SS Cars was a British manufacturer of sports saloon cars from 1934 until wartime 1940, from March 1935 of a limited number of open 2-seater sports cars. From September 1935 their new models displayed a new name SS Jaguar. By its business, founded in 1922, was run by and owned by William Lyons. Lyons had been partner with 1922 co-founder William Walmsley until Walmsley sold his shareholding in January 1935; the company that owned the business, S. S. Cars Limited, bought the shares of Swallow Coachbuilding Limited as of 31 July 1934 and the Swallow company was liquidated before S. S. issued shares to the public in January 1935. This was the time. S. S. Cars Limited changed its name to Jaguar Cars Limited 23 March 1945. There is doubt about the source of the SS name. Sir John Black of Standard-Triumph when asked said. William Lyons when asked was noncommittal, but he was at the time in the company of suppliers of chassis for his run of the mill production bodies, he concurred. The Swallow Sidecar Company, trading name for the company Walmsley & Lyons co-founded by William Lyons and William Walmsley, progressively developed into a coachbuilder from its 1922 start, first making stylish sidecars for motorcycles.
In May 1927, Swallow advertised that it would make 2-seater bodies on Austin and Morris chassis and running gear supplied through any authorised dealer. Their first full page advertisement appeared in the Autocar magazine in October 1927 to fit with the Olympia Motor Show; the next year Swallow relocated to the heart of the British motor industry. In the winter of 1928-1929 they moved bit by bit from Cocker Street Blackpool to a disused munitions factory on a rutted track, the future Swallow Road, off Holbrook Lane, Coventry, they returned to Blackpool each year for the Works Day Out. In 1929 John Black of Standard Motor Company and William Lyons teamed up to realise their long standing dream to produce a one of a kind sports car; this "First SS" was a sleek boat-tail open 2-seater. Its flowing design and streamlining pointed to an obvious attempt at making a fast car with the intention of venturing into racing; this car is believed to have been shipped to Australia in the late 1940s. While the initial link with John Black's Standard was developed, bodies continued to be built on Austin, Standard and lastly Wolseley Hornet chassis.
At Motor Show time in October 1931, Swallow launched a car of its own, the SS 1, displayed a prototype, all while the aforementioned little Wolseley Hornet Special continued alongside. "This car has its little knot of admirers around it every minute of the day, from the point of view of general interest it is the most serious rival to the Rover Scarab. It is made by the Swallow Coachbuilding people on a chassis specially built for them by Standard, featuring a six-cylinder side-valve engine of 15hp, but it is the body, the big attraction. Its long low lines with no running boards and the head only a matter of four feet above the ground create an impression of speed and gracefulness, quite worthy of comparison with the Lagondas and Delages, it is with a distinct shock that one notices the price is only £310. The radiator is quite different from the ordinary Standard type being specially designed to conform with the body lines and fitted with a chromium plated fluted front, it is set off with a futuristic emblem and the filler cap is tucked out of sight under the bonnet.
The Rudge-Whitworth wire wheels are racing type, the wheel base being 9 ft 4 in and the track 4 ft 1 in The coachbuilt body has a sliding roof of new design with leather-grained head and large travelling trunk at the rear. The cycle type wings are domed the side valances being deep so that the necessity for running boards is obviated The interior of the car is beautifully finished, the cabinet work being done in atrractive polished sycamore grained to resemble the back of a fiddle; the upholstery is in furniture hide The particular model shown is finished in apple green and black and is a beauty in every sense of the term." Under the guidance of the chairman, William Lyons, the company survived the depression years of the 1930s by making a series of beautifully styled cars offering exceptional value for money although some enthusiasts criticised them at the time for being "more show than go". The engines and chassis supplied by the Standard Motor Company were fitted with Swallow bodies styled under Lyons supervision.
The first of the SS range of cars available to the public was the 1932 SS 1 with 2-litre or 2½-litre side-valve, six-cylinder engine and the SS 2 with a four-cylinder 1-litre side-valve engine. Available as coupé or tourer a saloon was added in 1934, when the chassis was modified to be 2 inches wider; the first of the open two-seater sports cars came in March 1935 with the SS 90, so called because of its claimed 90 mph top speed. This car used the 2½-litre side-valve, six-cylinder engine in a short-chassis "cut and shut" SS 1 brought down to an SS 2's wheelbase, only 23 were made. Harry Weslake was set to work on engine development. Bill Heynes came to be chief engineer from Hillman — before that Humber. Weslake's new cylinder head was manufactured for SS by Standard; the Weslake head and twin RAG carburetters were fitted to the last year's production of SS 1 and SS 2 cars. To counteract the "more show than go" criticism of their SS90 Lyons had engaged William Heynes as chief engineer and Harry Weslake for engine tuning.
