Government agencies, at the state and local level in the United States, have differing definitions of what constitutes a contributing property but there are common characteristics. Local laws often regulate the changes that can be made to contributing structures within designated historic districts, the first local ordinances dealing with the alteration of buildings within historic districts was in Charleston, South Carolina in 1931. Properties within a district fall into one of two types of property and non-contributing. A contributing property, such as a 19th Century mansion, helps make a historic district historic, while a non-contributing property, such as a medical clinic. The contributing properties are key to a districts historic associations, historic architectural qualities. A property can change from contributing to non-contributing and vice versa if significant alterations take place, the ordinance declared that buildings in the district could not have changes made to their architectural features visible from the street.
By the mid-1930s, other U. S. cities followed Charlestons lead, an amendment to the Louisiana Constitution led to the 1937 creation of the Vieux Carre Commission, which was charged with protecting and preserving the French Quarter in the city of New Orleans. The city passed an ordinance that set standards regulating changes within the quarter. Other sources, such as the Columbia Law Review in 1963, the Columbia Law Review gave dates of 1925 for the New Orleans laws and 1924 for Charleston. The same publication claimed that two cities were the only cities with historic district zoning until Alexandria, Virginia adopted an ordinance in 1946. The National Park Service appears to refute this, in 1939, the city of San Antonio, enacted an ordinance that protected the area of La Villita, which was the citys original Mexican village marketplace. In 1941 the authority of local controls on buildings within historic districts was being challenged in court. In City of New Orleans vs Pergament Louisiana state appellate courts ruled that the design, beginning in the mid-1950s, controls that once applied to only historic districts were extended to individual landmark structures.
The United States Congress adopted legislation that declared the Georgetown neighborhood in Washington, by 1965,51 American communities had adopted preservation ordinances. By 1998, more than 2,300 U. S. towns, contributing properties are defined through historic district or historic preservation zoning laws, usually at the local level. Zoning ordinances pertaining to historic districts are designed to maintain a historic character by controlling demolition and alteration to existing properties. It can be any property, structure or object that adds to the integrity or architectural qualities that make the historic district, either local or federal. Definitions vary but, in general, they maintain the same characteristics, another key aspect of a contributing property is historic integrity
A hunter-gatherer is a human living in a society in which most or all food is obtained by foraging, in contrast to agricultural societies, which rely mainly on domesticated species. Hunting and gathering was humanitys first and most successful adaptation, occupying at least 90 percent of human history, following the invention of agriculture, hunter-gatherers who did not change have been displaced or conquered by farming or pastoralist groups in most parts of the world. Only a few contemporary societies are classified as hunter-gatherers, and many supplement their activity with horticulture and/or keeping animals. In the 1970s, Lewis Binford suggested that humans were obtaining food via scavenging. Early humans in the Lower Paleolithic lived in forests and woodlands, which allowed them to collect seafood, eggs and fruits besides scavenging. Rather than killing large animals for meat, according to this view and this hypothesis does not necessarily contradict the scavenging hypothesis, both subsistence strategies could have been in use – sequentially, alternating or even simultaneously.
It remained the only mode of subsistence until the end of the Mesolithic period some 10,000 years ago and this specialization of work involved creating specialized tools such as, fishing nets and bone harpoons. The transition into the subsequent Neolithic period is defined by the unprecedented development of nascent agricultural practices. Agriculture originated and spread in different areas including the Middle East, Mesoamerica. Forest gardening was being used as a production system in various parts of the world over this period. Forest gardens originated in prehistoric times along jungle-clad river banks and in the wet foothills of monsoon regions, in the gradual process of families improving their immediate environment, useful tree and vine species were identified and improved, whilst undesirable species were eliminated. Eventually superior introduced species were selected and incorporated into the gardens, many groups continued their hunter-gatherer ways of life, although their numbers have continually declined, partly as a result of pressure from growing agricultural and pastoral communities.
