Overijssel is a province of the Netherlands located in the eastern part of the country. The province's name translates to "across the IJssel", from the perspective of the Episcopal principality of Utrecht by which it was held until 1528; the capital city of Overijssel is Zwolle and the largest city is Enschede. The province had a population of 1,142,360 in 2015. Overijssel is bordered by Germany to the east, the Achterhoek region of Gelderland to the south, the Veluwe region of Gelderland and Flevoland to the west, Friesland and the former moors of Drenthe to the north. Overijssel comprises three regions: Kop van Overijssel in the northwest, Salland in the centre of the province, Twente in the east. Besides the capital Zwolle, other major cities are Almelo, Deventer and Hengelo. To the southeast, the province's surface is sandy, interspersed with small rivers such as the Regge and Dinkel and other brooks. In the northwest, the geology is dominated by sediments from clay; the northern parts were once covered by veen which separated the dryer and more arable south from Drenthe and which have been exploited as fuel to a large degree.
Only small patches survive today (Engbertsdijksvenen near Tubbergen and the Aamsveen. The extreme northwest is dominated by a system of lakes formed by former peat-mining and protected under the De Weerribben-Wieden National Park status, a valuable wetland; the highest point in Overijssel is the summit of the Tankenberg, a hill in the municipality of Losser, at 85 metres. The lowest point is in the Mastenbroek Polder near Kampen at 2 metres below sea level. Overijssel enjoys an oceanic climate. However, winters tend to be less mild than the rest of the Netherlands, because of its distance from the coast. Overijssel was known as Oversticht and included most of the modern-day province of Drenthe. In 1336, it was made part of Guelders, though it was ceded to the Bishopric of Utrecht in 1347; the Bishops ceded the Oversticht to the Emperor Charles V in 1528, who styled himself Lord of Overijssel, after the Latin name of Oversticht, known since 1233: Transysla or Transisalania, or Over-IJssel, i.e. the other side of the river IJssel.
The people joined with the other Dutch and rebelled against Charles' heir Philip II. Overijssel became governed by the most powerful mayors and lords in the province, including by the luitenant-governor Nicolaas Schmelzing. After a brief occupation by the forces of the Bishop of Münster, Overijssel received a new form of government which granted the stadtholders more power. Widespread resistance against the increased power throughout the provinces led to the formation of the Batavian Republic in 1795. A centralist government arose and the Netherlands was organised into a series of départements, based on those used by revolutionary France. At first organised into its own département, it was merged with Drenthe in 1798 to form Ouden IJssel, renamed Overijssel in 1801; the French annexed the Batavian Republic in 1810, Overijssel was organised into the new French département of Bouches-de-l'Yssel. After the defeat of Napoleon in 1814, the kingdom of the Netherlands and the former province of Overijssel were recreated.
Overijssel was occupied by Nazi Germany during World War II from May 1940 until its liberation in April 1945. The Noordoostpolder, a reclaimed territory, laid dry in 1942, was part of Overijssel from 1962 until 1986, when it became part of the newly created province of Flevoland; the King's Commissioner of Overijssel is a vacant position as previous title holder Ank Bijleveld was appointed to be Minister of defence on 26 October 2017. The King's Commissioner is the chairman of the Provincial-Executive and the States-Provincial of the province. There are three main motorways in Overijssel, the A1, A28, the A35; the A32 runs through the province, but just for a few kilometers near Steenwijk. The main railway station in Overijssel is the Zwolle railway station, located in the city of Zwolle which serves as hub between the northern provinces and the rest of The Netherlands; the main airport in Overijssel is the Enschede Airport Twente, located outside of Enschede. The airport does not offer any international flights, though it has historically.
Overisel Township, Michigan, US was named after Overijssel Tanfana Official website Participation platform of Overijssel Overijssel travel guide from Wikivoyage
The euro is the official currency of 19 of the 28 member states of the European Union. This group of states is known as the eurozone or euro area, counts about 343 million citizens as of 2019; the euro is the second largest and second most traded currency in the foreign exchange market after the United States dollar. The euro is subdivided into 100 cents; the currency is used by the institutions of the European Union, by four European microstates that are not EU members, as well as unilaterally by Montenegro and Kosovo. Outside Europe, a number of special territories of EU members use the euro as their currency. Additionally, 240 million people worldwide as of 2018 use currencies pegged to the euro; the euro is the second largest reserve currency as well as the second most traded currency in the world after the United States dollar. As of August 2018, with more than €1.2 trillion in circulation, the euro has one of the highest combined values of banknotes and coins in circulation in the world, having surpassed the U.