Weslake was asked to redesign the 2½-litre 70 bhp side-valve engine to achieve 90 bhp. His answer was an overhead-valve design that produced 102 bhp and it was this engine that launched th
Bolney is a village and civil parish in the Mid Sussex district of West Sussex, England. It lies 36 miles south of London, 11 miles north of Brighton, 27 miles east northeast of the county town of Chichester, near the junction of the A23 road with the A272 road; the parish has a land area of 1479.41 hectares. In the 2001 census there were 1209 people living in 455 households of whom 576 were economically active. At the 2011 Census the population had increased to 1,366. Nearby towns include Burgess Hill to Haywards Heath to the east; the majority of the village sits between the A23 to the east, the A272 to the south and consists of a main north/south road called The Street and towards the top of the village by Top Street, Cherry Lane and Ryecroft cutting east/west. Outside of this area the village extends south of the A272 down Bolney Chapel Road and to the East of the A23 in Crossways; the Bolney crossroads of the A23 and A272 has always been an accident black spot, with the building of the A23 flyover the area still has a high level of accidents and incidents on its stretch of the A23 It is believed the name of the village came from the Saxon word “Bolne” meaning “a village near marsh”, as the area is on high ground in an area, marshy.
Saxon road timbers have been excavated in The Street and there is a suggestion that this was an old route north into St Leonard's Forest. In mediaeval times the village was noted for its cherry fair and iron smelting and until the early 20th Century a windmill existed on the Common. At the heart of the village is St Mary Magdalene's Church, which dates from the 12th century; the tower houses the first ring of eight bells in Sussex, the oldest dating to 1592. At the top end of the village in Top Street there is another place of worship, the Bolney Village Chapel; the Village was in two parts the main village was clustered around the church and to the north there was the Common. House building up The Street during the 20th century joined these two parts together; the last remaining pub in the village is called The Eight Bells in reference to the set of bells in the village church. The village has a high number of listed properties, with two main clusters at the south, around the church and to the north, in what was the Common.
For pre-school education there is Bolney Under Fives Pre-School, for 2 to 5 year olds, the Ark Nursery for 3 and 4 year olds, which follows the Early Years Curriculum. Bolney Church of England Primary School serves 4–11 year olds, it was built in 1871 and has been expanded since, in 1996 and 2002. Bolney was in the constituency of Arundel and South Downs at the time of the last general election, a new constituency, created in 1997 which has had only two MPs: Howard Flight and Nick Herbert, the current MP who received 49.8% of votes in the 2005 general election. It has since moved into the Mid Sussex constituency. Batchelor’s Field is the village's main recreation ground. Bolney Cricket Club was founded in 1840. In 2003 a new pavilion was built by players. Bolney Rovers Football Club plays in the Mid Sussex Football League, there is a veterans' team for the over 37s. Bolney Stoolball Club is a ladies' stoolball club that plays on Thursday evenings. Media related to Bolney at Wikimedia Commons
The Triumph Herald is a small two-door car introduced by Standard-Triumph of Coventry in 1959 and made through to 1971. The body design was by the Italian stylist Giovanni Michelotti, the car was offered in saloon, coupé, estate and van models, with the latter marketed as the Triumph Courier. Total Herald sales numbered well over half a million; the Triumph Vitesse, Spitfire and GT6 models are all based on modified Herald chassis and running gear with bolt-together bodies. Towards the end of the 1950s Standard-Triumph offered a range of two-seater Triumph sports cars alongside its Standard saloons, the Standard Eight and Standard Ten, powered by a small 4-cylinder engine, which by the late 1950s were due for an update. Standard-Triumph therefore started work on the Herald; the choice of the Herald name suggests that the car was intended to be marketed as a Standard, as it fits the model-naming scheme of the time. But by 1959 it was felt that the Triumph name had more brand equity, the Standard name was phased out in Britain after 1963.
Giovanni Michelotti was commissioned to style the car by the Standard-Triumph board, encouraged by chief engineer Harry Webster, produced designs for a two-door saloon with a large glass area that gave 93 per cent all-round visibility in the saloon variant and the "razor-edge" looks to which many makers were turning. As Fisher & Ludlow, Standard-Triumph's body suppliers became part of an uncooperative British Motor Corporation, it was decided that the car should have a separate chassis rather than adopting the newer unitary construction; the main body tub was bolted to the chassis and the whole front end hinged forward to allow access to the engine. Every panel – including the sills and roof – could be unbolted from the car so that different body styles could be built on the same chassis; as an addition to the original coupé and saloon models, a convertible was introduced in 1960. The Standard Pennant's 4-cylinder 948 cc OHV Standard SC engine and 4 speed manual gearbox was used with synchromesh on the top three gears and remote gear shift and driving the rear wheels.