Many of them reside in the world, either in arid regions or tropical forests. Areas that were available to hunter-gatherers were—and continue to be—encroached upon by the settlements of agriculturalists. In the resulting competition for use, hunter-gatherer societies either adopted these practices or moved to other areas. In addition, Jared Diamond has blamed a decline in the availability of wild foods, as the number and size of agricultural societies increased, they expanded into lands traditionally used by hunter-gatherers. As a result of the now near-universal human reliance upon agriculture, archaeologists can use evidence such as stone tool use to track hunter-gatherer activities, including mobility. Most hunter-gatherers are nomadic or semi-nomadic and live in temporary settlements, mobile communities typically construct shelters using impermanent building materials, or they may use natural rock shelters, where they are available
Dolomite is an anhydrous carbonate mineral composed of calcium magnesium carbonate, ideally CaMg2. The term is used for a sedimentary carbonate rock composed mostly of the mineral dolomite. An alternative name used for the dolomitic rock type is dolostone. Most probably the mineral dolomite was first described by Carl Linnaeus in 1768, nicolas-Théodore de Saussure first named the mineral in March 1792. The mineral dolomite crystallizes in the trigonal-rhombohedral system and it forms white, gray, or pink crystals. Dolomite is a carbonate, having an alternating structural arrangement of calcium and magnesium ions. It does not rapidly dissolve or effervesce in dilute hydrochloric acid as calcite does, solid solution exists between dolomite, the iron-dominant ankerite and the manganese-dominant kutnohorite. Small amounts of iron in the give the crystals a yellow to brown tint. Manganese substitutes in the structure up to three percent MnO. A high manganese content gives the crystals a rosy pink color, lead and cobalt substitute in the structure for magnesium.
The mineral dolomite is closely related to huntite Mg3Ca4, because dolomite can be dissolved by slightly acidic water, areas of dolomite are important as aquifers and contribute to karst terrain formation. Modern dolomite formation has been found to occur under conditions in supersaturated saline lagoons along the Rio de Janeiro coast of Brazil, Lagoa Vermelha. It is often thought that dolomite will develop only with the help of sulfate-reducing bacteria, low-temperature dolomite may occur in natural environments rich in organic matter and microbial cell surfaces. This occurs as a result of magnesium complexation by carboxyl groups associated with organic matter, vast deposits of dolomite are present in the geological record, but the mineral is relatively rare in modern environments. Reproducible, inorganic low-temperature syntheses of dolomite and magnesite were published for the first time in 1999, the general principle governing the course of this irreversible geochemical reaction has been coined breaking Ostwalds step rule.
There is some evidence for an occurrence of dolomite. One example is that of the formation of dolomite in the bladder of a Dalmatian dog. In 2015, it was discovered that the direct crystallization of dolomite can occur from solution at temperatures between 60 and 220 °C
The Wisconsin Glacial Episode, called the Wisconsinan glaciation, was the most recent major advance of the North American ice sheet complex. This advance was synchronous with global glaciation during the last glacial period, including the North American alpine glacier advance, the Wisconsin glaciation extended from approximately 85,000 to 11,000 years ago, between the Sangamon interglacial and the current interglacial, the Holocene. The maximum ice extent occurred approximately 25, 000–21,000 years ago during the last glacial maximum and this glaciation radically altered the geography of North America north of the Ohio River. At the height of the Wisconsin Episode glaciation, the ice covered most of Canada, the Upper Midwest, and New England, as well as parts of Idaho, Montana. On Kelleys Island in Lake Erie or in New York Citys Central Park, during much of the glaciation, sea level was low enough to permit land animals, including humans, to occupy Beringia and move between North America and Siberia.
Two related movements have been termed Wisconsin, Early Wisconsin and Late Wisconsin, the Early Wisconsin was the bigger of the two and extend farther west and south. It retreated a distance before halting. During this period of quiet, the deposits were eroded and weathered. This first Wisconsin period erased all the Illinoian glacial topography that extended over, the Late Wisconsin ice sheet extended more towards the west than the earlier movements. This may have due to changes in the accumulation center of the ice sheet. The Labrador Ice Sheet centered east of Hudson Bay, expanding towards the southwest, it reached into the eastern edge of Manitoba and across the Great Lakes to the Ohio River, upwards of 1,600 miles from its source. Its eastern lobes covered New England and reached south to Cape Cod and Long Island, the Keewatin Ice Sheet began west of Hudson Bay in the Canadian Territory of Keewatin The ice moved south some 1,500 miles into Kansas and Missouri. To the west, it reached 1,000 miles to the foothills of the Rocky Mountains, the Cordilleran Ice Sheet has left remnants throughout the Northern Rocky Mountains.
