the Royal Flying Corps and the Royal Naval Air Service. At that time it was the largest air force in the world. After the war, the service was drastically cut and its inter-war years were quiet, with the RAF taking responsibility for the control of Iraq and executing a number of minor actions in other parts of the British Empire; the RAF's naval aviation branch, the Fleet Air Arm, was founded in 1924 but handed over to Admiralty control on 24 May 1939. The RAF developed the doctrine of strategic bombing which led to the construction of long-range bombers and became its main bombing strategy in the Second World War; the RAF underwent rapid expansion prior to and during the Second World War. Under the British Commonwealth Air Training Plan of December 1939, the air forces of British Commonwealth countries trained and formed "Article XV squadrons" for service with RAF formations.
Many individual personnel from these countries, exiles from occupied Europe served with RAF squadrons. By the end of the war the Royal Canadian Air Force had contributed more than 30 squadrons to serve in RAF formations approximately a quarter of Bomber Command's personnel were Canadian. Additionally, the Royal Australian Air Force represented around nine percent of all RAF personnel who served in the European and Mediterranean theatres. In the Battle of Britain in 1940, the RAF defended the skies over Britain against the numerically superior German Luftwaffe. In what is the most prolonged and complicated air campaign in history, the Battle of Britain contributed to the delay and subsequent indefinite postponement of Hitler's plans for an invasion of the United Kingdom. In the House of Commons on 20 August, prompted by the ongoing efforts of the RAF, Prime Minister Winston Churchill eloquently made a speech to the nation, where he said "Never in the field of human conflict was so much owed by so many to so few".
The largest RAF effort during the war was the strategic bombing campaign against Germany by Bomber Command. While RAF bombing of Germany began immediately upon the outbreak of war, under the leadership of Air Chief Marshal Harris, these attacks became devastating from 1942 onward as new technology and greater numbers of superior aircraft became available; the RAF adopted night-time area bombing on German cities such as Hamburg and Dresden, developed precision bombing techniques for specific operations, such as the "Dambusters" raid by No. 617 Squadron, or the Amiens prison raid known as Operation Jericho. Following victory in the Second World War, the RAF underwent significant re-organisation, as technological advances in air warfare saw the arrival of jet fighters and bombers. During the early stages of the Cold War, one of the first major operations undertaken by the Royal Air Force was in 1948 and the Berlin Airlift, codenamed Operation Plainfire. Between 26 June and the lifting of the Russian blockade of the city on 2 May, the RAF provided 17% of the total supplies delivered du
Effect of siege on Leningrad
The 872-day Siege of Leningrad, resulted from the failure of the German Army Group North to capture Leningrad in the Eastern Front. The siege lasted from September 8, 1941 to January 27, 1944 and was one of the longest and most destructive sieges in history, causing considerable devastation to the city of Leningrad; the timeline of events is. June 22: Operation Barbarossa begins. June 29: Evacuation of children and women from Leningrad starts. June–July: Over 300,000 civilian refugees from Pskov and Novgorod manage to escape from the advancing Germans, come to Leningrad for shelter; the German and Russian armies form lines at Leningrad. Total military strength with reserves and volunteers reaches two million men involved on all sides of the emerging battle. July 17: Food rationing begins in Leningrad and suburbs. July 19–23: First attack on Leningrad by Army Group North is stopped 100 km south of the city. August 20–September 8: Artillery bombardments of Leningrad are massive, targeting industries, schools and civilian houses.
August 20–27: Evacuation of civilians is stopped by the German attacks on railroads and other exits from Leningrad. August 21: Hitler's Directive No.34 ordered "Encirclement of Leningrad and junction with the Finns." September 2–9: Finns finish the capture of the salients of Beloostrov and Kirjasalo and start to prepare defenses. September 8: Encirclement of Leningrad is completed when the German forces reach the shores of Lake Ladoga. September 16: Dmitri Shostakovich gives radio address to citizens of Leningrad. "We shall stand up all together and defend our city". September 19: German troops are stopped 10 km from Leningrad. Masses of citizens and schoolchildren come to fight in defense lines. September 22: Hitler issues "Directive No. 1601" ordering "St. Petersburg must be erased from the face of the Earth" and "we have no interest in saving lives of civilian population." October: Food shortages cause serious starvation of civilians. Civilian deaths exceed hundreds of thousands by the end of the Autumn.