Most of the engine parts were used in the Standard 8/10. The rack and pinion steering afforded the Herald a tight 25-foot turning circle. Coil and double-wishbone front suspension was fitted, while the rear suspension, a new departure for Triumph, offered "limited" independent springing via a single transverse leaf-spring bolted to the top of the final drive unit and swing axles. Instruments were confined to a single large speedometer with fuel gauge in the saloon on a dashboard of grey pressed fibreboard; the coupé dashboard was equipped with speedometer and temperature gauges, together with a lockable glovebox. The car had loop-pile heater as standard. A number of extras were available including twin SU carburettors, leather seats, a wood-veneered dashboard, Telaflo shock absorbers and paint options. In late 1958, prototype cars embarked on a test run from Cape Town to Tangiers. An account of the journey was embellished by PR at the time. However, only minor changes were deemed necessary between the production cars.
The new car was launched at the Royal Albert Hall in London on 22 April 1959 but was not an immediate sales success owing to its high cost, approaching £700. In standard single-carburettor form the 34.5 bhp car was no better than average in terms of performance. A saloon tested by The Motor magazine in 1959 was found to have a top speed of 70.9 mph and could accelerate from 0–60 mph in 31.1 seconds. A fuel consumption of 34.5 miles per imperial gallon was recorded. The rear suspension was criticised as yielding poor handling at the extremes of performance though the model was considered easy to drive with its good vision, light steering and controls, ease of repair. A Herald S variant was introduced in 1961 with a lower equipment level and less chrome than the Herald, it was offered in saloon form only. The 948 cc Herald Coupé and Convertible models were discontinued in 1961, the 948 cc Herald Saloon in 1962 and the Herald S in 1964. Standard-Triumph experienced financial difficulties at the beginning of the 1960s and was taken over by Leyland Motors in 1961.
This released new resources to develop the Herald and the car was re-launched in April 1961 with an 1147 cc engine as the Herald 1200. The new model featured a wooden laminate dashboard and improved seating. Quality control was tightened up. Twin carburettors were no longer fitted to any of the range as standard although they remained an option, the standard being a single down-draught Solex carburettor. Claimed maximum power of the Herald 1200 was 39 bhp, as against the 34.5 bhp claimed for the 948 cc model. One month after the release of the Herald 1200, a 2-door estate was added to the range. Disc brakes became an option from 1962. Sales picked up despite growing competition from the Ford Anglia; the coupé was dropped from the range in late 1964 as it was by in direct competition with the Triumph Spitfire. The Triumph Courier van, a Herald estate with side panels in place of rear side windows, was produced from 1962 until 1966, but was dropped following poor sales. Production in England ceased in mid-1964.
CKD assembly by MCA in Malta continued till late 1965, at least. The Courier was powered by the 1147 cc engine. An upmarket version, the Herald 12/50, was offered from 1963 to 1967, it featured a tuned engine with a claimed output of 51 bhp in place of the previous 39, along with
Lancing, West Sussex
Lancing is a village and civil parish in the Adur district of West Sussex, England, on the western edge of the Adur Valley. It occupies part of the narrow central section of the Sussex coastal plain between smaller Sompting to the west, larger Shoreham-by-Sea to the east and the parish of Coombes to the north. Excluding definitive suburbs it may have the largest undivided village cluster in Britain. However, its economy is analysed as integral to the Brighton/Worthing/Littlehampton conurbation, its settled area beneath the South Downs National Park covers 3.65 square miles, the majority of its land. It is a mix of no more than mid-rise coastal urban homes and farms and wildlife reserves on northern chalk downs; the oldest non-religious buildings date to around 1500 CE. The 2002 population was around 19,000; the 2011 Census included the population of Coombes The village was a popular seaside resort in the mid-19th century, gaining favour from the gentry of the time for its secluded atmosphere. Summer tourist hallmarks are the traditional guest houses on the A259 coast road, as well as a caravan/campsite in Old Salts Farm Road, beach chair hire and ice cream businesses.