S. dollar. The name euro was adopted on 16 December 1995 in Madrid; the euro was introduced to world financial markets as an accounting currency on 1 January 1999, replacing the former European Currency Unit at a ratio of 1:1. Physical euro coins and banknotes entered into circulation on 1 January 2002, making it the day-to-day operating currency of its original members, by March 2002 it had replaced the former currencies. While the euro dropped subsequently to US$0.83 within two years, it has traded above the U. S. dollar since the end of 2002, peaking at US$1.60 on 18 July 2008. In late 2009, the euro became immersed in the European sovereign-debt crisis, which led to the creation of the European Financial Stability Facility as well as other reforms aimed at stabilising and strengthening the currency; the euro is managed and administered by the Frankfurt-based European Central Bank and the Eurosystem. As an independent central bank, the ECB has sole authority to set monetary policy; the Eurosystem participates in the printing and distribution of notes and coins in all member states, the operation of the eurozone payment systems.
The 1992 Maastricht Treaty obliges most EU member states to adopt the euro upon meeting certain monetary and budgetary convergence criteria, although not all states have done so. The United Kingdom and Denmark negotiated exemptions, while Sweden turned down the euro in a 2003 referendum, has circumvented the obligation to adopt the euro by not meeting the monetary and budgetary requirements. All nations that have joined the EU since 1993 have pledged to adopt the euro in due course. Since 1 January 2002, the national central banks and the ECB have issued euro banknotes on a joint basis. Euro banknotes do not show. Eurosystem NCBs are required to accept euro banknotes put into circulation by other Eurosystem members and these banknotes are not repatriated; the ECB issues 8% of the total value of banknotes issued by the Eurosystem. In practice, the ECB's banknotes are put into circulation by the NCBs, thereby incurring matching liabilities vis-à-vis the ECB; these liabilities carry interest at the main refinancing rate of the ECB.
The other 92% of euro banknotes are issued by the NCBs in proportion to their respective shares of the ECB capital key, calculated using national share of European Union population and national share of EU GDP weighted. The euro is divided into 100 cents. In Community legislative acts the plural forms of euro and cent are spelled without the s, notwithstanding normal English usage. Otherwise, normal English plurals are sometimes used, with many local variations such as centime in France. All circulating coins have a common side showing the denomination or value, a map in the background. Due to the linguistic plurality in the European Union, the Latin alphabet version of euro is used and Arabic numerals. For the denominations except the 1-, 2- and 5-cent coins, the map only showed the 15 member states which were members when the euro was introduced. Beginning in 2007 or 2008 the old map is being replaced by a map of Europe showing countries outside the Union like Norway, Belarus, Russia or Turkey.
The 1-, 2- and 5-cent coins, keep their old design, showing a geographical map of Europe with the 15 member states of 2002 raised somewhat above the rest of the map. All common sides were designed by Luc Luycx; the coins have a national side showing an image chosen by the country that issued the coin. Euro coins from any member state may be used in any nation that has adopted the euro; the coins are issued in denominations of €2, €1, 50c, 20c, 10c, 5c, 2c, 1c. To avoid the use of the two smallest coins, some cash transactions are rounded to the nearest five cents in the Netherlands and Ireland and in Finland; this practice is discouraged by the Commission, as is the practice of certain shops of refusing to accept high-value euro notes. Commemorative coins with €2 face value have been issued with changes to the design of the national side of the coin; these include both issued coins, such as the €2 commemorative coin for the fiftieth anniversary of the signing of the Treaty of Rome, nationally i
The Dutch guilder or fl. was the currency of the Netherlands from the 17th century until 2002, when it was replaced by the euro. Between 1999 and 2002, the guilder was a "national subunit" of the euro. However, physical payments could only be made in guilder, as no euro coins or banknotes were available; the Netherlands Antillean guilder is still in use in Curaçao and Sint Maarten, but this currency is distinct from the Dutch guilder. In 2004, the Surinamese guilder was replaced by the Surinamese dollar; the Dutch name gulden was a Middle Dutch adjective meaning "golden", the name indicates the coin was made of gold. The symbol ƒ or fl. for the Dutch guilder was derived from the florin. The exact exchange rate, still relevant for old contracts and for exchange of the old currency for euros at the central bank, is 2.20371 Dutch guilders for 1 euro. Inverted, this gives EUR 0.453780 for NLG 1. Before the introduction of the first guilder, there were regional and foreign golden coins that were referred to as "gulden" in Dutch.