Shostakovich and his family are evacuated to Kuybishev. November 8: Hitler's speech in Munich: "Leningrad must die of starvation." November: Massive German bombing destroy all major food stores in Leningrad. Tikhvin strategic offensive operation, Malaya Vishera offensive operation, Tikhvin–Kirishi offensive operation. December: Daily death toll is 5,000–7,000 civilians. Total civilian deaths in the first year of the siege are 780,000 citizens. December 25: On Christmas Day 5,000 civilian deaths registered in Leningrad, more unregistered are left buried under the snow until the next year. December: Winston Churchill wrote in his diary "Leningrad is encircled" sent a letter to Mannerheim requesting that the Finnish army should stop harassing the railroads north of Leningrad used for American and British food and ammunition supplies to Leningrad by British and American Arctic convoys. January–December: Direct Nazi artillery bombardments of the historic center of Saint Petersburg from a distance of 16 km from the Hermitage January–December: Total civilian death toll in the second year of the siege is about 500,000 citizens.
January–February: The deadliest months of the siege: every month 130,000 civilians are found dead in Leningrad and suburbs. January: Energy supplies are destroyed by the Nazi bombardments in the city. Heating supplies are destroyed, causing more deaths. February–April: Bread rations increased to 300 grams per one child per day. Adult workers are allowed a ration of 500 grams per day. Frozen food is delivered in limited amounts only to support active soldiers and key industrial workers; some food supplies are delivered across the ice on Lake Ladoga. However, many delivery cars are destroyed by Nazi aircraft. January–May: Tens of thousands of children join the "Night watch" to stop many fires from the bombing. Many children are killed while performing this duty. May 16: First official decoration of schoolchildren for their courage. 15 thousand children are decorated for their courage during the siege of Leningrad. March–May: Cholera cases are registered in Leningrad, but the infection is isolated stopped.
An epidemic situation is contained within several weeks, remains under control for the rest of the year. However, hospitals are suffering from shortages of energy and food. Thousands of doctors and nurses are killed at work. Of about 30,000 medical doctors and 100,000 medical nurses in pre-war St. Petersburg, less than a half survived the siege. April 4: Operation Eis Stoß begins under the personal control of Hermann Göring. Hundreds of Luftwaffe bombers make a series of air raids on Leningrad with incendiary and high explosive bombs. May: Streetcars return to some streets in Leningrad, allowing some children to go to the remaining schools that are not destroyed. Boats on Lake Ladoga start food deliveries to the starving survivors of Leningrad. June–September: Newer heavy artillery is stationed 10–28 km from the city and bombards Leningrad with 800 kg shells; the Nazis make special maps of Leningrad for artillery bombardments targeting the city infrastructure, transportation and hospitals. August 9: Premiere of the Leningrad Symphony by the Leningrad Radio Orchestra under Karl Eliasberg.
Sinyavino offensive operation January–December: Only about seven hundred children were born alive in Leningrad over 1943, in the aftermath of previous years of the siege. Before the war, in 1939, over 175,000 children were born in Leningrad and its suburbs, another 171,000 babies were born in 1938. Most died on roads seeking safety by evacuation. January: Temporary penetration throug
The Kingdom of the Netherlands During World War II
The Kingdom of the Netherlands During World War II is the standard reference on the history of the Netherlands during World War II. The series was written by Loe de Jong, director of the Dutch Institute for War Documentation, was published between 1969 and 1991; the series contains 14 volumes, published in 29 parts. De Jong was commissioned to write the work in 1955 by the Ministry of Education and Science; the first volume appeared in 1969, de Jong wrote his last in 1988. The final volume, containing critique and responses, appeared in 1991. Loe de Jong was commissioned to write The Kingdom of the Netherlands During World War II by the Ministry of Education and Sciences, the predecessor of the current Ministry of Education and Science; the series was to be completed in 15 years and comprise six or seven volumes, but it took de Jong until 1969 to publish the first volume. The government intended for the series to be edited by four professors of the four main Dutch politico-denominational pillars, who realized that they would be unable to fulfill the task in addition to their regular obligations.