Unlike the other two ice sheets, this one is mountain based covering the British Columbia and reaching into northern Washington State, the Cordilleran Ice Sheet has more of an Alpine style of many glaciers merged into a whole. The striations made by the ice field in moving over the show that it moved principally to the west through the passes of the coast range. When the ice sheet melts northward from a moraine, water begins to be pond between this moraine and the ice front, the water cannot drain through the ice sheet, which for the Wisconsin period covered most of the proglacial river valleys. Numerous small, isolated water bodies form between the moraine and the ice front, as the ice sheet continues to melt and recede northward, these ponds combine into a proglacial lake. An outlet forms through these low spots, until one becomes dominant when erosion, lowers the outlet, Ice melt and rainfall carried large quantities of clay and gravel from the ice mass
Goshen (village), New York
Goshen is a village in and the county seat of Orange County, New York, United States. The population was 5,454 at the 2010 census and it is part of the Poughkeepsie–Newburgh–Middletown, NY Metropolitan Statistical Area as well as the larger New York–Newark–Bridgeport, NY-NJ-CT-PA Combined Statistical Area. The village is within the Town of Goshen, some fifty miles northwest of New York City, on New York State Route 17 in the center of Orange County. Goshen is the home of the Harness Racing Museum & Hall of Fame, and hosted harness racings top event, Racing is still held at the Historic Track, a National Historic Landmark in the center of the village. The village was settled in 1714 and incorporated in 1809, in 1727 it was declared the half-shire town of Orange County, a predecessor to its current status as county seat. It did not take on that status, until Rockland County was split from the county in 1798. Smith was hanged on January 22,1779, and exactly six months later, on July 22,1779, a militia from Goshen set out to stop Brant, engaging in the disastrous Battle of Minisink, in which 45 local militiamen were killed.
A monument in the center of town marks the spot where their bones were buried in a mass grave 43 years after the battle, as early as the 1750s, residents used to race their horses along what is now Main Street in the villages downtown. In 1838, a track was built around a nearby circus ground. This was the first incarnation of the Historic Track, where races are held for one week each year. Later, the larger Good Time Park was built, which hosted the Hambletonian in years, the Harness Racing Museum & Hall of Fame near the track recognizes Goshens historic importance to the sport. In the early 20th century, the village was the home of the Interpines sanitarium, in 1950, Goshen had a population of 3,311 people. By 1990, the village had largely built out, and the number of people stood at 5,255, despite a building boom in the town. Goshens topography consists of a central area with gently rolling hills cresting at the village limits. The highest elevation is approximately 620 feet at the USGS Murray benchmark on the eastern border, according to the United States Census Bureau, the village has a total area of 3.2 square miles.
None of the area is covered with water. The former station has been converted into the police headquarters. Passenger rail service is available today via the Metro-North Port Jervis commuter line a few north of the village at Campbell Hall. The railroad has been replaced as the villages main long-distance transportation connection by NY17 and it will eventually be re-designated as part of Interstate 86
Middletown, Orange County, New York
Middletown is a city in Orange County, New York, United States. It lies in New Yorks Hudson Valley region, near the Wallkill River, Middletown is situated between Port Jervis and Newburgh, New York. As of the 2010 United States Census, the population was 28,086. Middletown falls within the New York metropolitan area, Middletown was incorporated as a city in 1888. It grew in the 19th and early 20th centuries as a stop on several lower New York State railroads, the surrounding area is partly devoted to small dairy farms. Mediacom Communications Corp, the Galleria at Crystal Run, SUNY Orange, Touro College of Osteopathic Medicine, John Green purchased land from the DeLancey patent and probably settled the area around 1744. Due to its location between other settlements, residents adopted the name of Middletown, changing it to South Middletown to avoid confusion with a nearby location, eventually they dropped the word south, using the current name when the community became a village in 1848. The village was incorporated as a city in 1888, the First Congregational Church of Middletown, established in 1785, has the highest spire downtown.