The first internationally accepted. Before that, the County of Holland had minted golden coins since 1378. An early guilder, a 10.61-gram.910 silver coin, was minted by the States of Holland and West Friesland in 1680. The original guilder design featured Pallas Athena standing, holding a spear topped by a hat in her right hand, resting with her left forearm on Gospels set on an ornate basis, with a small shield in the legend; this guilder was divided into each of 8 duiten or 16 penningen. The guilder replaced other silver coin denominations circulating in the United Netherlands: the florijn, the daalder, the rijksdaalder, the silver ducat and the silver rider ducaton. Between 1810 and 1814, the Netherlands was annexed to France and the French franc circulated. After the Napoleonic wars, the Kingdom of the Netherlands readopted the guilder. In 1817 it became decimalised, with one guilder equal to 100 cents. However, it was not until 1848 that the last pre-decimal coins were withdrawn from circulation, whilst some of the new, decimal coins continued to bear nicknames based on their values in the older currency system through to the 21st century.
Until 1948, the plural of cent used on coins was centen. The Netherlands was on a bimetallic standard, with the guilder equal to 605.61 milligrams of fine gold or 9.615 grams of fine silver. In 1840, the silver standard was adjusted to 9.45 grams, with the gold standard suspended in 1848. In 1875, the Netherlands adopted a gold standard with 1 guilder equal to 604.8 milligrams of fine gold. The gold standard was suspended between 1914 and 1925 and was abandoned in 1936. In 1914 the guilder was traded at a rate of 2.46 guilders = 1 U. S. dollar. As of 1938, the rate was 1.82 guilders = 1 U. S. dollar. One Dutch guilder in 1914 could buy the same amount of goods and services as 10.02 U. S. dollars or 8.17 Euros in December 2017. In 1938, the guilder purchasing power would be equal to 9.54 U. S. dollars or 7.78 Euros in December 2017. Overall, the guilder remained a stable currency and was the third highest-valued currency unit in Europe in the interwar period. Following the German occupation, on 10 May 1940, the guilder was pegged to the Reichsmark at a rate of 1 guilder = 1.5 Reichsmark.
This rate was reduced to 1.327 on 17 July of the same year. The liberating Allied forces set an exchange rate of 2.652 guilders = 1 U. S. dollar, which became the peg for the guilder within the Bretton Woods system. In 1949, the peg was changed to 3.8 guilders = 1 dollar matching the devaluation of the British pound. In 1961, the guilder was revalued to 3.62 guilders = 1 dollar, a change in line with that of the German mark. After 1967 guilders were made from nickel instead of silver. In 2002, the guilder was replaced by the euro at an exchange rate of 2.20371 guilders. Coins remained exchangeable for euros at branches of the Netherlands Central Bank until 1 January 2007. Banknotes valid at the time of conversion to the euro may be exchanged there until 1 January 2032. In the 18th century, coins were issued by the various provinces. There were copper 1 duit, silver 1, 2, 6 and 10 stuivers, 1 and 3 guilders, 1⁄2 and 1 rijksdaalder and 1⁄2 and 1 ducaton. Gold 1 and 2-ducat trade coins were minted.
Between 1795 and 1806, the Batavian Republic issued coins in similar denominations to the earlier provincial issues. The Kingdom of Holland minted silver 10 stuivers, 1 florin and 1 guilder, 50 stuivers and 2 1⁄2 guilder and 1 rijksdaalder, along with gold 10 and 20 guilders. Before decimalization, the Kingdom of the Netherlands issued some 1 rijksdaalder coins; the gold 1 and 2 ducat and silver ducat are still minted today as bullion coins. In 1817, the first coins of the decimal currency were issued, the copper 1 cent and silver 3 guilders; the remaining denominations were introduced in 1818. These were copper 1⁄2 cents, silver 5, 10 and 25 cents, 1⁄2 and 1 guilder, gold 10 guilders. In 1826, gold 5-guilder coins were introduced. In 1840, the silver content of the coinage was reduced and this was marked by the replacement of the 3-guilder coin by a 2 1⁄2-guilder piece; the gold coinage was su
The Netherlands is a country located in Northwestern Europe. The European portion of the Netherlands consists of twelve separate provinces that border Germany to the east, Belgium to the south, the North Sea to the northwest, with maritime borders in the North Sea with Belgium and the United Kingdom. Together with three island territories in the Caribbean Sea—Bonaire, Sint Eustatius and Saba— it forms a constituent country of the Kingdom of the Netherlands; the official language is Dutch, but a secondary official language in the province of Friesland is West Frisian. The six largest cities in the Netherlands are Amsterdam, The Hague, Utrecht and Tilburg. Amsterdam is the country's capital, while The Hague holds the seat of the States General and Supreme Court; the Port of Rotterdam is the largest port in Europe, the largest in any country outside Asia. The country is a founding member of the EU, Eurozone, G10, NATO, OECD and WTO, as well as a part of the Schengen Area and the trilateral Benelux Union.