Instead, the assignment was given to de Jong a young historian who had argued for such a reference work in 1948 and became the first director of the NIOD. De Jong himself wrote the first thirteen volumes, the last of, published in 1988. In 1987, the Ministry of Education and Sciences, in response to criticism, asked the NIOD to appoint an investigative committee to evaluate de Jong's thirteen volumes and write a fourteenth, to include the opinions of other historians; this committee, made up of Jan Bank, Cees Fasseur, A. F. Manning, E. H. Kossmann, A. H. Paape, Ivo Schöffer, published the fourteenth and final volume in 1991, with Jan Bank, professor of Dutch history at Leiden University, Peter Romijn, department head at NIOD and professor of history at the University of Amsterdam, as general editors. An electronic edition of the 18,000 pages was made available for downloading on 11 December 2011. De Jong's work gained much popular currency when parts of it were televised in a documentary television series from the 1960s, De Bezetting, directed by Milo Anstadt.
It established de Jong as a figure of a media personality. He was chastised for being overly concerned with his own image and reputation, a critique extended to his historical work—for instance, his cursory investigation in 1965 of the activities during World War II of Claus von Amsberg fiancé of crown princess Beatrix, was deemed insufficient and too positive. De Jong's work is regarded as the most important Dutch publication on World War II, in the series he uncovered hitherto unpublicized events from the war, such as the death by firing squad of Dutch deserter Chris Meijer, executed for desertion on 12 May 1940 after a quick court-martial—he was the only Dutch soldier to be executed by the Dutch in the twentieth century. De Jong's work supported and contributed to a vision of the Dutch during the war that has come under fire; the general idea presented in The Kingdom of the Netherlands During World War II is that the Dutch fought bravely against the German occupier, that after they were defeated they continued to resist the occupation, with only a minority collaborating with them for instance by joining the National Socialist Movement in the Netherlands.
Moreover, most Dutch people helped their Jewish fellow citizens in hiding. This myth dominated the view the Dutch had of themselves, supported in great measure by de Jong, until historians began publishing more critical studies; these pointed out that, comparatively speaking, a larger percentage of Jews was deported than in surrounding countries, that the Dutch economy at least until 1942 fared well under the German occupation, that as late as 1944 the economy was growing due in part to Dutch companies trading with the Wehrmacht. In recent years, his influence has waned, his treatment of various topics has come under criticism. With each volume's publication, national discussion on the war and the way de Jong described it started anew increasingly, until members of the investigative committee publicly vented their unease with de Jong, his writing, his media presence. In a 1981 article published in Het Parool, P. W. Klein a historian at Erasmus University Rotterdam criticized de Jong's work: His moralizing stance, his tone so full of pathos, the unverifiability of his statements, his chronicling approach, the lack of thematic analysis of structures and processes, his blindness toward the functioning of impersonal societal forces, his uneven treatment of the material—directed more by what happens to be known than by problem-oriented investigation—his verbosity, the lack of documentation, the ease with which he accepts sources as correct or incorrect, his limitless approvals and disapprovals in regards to people: it is all fodder for historical criticism.
According to I. Vuisje, author of Tegen beter weten in. Zelfbedrog en ontkenning in de Nederlandse geschiedschrijving over de Jodenvervolging, de Jong stated incorrectly that most Dutch citizens did not know the fate of deported Jews. David Barnouw of NIOD responded by saying that de Jong's assessment was more nuanced than Vuisje made it appear, that Vuisje argued
A famine is a widespread scarcity of food, caused by several factors including war, crop failure, population imbalance, or government policies. This phenomenon is accompanied or followed by regional malnutrition, starvation and increased mortality; every inhabited continent in the world has experienced a period of famine throughout history. In the 19th and 20th century, it was Southeast and South Asia, as well as Eastern and Central Europe that suffered the most deaths from famine; the numbers dying from famine began to fall from the 2000s. Some countries in sub-Saharan Africa, continue to have extreme cases of famine. Since 2010, Africa has been the most affected continent in the world; as of 2017, the United Nations has warned some 20 million are at risk in South Sudan, Somalia and Yemen. The distribution of food has been affected by conflict. Most programmes now direct their aid towards Africa. According to the United Nations humanitarian criteria if there are food shortages with large numbers of people lacking nutrition, a famine is declared only when certain measures of mortality and hunger are met.