Construction of its first building was a sign of Middletown becoming established as a village and its current church building was constructed in 1872. Middletown grew through the 19th century, stimulated by construction of the Erie Railroad, the city was industrialized, developing factories for a number of industries, such as shoe, lawnmower blade, and furniture. These did well through the World War II era, due to industrial restructuring most of these businesses had closed by the 1960s. In 1968, Middletown annexed the adjacent Village of Amchir, responding to higher housing costs in New York City, from the 1970s, New York City police officers and other workers began to move to the area, as local housing offered better value. These long-distance commuters helped to bolster the economy of the area, after 1986, New York City required its municipal employees to reside in the city, and Middletown lost this source of residential development. The only railroad left in town is the Middletown and New Jersey Railway, the population has continued to grow into the 21st century, while the economy has shifted largely to service and retail, with a regional medical center a major employer in the area.
The downtown business district of Middletown suffered from suburbanization that drew off retail businesses, the Orange Plaza mall drew several of the downtown shops into it by the mid-1970s, weakening downtown. To the East across Route 17, the Galleria at Crystal Run opened in the early 1990s, a Super-WalMart replaced the Orange Plaza mall in 2001. Some of the downtown are abandoned or underused. But there has long been a downtown bar and restaurant scene
Pleasant Valley (town), New York
Pleasant Valley is a town in Dutchess County, New York, United States. The population was 9,672 at the 2010 census, the town is centrally located in the county, northeast of the city of Poughkeepsie. U. S. Route 44 passes through the town, the town was part of the Great Nine Partners Patent of 1697, a land grant whose legality was considered highly questionable. Many believed that the Nine Partners were holding unfair rule over the region through the use of extortion, the town was formed in 1821 from part of the town of Clinton. Buried in Pleasant Valley Presbyterian Churchyard, a section of U. S. Route 44 goes through the town in a southwestern-northeastern direction. It intersects with the Taconic State Parkway, a north-south highway, as of the census of 2000, there were 9,066 people,3,467 households, and 2,485 families residing in the town. The population density was 275.4 people per square mile, there were 3,614 housing units at an average density of 109.8 per square mile. The racial makeup of the town was 95.
46% White,1. 93% Black or African American,0. 12% Native American,0. 64% Asian,0. 02% Pacific Islander,0. 83% from other races, and 1. 00% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 2. 65% of the population,23. 2% of all households were made up of individuals and 7. 9% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.61 and the family size was 3.09. In the town, the population was out with 26. 1% under the age of 18,6. 4% from 18 to 24,30. 6% from 25 to 44,26. 2% from 45 to 64. The median age was 38 years, for every 100 females there were 97.6 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 95.1 males, the median income for a household in the town was $54,578, and the median income for a family was $62,264. Males had an income of $47,647 versus $31,496 for females. The per capita income for the town was $25,942, about 3. 9% of families and 5. 6% of the population were below the poverty line, including 6. 6% of those under age 18 and 6. 2% of those age 65 or over.
Bloomvale – A former mill hamlet north of Washington Hollow at Route 82, clark Heights – A location southwest of Pleasant Valley village on Route 44. Gretna – A location in the part of the town. Netherwood – A location southwest of Salt Point, Pleasant Valley – The hamlet and census-designated place of Pleasant Valley is in the southwest part of the town on Route 44
National Park Service
It was created on August 25,1916, by Congress through the National Park Service Organic Act and is an agency of the United States Department of the Interior. As of 2014, the NPS employs 21,651 employees who oversee 417 units, the National Park Service celebrated its centennial in 2016. National parks and national monuments in the United States were originally individually managed under the auspices of the Department of the Interior, the movement for an independent agency to oversee these federal lands was spearheaded by business magnate and conservationist Stephen Mather, as well as J. Horace McFarland. With the help of journalist Robert Sterling Yard, Mather ran a publicity campaign for the Department of the Interior and they wrote numerous articles that praised the scenic and historic qualities of the parks and their possibilities for educational and recreational benefits. This campaign resulted in the creation of a National Park Service, Mather became the first director of the newly formed NPS.