It hosts several intergovernmental organisations and international courts, many of which are centered in The Hague, dubbed'the world's legal capital'. Netherlands means'lower countries' in reference to its low elevation and flat topography, with only about 50% of its land exceeding 1 metre above sea level, nearly 17% falling below sea level. Most of the areas below sea level, known as polders, are the result of land reclamation that began in the 16th century. With a population of 17.30 million people, all living within a total area of 41,500 square kilometres —of which the land area is 33,700 square kilometres —the Netherlands is one of the most densely populated countries in the world. It is the world's second-largest exporter of food and agricultural products, owing to its fertile soil, mild climate, intensive agriculture; the Netherlands was the third country in the world to have representative government, it has been a parliamentary constitutional monarchy with a unitary structure since 1848.
The country has a tradition of pillarisation and a long record of social tolerance, having legalised abortion and human euthanasia, along with maintaining a progressive drug policy. The Netherlands abolished the death penalty in 1870, allowed women's suffrage in 1917, became the world's first country to legalise same-sex marriage in 2001, its mixed-market advanced economy had the thirteenth-highest per capita income globally. The Netherlands ranks among the highest in international indexes of press freedom, economic freedom, human development, quality of life, as well as happiness; the Netherlands' turbulent history and shifts of power resulted in exceptionally many and varying names in different languages. There is diversity within languages; this holds for English, where Dutch is the adjective form and the misnomer Holland a synonym for the country "Netherlands". Dutch comes from Theodiscus and in the past centuries, the hub of Dutch culture is found in its most populous region, home to the capital city of Amsterdam.
Referring to the Netherlands as Holland in the English language is similar to calling the United Kingdom "Britain" by people outside the UK. The term is so pervasive among potential investors and tourists, that the Dutch government's international websites for tourism and trade are "holland.com" and "hollandtradeandinvest.com". The region of Holland consists of North and South Holland, two of the nation's twelve provinces a single province, earlier still, the County of Holland, a remnant of the dissolved Frisian Kingdom. Following the decline of the Duchy of Brabant and the County of Flanders, Holland became the most economically and politically important county in the Low Countries region; the emphasis on Holland during the formation of the Dutch Republic, the Eighty Years' War and the Anglo-Dutch Wars in the 16th, 17th and 18th century, made Holland serve as a pars pro toto for the entire country, now considered either incorrect, informal, or, depending on context, opprobrious. Nonetheless, Holland is used in reference to the Netherlands national football team.
The region called the Low Countries and the Country of the Netherlands. Place names with Neder, Nieder and Nedre and Bas or Inferior are in use in places all over Europe, they are sometimes used in a deictic relation to a higher ground that consecutively is indicated as Upper, Oben, Superior or Haut. In the case of the Low Countries / Netherlands the geographical location of the lower region has been more or less downstream and near the sea; the geographical location of the upper region, changed tremendously over time, depending on the location of the economic and military power governing the Low Countries area. The Romans made a distinction between the Roman provinces of downstream Germania Inferior and upstream Germania Superior; the designation'Low' to refer to the region returns again in the 10th century Duchy of Lower Lorraine, that covered much of the Low Countries. But this time the corresponding Upper region is Upper Lorraine, in nowadays Northern France; the Dukes of Burgundy, who ruled the Low Countries in the 15th century, used the term les pays de par deçà for the Low Countries as opposed to les pays de par delà for their original
Zeeland is the westernmost and least populous province of the Netherlands. The province, located in the south-west of the country, consists of a number of islands and peninsulas and a strip bordering Belgium, its capital is Middelburg. Its area is about 2,930 square kilometres, of which 1,140 square kilometres is water, it has a population of about 380,000. Large parts of Zeeland are below sea level; the last great flooding of the area was in 1953. Tourism is an important economic activity. In the summer, its beaches make it a popular destination for tourists German tourists. In some areas, the population can be two to four times higher during the high summer season; the coat of arms of Zeeland shows a lion half-emerged from water, the text luctor et emergo. The country of New Zealand was named after Zeeland after it was sighted by Dutch explorer Abel Tasman. Nehalennia is a mythological goddess of an ancient religion known around the province of Zeeland, her worship dates back at least to the 2nd century BC, flourished in the 2nd and 3rd centuries AD.