The criteria are: At least 20% of households in an area face extreme food shortages with a limited ability to cope The prevalence of acute malnutrition in children exceeds 30% The death rate exceeds two people per 10,000 people per dayThe declaration of a famine carries no binding obligations on the UN or member states, but serves to focus global attention on the problem. The cyclical occurrence of famine has been a mainstay of societies engaged in subsistence agriculture since the dawn of agriculture itself; the frequency and intensity of famine has fluctuated throughout history, depending on changes in food demand, such as population growth, supply-side shifts caused by changing climatic conditions. Famine was first eliminated in Holland and England during the 17th century, due to the commercialization of agriculture and the implementation of improved techniques to increase crop yields. In the 16th and 17th century, the feudal system began to break down, more prosperous farmers began to enclose their own land and improve their yields to sell the surplus crops for a profit.
These capitalist landowners paid their labourers with money, thereby increasing the commercialization of rural society. In the emerging competitive labour market, better techniques for the improvement of labour productivity were valued and rewarded, it was in the farmer's interest to produce as much as possible on their land in order to sell it to areas that demanded that product. They produced guaranteed surpluses of their crop every year. Subsistence peasants were increasingly forced to commercialize their activities because of increasing taxes. Taxes that had to be paid to central governments in money forced the peasants to produce crops to sell. Sometimes they produced industrial crops, but they would find ways to increase their production in order to meet both their subsistence requirements as well as their tax obligations. Peasants used the new money to purchase manufactured goods; the agricultural and social developments encouraging increased food production were taking place throughout the 16th century, but took off in the early 17th century.
By the 1590s, these trends were sufficiently developed in the rich and commercialized province of Holland to allow its population to withstand a general outbreak of famine in Western Europe at that time. By that time, the Netherlands had one of the most commercialized agricultural systems in Europe, they grew many industrial crops such as flax and hops. Agriculture became specialized and efficient; the efficiency of Dutch agriculture allowed for much more rapid urbanization in the late sixteenth and early seventeenth centuries than anywhere else in Europe. As a result and wealth increased, allowing the Netherlands to maintain a steady food supply. By 1650, English agriculture had become commercialized on a much wider scale; the last peacetime famine in England was in 1623–24. There were still periods of hunger, as in the Netherlands, but no more famines occurred. Common areas for pasture were enclosed for private use and large scale, efficient farms were consolidated. Other technical developments included the draining of marshes, more efficient field use patterns, the wider introduction of industrial crops.
These agricultural developments led to wider prosperity in increasing urbanization. By the end of the 17th century, English agriculture was the most productive in Europe. In both England and the Netherlands, the population stabilized between 1650 and 1750, the same time period in which the sweeping changes to agriculture occurred. Famine still occurred in other parts of Europe, however. In East Europe, famines occurred as late as the twentieth century; because of the severity of famine, it was a chief concern for other authorities. In pre-industrial Europe, preventing famine, ensuring timely food supplies, was one of the chief concerns of many governments, although they were limited in their options due to limited levels of external trade and an infrastructure and bureaucracy too rudimentary to effect real relief. Most governments were concerned by famine because it could lead to revolt and other forms of social disruption. By the mid-19th century and the onset of the Industrial Revolution, it became possible for governments to alleviate the effects of famine through price controls, large scale importation of food products from foreign markets, rationing, regulation of production and charity.
The Great Famine of 1845 in Ireland was one of the first famines to feature such intervention, although the government respon
Netherlands in World War II
Despite being neutral, the Netherlands in World War II was invaded by Nazi Germany on 10 May 1940, under orders of Adolf Hitler. On 15 May 1940, one day after the bombing of Rotterdam, the Dutch forces surrendered; the Dutch government and the royal family saved themselves by going to London. Princess Juliana and her children moved on to Canada for additional safety; the Netherlands was placed under German occupation, which endured in some areas until the German surrender in May 1945. Active resistance was carried out by a minority; the occupiers deported the majority of the country's Jews to Nazi concentration camps. Due to the high variation in the survival rate of Jewish inhabitants among local regions in the Netherlands, scholars have questioned the validity of a single explanation at the national level. In part due to the well-organized population registers, about 70% of the country's Jewish population were killed during the conflict, a much higher percentage than comparable countries, such as Belgium and France.