On March 3,1933, President Herbert Hoover signed the Reorganization Act of 1933, the act would allow the President to reorganize the executive branch of the United States government. It wasnt until that summer when the new President, Franklin D. Roosevelt, President Roosevelt agreed and issued two Executive orders to make it happen. In 1951, Conrad Wirth became director of the National Park Service, the demand for parks after the end of the World War II had left the parks overburdened with demands that could not be met. In 1952, with the support of President Dwight D. Eisenhower, he began Mission 66, New parks were added to preserve unique resources and existing park facilities were upgraded and expanded. In 1966, as the Park Service turned 50 years old, emphasis began to turn from just saving great and wonderful scenery, Director George Hartzog began the process with the creation of the National Lakeshores and National Recreation Areas. Since its inception in 1916, the National Park Service has managed each of the United States national parks, Yellowstone National Park was the first national park in the United States.
In 1872, there was no government to manage it. Yosemite National Park began as a park, the land for the park was donated by the federal government to the state of California in 1864 for perpetual conservation. Yosemite was returned to federal ownership, at first, each national park was managed independently, with varying degrees of success. In Yellowstone, the staff was replaced by the U. S. Army in 1886. Due to the irregularities in managing these national treasures, Stephen Mather petitioned the government to improve the situation. In response, Secretary of the Interior Franklin K. Lane challenged him to lobby for creating a new agency, Mather was successful with the ratification of the National Park Service Organic Act in 1916. Later, the agency was given authority over other protected areas, the National Park System includes all properties managed by the National Park Service
Historic districts in the United States
Buildings, structures and sites within a historic district are normally divided into two categories and non-contributing. Districts greatly vary in size, some have hundreds of structures, the U. S. federal government designates historic districts through the United States Department of Interior under the auspices of the National Park Service. Federally designated historic districts are listed on the National Register of Historic Places, state-level historic districts may follow similar criteria or may require adherence to certain historic rehabilitation standards. Local historic district designation offers, by far, the most legal protection for historic properties because most land use decisions are made at the local level, local districts are generally administered by the county or municipal government. The first U. S. historic district was established in Charleston, South Carolina in 1931, Charleston city government designated an Old and Historic District by local ordinance and created a board of architectural review to oversee it.
New Orleans followed in 1937, establishing the Vieux Carré Commission, other localities picked up on the concept, with the city of Philadelphia enacting its historic preservation ordinance in 1955. The Supreme Court case validated the protection of resources as an entirely permissible governmental goal. In 1966 the federal government created the National Register of Historic Places, conference of Mayors had stated Americans suffered from rootlessness. By the 1980s there were thousands of federally designated historic districts, Historic districts are generally two types of properties and non-contributing. In general, contributing properties are integral parts of the historic context, in addition to the two types of classification within historic districts, properties listed on the National Register of Historic Places are classified into five broad categories. They are, structure, site and object, all but the eponymous district category are applied to historic districts listed on the National Register.
A listing on the National Register of Historic Places is governmental acknowledgment of a historic district, the Register is an honorary status with some federal financial incentives. The National Register of Historic Places defines a historic district per U. S. federal law, a district may comprise individual elements separated geographically but linked by association or history. Districts established under U. S. federal guidelines generally begin the process of designation through a nomination to the National Register of Historic Places, the National Register is the official recognition by the U. S. government of cultural resources worthy of preservation. While designation through the National Register does offer a district or property some protections, if the federal government is not involved, the listing on the National Register provides the site, property or district no protections. If, company A was under federal contract the Smith House would be protected, a federal designation is little more than recognition by the government that the resource is worthy of preservation.