She was a regional god, either Celtic or pre-Germanic – but sources differ on the culture that first worshipped her. During the Roman era, her main function appeared to be the protection of travelers seagoing travelers crossing the North Sea. Most of what is known about her mythology comes from the remains of carved stone offerings which have been dredged up from the Oosterschelde since 1970. Two more Nehalennia offering stones have been found in Cologne, Germany. Zeeland was a contested area between the counts of Holland and Flanders until 1299, when the last count of Holland died, the Counts of Hainaut gained control of the countship of Zeeland, followed by the counts of Bavaria and Habsburg. After 1585 Zeeland followed, as one of the 7 independent provinces, the fate of the Northern part of The Netherlands. In 1432 it became part of the Low Countries possessions of Philip the Good of Burgundy, the Seventeen Provinces. Through marriage, the Seventeen Provinces became the property of the Habsburgs in 1477.
In the Eighty Years' War, Zeeland was on the side of the Union of Utrecht, became one of the United Provinces. The area now called Zeeuws-Vlaanderen was not part of Zeeland, but a part of the county of Flanders, conquered by the United Provinces, hence called Staats-Vlaanderen. After the French occupation and the formation of the United Kingdom of the Netherlands in 1815, the present province Zeeland was formed. During World War II, Zeeland was occupied by Nazi Germany between June 1940 and November 1944. In 1944, Zeeland was devastated by the Battle of the Scheldt and the Walcheren Landings, which brought about the Inundation of Walcheren, between British and Canadian forces, the occupying Germans; the catastrophic North Sea flood of 1953, which killed over 1800 people in Zeeland, led to the construction of the protective Delta Works. The province of Zeeland is a large river delta situated at the mouth of several major rivers, namely Scheldt and Meuse. Most of the province was reclaimed from the sea by inhabitants over time.
What used to be a muddy landscape, flooding at high tide and reappearing at low tide, became a series of small man-made hills that stayed dry at all times. The people of the province would connect the hills by creating dikes, which led to a chain of dry land that grew into bigger islands and gave the province its current shape; the shape of the islands has changed over time at the hands of both nature. The North Sea flood of 1953 inundated vast amounts of land that were only reclaimed; the subsequent construction of the Delta Works changed the face of the province. The infrastructure, although distinct by the number of bridges and dams, has not shaped the geography of the province so much as the geography of the province has shaped its infrastructure; the dams and bridges that are a vital part of the province's road system were constructed over the span of decades and came to replace old ferry lines. The final touch to this process came in 2003, it was the first solid connection between both banks of the Western Scheldt and ended the era of water separating the islands and peninsulas of Zeeland.
Zeeland consists of several peninsulas. These are, from north to south, Schouwen-Duiveland, Noord-Beveland and Zuid-Beveland, it includes a strip of land bordering the Belgian region of Flanders, the Zeelandic Flanders. The province of Zeeland has 13 municipalities: The largest cities are: Middelburg: 41.000, Vlissingen: 34.000, Goes: 27.000 and Terneuzen: 25.000 inhabitants. As of 1 January 2014, Zeeland has a population of 380,621 and a population density of 210/km2, it is the 12th most populous or least populous province and the 2nd least densely populated province of the Netherlands. Zeeland is a Protestant region. There are adherents of the Roman Catholic Church. After being long part of the vast Franco-Flemish Roman Catholic Diocese of Cambrai, Zeeland got its own bishopric, the Diocese of Middelburg, on 5 December 1559, suppressed in 1603, its territory being merged into the Apostolic Vicariate of Batavia, only to be'restored' on March 22, 1803 as the Apostolic Vicariate of Breda, prom
Zwolle is a city and municipality in the northeastern Netherlands serving as Overijssel's capital. With a population of 125,806, it is the second-largest municipality of the province after Enschede. Archaeological findings indicate that the area surrounding Zwolle has been inhabited for a long time. A woodhenge, found in the Zwolle-Zuid suburb in 1993 was dated to the Bronze Age period. During the Roman era, the area was inhabited by Salian Franks; the modern city was founded around 800 CE by Frisian troops of Charlemagne. The name Zwolle is derived from the word Suolle, which means "hill"; this refers to an incline in the landscape between the four rivers surrounding the city, IJssel, Vecht, Aa and Zwarte Water. The hill was the only piece of land that would remain dry during the frequent floodings of the rivers. Zwolle was established on that incline. A document mentions the existence of a parish church dedicated to St Michael; that church, the Grote or Sint Michaëlskerk, was renovated in the first half of the 15th century and exists to this day.