In 2008, records were opened that revealed the Germans had paid a bounty to Dutch police and administration officials to locate and identify Jews, aiding in their capture. But, uniquely among all German occupied areas, the city of Amsterdam organized an industrial action to protest the persecution of its Jewish citizens. World War II occurred in four distinct phases in the European Netherlands: September 1939 to May 1940: The war breaks out but the Netherlands declares neutrality, is invaded and occupied. May 1940 to June 1941: An economic boom caused by orders from Germany, combined with the'velvet glove' approach from Arthur Seyss-Inquart, resulted in a mild occupation. June 1941 to June 1944: As the war intensifies, Germany demands higher contributions from occupied territory, resulting in a decline of life standards. Repression against the Jewish population intensifies and thousands are deported to extermination camps. The'velvet glove' approach has ended. June 1944 to May 1945: Conditions deteriorate further, leading to starvation and lack of fuel.
The German occupation authorities lose control over the situation. Fanatical Nazis want to commit acts of destruction. Others try to mitigate the situation. Most of the south of the country was liberated in the second half of 1944; the rest the west and north of the country still under occupation, suffered from a famine at the end of 1944, known as the "Hunger Winter". On 5 May 1945, the whole country was liberated by the total surrender of all German forces. Dutch governments between 1929 and 1943 were dominated by Christian and center-right political parties. From 1933, the Netherlands were hit by the Great Depression, which had begun in 1929; the incumbent government of Hendrikus Colijn pursued a programme of extensive cuts to maintain the value of the Guilder, resulting in workers' riots in Amsterdam and a naval mutiny between 1933 and 1934. In 1936, the government was forced to abandon the gold standard and devalue the currency. Numerous fascist movements emerged in the Netherlands during the Great Depression era, inspired by Italian Fascism or German Nazism.
But, they never attracted enough members to be an effective mass-movement. The pro-Nazi movement NSB, supported by the Nazi Party which took power in Germany in 1933, attempted to expand in 1935. Nazi-style racial ideology had limited appeal in the Netherlands. At the time of the outbreak of World War II, the NSB was declining, both in numbers of members and numbers of voters. During the interwar period the government undertook a significant increase in civil infrastructure projects and land reclamation, including the Zuiderzee Works; this resulted in the final draining of seawater from the Wieringermeerpolder, the completion of the Afsluitdijk dike. During World War I, the Dutch government under Pieter Cort van der Linden had managed to preserve the Dutch neutrality throughout the conflict. In the inter-war period, the Netherlands had continued to pursue its "Independence Policy" after the rise to power of the Nazi Party in Germany in 1933; the conservative prime minister Colijn, who held power from 1933 until 1939, believed the Netherlands would never be able to withstand an attack by a major power.
Pragmatically, the government did not spend much on the military. Although military spending was doubled between 1938 and 1939, amid the rising international tensions, it constituted only 4% of national spending in 1939, in contrast to nearly 25% in Nazi-ruled Germany; the Dutch government believed it would be able to rely on its neutrality, or at least the informal support of foreign powers, to defend its interests in case of war. The government did begin to work on plans for the defence of the country; this included an area to the east of Amsterdam, which would be flooded. From 1939, fortified positions were constructed, including the Grebbe and Peel-Raam Lines, to protect the key cities of Dordrecht, Utrecht and Amsterdam, creating a Vesting Holland. In late 1939, with war declared between the British Empire and Nazi Germany, the German government issued a guarantee of neutrality to the Netherlands; the government mobilized the Dutch military from August 1939, reaching its full strength by April 1940.