Usually, the National Register does not list religious structures, moved structures, reconstructed structures, however, if a property falls into one of those categories and are integral parts of districts that do meet the criteria an exception allowing their listing will be made. Historic district listings, like all National Register nominations, can be rejected on the basis of owner disapproval, in the case of historic districts, a majority of owners must object in order to nullify a nomination to the National Register of Historic Places
A quarry is a place from which dimension stone, construction aggregate, sand, gravel, or slate has been excavated from the ground. A quarry is the thing as an open-pit mine from which minerals are extracted. The only non-trivial difference between the two is that open-pit mines that produce building materials and dimension stone are commonly referred to as quarries, the word quarry can include the underground quarrying for stone, such as Bath stone. The surfaces are polished and finished with varying degrees of sheen or luster, polished slabs are often cut into tiles or countertops and installed in many kinds of residential and commercial properties. Natural stone quarried from the earth is considered a luxury and tends to be a highly durable surface. Quarries in level areas with shallow groundwater or which are located close to surface water often have engineering problems with drainage, generally the water is removed by pumping while the quarry is operational, but for high inflows more complex approaches may be required.
For example, the Coquina quarry is excavated to more than 60 feet below sea level, to reduce surface leakage, a moat lined with clay was constructed around the entire quarry. Ground water entering the pit is pumped up into the moat, as a quarry becomes deeper, water inflows generally increase and it becomes more expensive to lift the water higher during removal, this can become the limiting factor in quarry depth. Some water-filled quarries are worked from beneath the water, by dredging, many people and municipalities consider quarries to be eyesores and require various abatement methods to address problems with noise and appearance. One of the effective and famous examples of successful quarry restoration is Butchart Gardens in Victoria, BC. A further problem is pollution of roads from trucks leaving the quarries, to control and restrain the pollution of public roads, wheel washing systems are becoming more common. Many quarries naturally fill with water after abandonment and become lakes, water-filled quarries can be very deep with water, often 50 feet or more, that is often surprisingly cold.
Unexpectedly cold water can cause a swimmers muscles to weaken, it can cause shock. Though quarry water is very clear, submerged quarry stones. Several people drown in quarries each year, many inactive quarries are converted into safe swimming sites
Goshen, New York
Goshen is a town in Orange County, New York, United States. The population was 13,687 at the 2010 census, the town is named after the Land of Goshen. The Town of Goshen contains a village called Goshen, the county seat of Orange County, the town is centrally located in the county. Settlement began around 1714, even plans for its settlement were made around 1654. The town was established in 1789, in 1830, part of Goshen was used to form the new Town of Hamptonburgh, and, in 1845, another part was used to form the Town of Chester. The region was important in the development of harness racing and it is the birthplace of the former Army Chief of Staff, and former Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff, General Martin Dempsey. Weed has been distributed throughout this town for centuries. According to the United States Census Bureau, the town has an area of 44.0 square miles. As of the Census of 2000, there were 12,913 people,4,074 households, the population density was 294.5 people per square mile. There were 4,320 housing units at a density of 98.5 per square mile.
The racial makeup of the town was 88. 69% White,6. 72% Black or African American,0. 16% Native American,1. 71% Asian,0. 04% Pacific Islander,1. 82% from other races, and 0. 86% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 7. 36% of the population, Goshen is home to a Yiddish speaking community, which operates several farms in the area. 24. 4% of all households were made up of individuals, the average household size was 2.73 and the average family size was 3.27. In the town, the population was out with 24. 4% under the age of 18,7. 2% from 18 to 24,28. 5% from 25 to 44,23. 0% from 45 to 64. The median age was 39 years, the gender makeup of the town was relatively equal, as for every 100 females, there were 100.4 males, and for every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 96.9 males. The median income for a household in the town was $60,066, males had a median income of $50,768 versus $32,648 for females. The per capita income for the town was $24,275, about 2. 7% of families and 4. 5% of the population were below the poverty line, including 3. 1% of those under age 18 and 8. 8% of those age 65 or over.
Big Island – A location near the town line