The church contains a richly carved pulpit, the work of Adam Straes van Weilborch, some good carving and an exquisite organ. On August 31, 1230, the bishop of Utrecht granted Zwolle city rights. Zwolle became a member of the Hanseatic league in 1294, in 1361 joined the war between the Hanseatic League and Valdemar IV of Denmark. In the 1370 Treaty of Stralsund that ended the war, Zwolle was awarded a vitte, a trade colony, in Scania part of Denmark. Zwolle's golden age came in the 15th century. Between 1402 and 1450, the city's Gross Regional Product multiplied by about six. In July 1324 and October 1361, regional noblemen set fire to Zwolle. In the 1324 fire, only nine buildings escaped the flames. Zwolle was with Deventer, one of the centers of the Brethren of the Common Life, a monastic movement. 5 km from Zwolle, on a slight eminence called the Agnietenberg, once stood the Augustinian convent in which Thomas à Kempis spent the greatest part of his life and died. At least as early as 1911, Zwolle had a considerable trade by river, a large fish market, the most important cattle market in the Netherlands after Rotterdam.
The more important industries comprised cotton manufactures, iron works, boat-building and bleaching, rope-making, salt-making. In World War II, Zwolle was single-handedly liberated from the Germans by French Canadian soldier Léo Major, he was made an honorary citizen of Zwolle in 2005 and a street is named for him. In 2004, Zwolle's De Librije restaurant was honored with 3 stars by Michelin Guide. Citizens of Zwolle are colloquially known as Blauwvingers; this dates back to 1682. The authorities were strapped for cash and saw no option but to sell the church bells to neighbouring city Kampen. To make sure that Kampen would not make too much profit from the deal, the local authorities asked a high price for the church bells. Kampen accepted, yet after the arrival of the bells it became clear, they were too damaged to be played. In revenge, Kampen paid in copper coins of four duiten. Zwolle distrusted Kampen and wanted to be sure they paid the entire price. After the rigorous counting of this vast amount of money, their fingers had turned blue from the copper.
Besides the Grote or Sint Michaëlskerk, there are several other historic monuments in Zwolle. The Roman Catholic Onze Lieve Vrouwe ten Hemelopneming-basilica dates back to 1399; the church tower, called Peperbus, is one of the tallest and most famous church towers in the Netherlands. The modernized town hall was built in 1448. Mention should be made of the Sassenpoort, the city walls, the Mosterdmakerstoren, a guild-house, the former provincial government offices, a Dominican monastery, on the Melkmarkt, two museums. Museum de Fundatie, the fine art museum of the province of Overijssel, is hosted in the former Justice Hall on Blijmarkt Square. In the western part of the city, west of the railway station, there is a quarter of Art Nouveau buildings, concentrated on Koningin Wilhelminastraat, Prinses Julianastraat, Prins Hendrikstraat; these three-store living houses were built in 1900s by various Dutch architects. Eleven of the buildings are protected by the Dutch government; the Broerenkerk church was part of the Dominican monastery founded in 1465.