Despite its policy of neutrality, the Netherlands was invaded on the morning of 10 May 1940, without a formal declaration of war, by German forces moving into Belgium and Luxembourg. The attackers meant to draw Allied forces away from the Ardennes and to lure British and French forces deeper into Belgium, but to pre-empt a possible British invasion in North Holland; the Luftwaffe needed to take over the Dut
Epigenetics is the study of heritable phenotype changes that do not involve alterations in the DNA sequence. The Greek prefix epi- in epigenetics implies features that are "on top of" or "in addition to" the traditional genetic basis for inheritance. Epigenetics most denotes changes that affect gene activity and expression, but can be used to describe any heritable phenotypic change; such effects on cellular and physiological phenotypic traits may result from external or environmental factors, or be part of normal development. The standard definition of epigenetics requires these alterations to be heritable, either in the progeny of cells or of organisms; the term refers to the changes themselves: functionally relevant changes to the genome that do not involve a change in the nucleotide sequence. Examples of mechanisms that produce such changes are DNA methylation and histone modification, each of which alters how genes are expressed without altering the underlying DNA sequence. Gene expression can be controlled through the action of repressor proteins that attach to silencer regions of the DNA.
These epigenetic changes may last through cell divisions for the duration of the cell's life, may last for multiple generations though they do not involve changes in the underlying DNA sequence of the organism. One example of an epigenetic change in eukaryotic biology is the process of cellular differentiation. During morphogenesis, totipotent stem cells become the various pluripotent cell lines of the embryo, which in turn become differentiated cells. In other words, as a single fertilized egg cell – the zygote – continues to divide, the resulting daughter cells change into all the different cell types in an organism, including neurons, muscle cells, endothelium of blood vessels, etc. by activating some genes while inhibiting the expression of others. Some phenomena not heritable have been described as epigenetic. For example, the term epigenetic has been used to describe any modification of chromosomal regions histone modifications, whether or not these changes are heritable or associated with a phenotype.
The consensus definition now requires a trait to be heritable. The term epigenetics in its contemporary usage emerged in the 1990s, but for some years has been used in somewhat variable meanings. A consensus definition of the concept of epigenetic trait as "stably heritable phenotype resulting from changes in a chromosome without alterations in the DNA sequence" was formulated at a Cold Spring Harbor meeting in 2008, although alternate definitions that include non-heritable traits are still being used; the term epigenesis has a generic meaning "extra growth". It has been used in English since the 17th century. From the generic meaning, the associated adjective epigenetic, C. H. Waddington coined the term epigenetics in 1942 as pertaining to epigenesis, in parallel to Valentin Haecker's'phenogenetics'. Epigenesis in the context of the biology of that period referred to the differentiation of cells from their initial totipotent state in embryonic development; when Waddington coined the term, the physical nature of genes and their role in heredity was not known.
Waddington held that cell fates were established in development much as a marble rolls down to the point of lowest local elevation. Waddington suggested visualising increasing irreversibility of cell type differentiation as ridges rising between the valleys where the marbles are travelling. In recent times Waddington's notion of the epigenetic landscape has been rigorously formalized in the context of the systems dynamics state approach to the study of cell-fate. Cell-fate determination is predicted to exhibit certain dynamics, such as attractor-convergence or oscillatory; the term "epigenetic" has been used in developmental psychology to describe psychological development as the result of an ongoing, bi-directional interchange between heredity and the environment. Interactivist ideas of development have been discussed in various forms and under various names throughout the 19th and 20th centuries. An early version was proposed, among the founding statements in embryology, by Karl Ernst von Baer and popularized by Ernst Haeckel.
A radical epigenetic view was developed by Paul Wintrebert. Another variation, probabilistic epigenesis, was presented by Gilbert Gottlieb in 2003; this view encompasses all of the possible developing factors on an organism and how they not only influence the organism and each other, but how the organism influences its own development. The developmental psychologist Erik Erikson wrote of an epigenetic principle in his book Identity: Youth and Crisis, encompassing the notion that we develop through an unfolding of our personality in predetermined stages, that our environment and surrounding culture influence how we progress through these stages; this biological unfolding in relation to our socio-cultural settings is done in stages of psychosocial development, where "progress through each stage is in part determined by our success, or lack of success, in all the previous stages." Robin Holliday defined epigenetics as "the study of the mechanisms of temporal and spatial control of gene activity during the development of complex organisms."
Thus epigenetic can be used to describe anything other than DNA s