The monastery was closed in 1580 and the monks were expelled. From 1640 until 1982 the church was used for Protestant services. After a restoration in 1983-1988 it has been used for cultural events and it is now a bookstore. See People from Zwolle Arts, culture and the mediaHein Boele, Dutch voice of Elmo Jonnie Boer, chef with three Michelin stars Gerard ter Borch, painter Tooske Breugem, television host actress Herman Brood, painter/rock star Eef Brouwers and former head of the Netherlands Government Information Service A. den Doolaard, author Rhijnvis Feith, author Bennie den Haan, actor Marnix Kappers, actor Master I. A. M. of Zwolle, engraver To
Kampen is a city and municipality in the province of Overijssel, Netherlands. A member of the former Hanseatic League, it is located at the lower reaches of the river IJssel; the municipality of Kampen had a population of 53,063 in 2017 and covers an area of 161.79 square kilometres. Kampen is the largest city in this region; the city of Kampen itself has around 35,000 inhabitants. Kampen has one of the best preserved old town centres of the Netherlands, including remains of the ancient city wall and numerous churches. Notable are the three bridges over the IJssel which connect Kampen with IJsselmuiden and Kampereiland, the agricultural area between the branches which form the IJssel delta, a windmill. Traditionally people in Kampen speak a variation of the Sallands dialect, known as Kampers. By 1150, there were wooden buildings on the site where Kampen is located; the name Kampen, however, is not mentioned until 1277. The city has had city rights since 1236; as a result of its convenient location on the busy trade route between the Zuiderzee and the Rhine, Kampen developed from simple settlements into a prosperous trading town, to become one of the most powerful and leading cities of northwestern Europe.
In the 14th century, Kampen exchanged with the bishop of Utrecht, Jan van Arkel, the Mastenbroek polder against the right to increase the IJsseldelta. The silting up of the IJssel brought a gradual end to the prosperity of Kampen from 1430 on. For a long time Kampen did not want to sign a union and make economic and political concessions to other cities, as was usual in the Hanseatic League; when the County of Holland went to war with the Hanseatic League this situation came to an end: the city was forced to choose a side in the war. Kampen was more oriented toward the Baltic trade and commerce with the hinterland of the Rhine, therefore in 1441 formally joined the Hanseatic League; the city had much influence in the League. This project was accomplished in just five months. With this bridge Kampen hoped to be able to develop closer relationships with the hinterland. On 11 August 1572 Kampen was conquered from the Spaniards by Willem van den Bergh, a brother of William of Orange. After the massacre of Zutphen on 15 November, the city voluntarily surrendered to the Spanish.
In 1578, the city changed ownership again after the Siege of Kampen, led by George van Lalaing. Due to its right to increase the IJsseldelta, Kampen was owner of the growing Kampereiland. From 1500 the islands were leased; the rents were so large. The Franco-Dutch War, fought by the Republic of the United Netherlands against the Kingdom of France, the Bishopric of Münster, the Archbishopric of Cologne and the Kingdom of England, marked a definitive end to the enormous power of the city. Kampen only became well known again in the 19th century; the city was difficult to reach from the sea, because the surrounding wetlands became silted up and shallow. During the preceding centuries, the watercourse of the river IJssel was dredged several times, but the costs were high and within a few years, the river silted up again; as the IJssel had several delta-like mouths here, the main route of the river shifted several times. In the 19th century, a new strategy was put in place to counter this problem: some watercourses were dammed to allow for more water at a higher speed through one or two main routes.
This had the advantage that less sand and silt were deposited and resulted in a river course that "swept itself clean". A key figure in this story is city architect Nicolaas Plomp, besides his work for the current IJssel front of the city of Kampen, was involved in hydraulic engineering. Due to the emerging industry in the 19th century and the importance of roads and railways for the economy and paved roads were constructed to replace transportation over sand and mud roads. Kampen is part of the province of Overijssel in the Eastern part of The Netherlands, situated between the provinces of Gelderland, Flevoland and Friesland; the city of Kampen is situated at the mouth of the river IJssel. Opposite Kampen, along the IJssel, lies IJsselmuiden, the second largest residential nucleus of the municipality Kampen; the municipality of Kampen has five other population centers: Grafhorst,'s-Heerenbroek, Kamperveen and Zalk. Kampen has a large number of old to old buildings, including remains of the ancient city wall and the Church of St Nicholas.
The structure of the walled fortress city is still visible in the streets. Significant structures include: The Koornmarktpoort: a city gate located near the river IJssel which dates from the 14th century. In the 15th century two squat towers were added at the outer corners; the Broederpoort: a rectangular city gate with four slender towers from 1465, rebuilt in Renaissance style in 1615 The Cellebroederspoort: a rectangular city gate, flanked by two heavy round towers from 1465, rebuilt in 1617 in Renaissance style The Stedelijk Museum Kampen: located in the former town hall of Kampen, which dates from the late 14th century The Gotisch huis: built around 1500. This was the location of the Stedelijk Museum Kampen before it moved to its current location i