There is a shingle beach with good stretches of clean sand at low water. Part of the coast road does not directly adjoin the sea but instead the long and narrow Widewater, a rare brackish lagoon, the only known location of the extinct Ivell's sea anemone. North of the developed area is Lancing Ring, a Nature Reserve in the South Downs National Park. To the north of, farmed agricultural downland connected to Lancing College Farm. On its eastern side is Shoreham Airport, the world's oldest continually operated airport, which served as an RAF base during World War II; the village's boundary with Sompting to the west has been along Boundstone Lane, named after the boundstone or boundary stone that marked the boundary. The stone is now kept at Boundstone Nursery School, Upper Boundstone Lane, having been kept at Boundstone Community College, which has now been closed and transformed into The Sir Robert Woodard Academy. Much of Lancing's northern boundary with the village of Coombes runs along the Ladywell Stream, a tributary of the River Adur which runs from the South Downs near to Lancing College.
The source of the Ladywell Stream, the Ladywell Spring, is believed to be an ancient holy well or sacred stream with pre-Christian significance. In 1828, remains of what may be an Iron Age shrine and to its west a Romano-British temple were found just west of Lancing Ring; the Romano-British temple was located within an oval temenos and seems to have been built in the 1st century AD. A track has existed since Celtic British times which ran from Chanctonbury Ring via Cissbury Ring to Lancing Ring and from on to a probable ford across the River Adur by the modern Sussex Pad, close to the Old Tollbridge at Old Shoreham. Among this lowest lying farmland to the east of the village proper are remains of medieval salt workings; the Roman road from Noviomagus Reginorum to Novus Portus ran through modern North Lancing down to the ford. Much of the land, residential was taken up by family-run market gardening businesses growing fruit or flowers for the Brighton Market or Covent Garden in London; the largest businesses were Sparks who grew fruit such as tomatoes and Young's which produced carnations.
Chrysanthemums were grown by Frank Lisher on land south of The Finches, in a house that he had built. Nash's fruit growers produced grapes under huge glass cloches that could be rolled into place on a rail track. Lancing railway station opened with what is now known as the West Coastway Line in 1849. Between 1908 and 1912 the London and South Coast Railway developed its railway wagon and carriage works in the area, now the Lancing Business Park, closed in 1965 as part of British Rail's Beeching Plan of 1963; the land on which the works were sited was predominantly turned over to this park, known as the Churchill Industrial Estate. Few buildings pre-dating 1820 are here, however one example is a central former farmhouse, now a home in a street named Monks Farm Presbytery. Following World War II market gardening gave way to housing as diets became more exotic and more difficult to ripen fruits such as grapes began to be imported in greater numbers; the village has a large business park, occupied for instance by Equiniti, exclusive registrar for registering share transfers for some of the country's largest banks and public limited companies.
In economics and transport, the suburb forms part of the linear and diverse Brighton/Worthing/Littlehampton conurbation. Lancing means the people of Wlanc or people of Hlanc. Like many places throughout this part of Sussex, Lancing has an - ing meaning people of. Wlanc seems to mean imperious, while Hlanc seems to mean lank or lean; the suggestion that Lancing takes its name from the Wlencing or Wlenca, the son of the South Saxon king Ælle, has been discounted. Shoreham Tollbridge is a Grade II* listed building, the last tollbridge in use in Sussex; the bridge was in use for motorised traffic until the opening of the A27 flyover over the Adur in 1970. The bridge is in the east of the parish. Shoreham Airport, the oldest licensed airfield in the UK, opened in 1911, is in the parish. Lancing College, see below, has a predominantly 19th Century chapel, the largest school chapel in the world with the largest stained-glass rose window
Rolls-Royce Motor Cars
Rolls-Royce Motor Cars Limited is a British luxury automobile maker. A wholly owned subsidiary of German group BMW, it was established in 1998 after BMW was licensed the rights to the Rolls-Royce brand name and logo from Rolls-Royce plc and acquired the rights to the Spirit of Ecstasy and Rolls-Royce grill shape trademarks from Volkswagen AG. Rolls-Royce Motor Cars Limited operates from purpose-built administrative and production facilities opened in 2003 across from the historic Goodwood Circuit in Goodwood, West Sussex, United Kingdom. Rolls-Royce Motors Cars Limited is the exclusive manufacturer of Rolls-Royce branded motor cars since 2003. Although the Rolls-Royce brand has been in use since 1906, the Rolls-Royce Motor Cars subsidiary of BMW AG has no direct relationship to Rolls-Royce branded vehicles produced prior to 2003; the Bentley Motors Limited subsidiary of Volkswagen AG is the direct successor to Rolls-Royce Motors and various other predecessor entities that produced Rolls-Royce and Bentley branded cars between the foundation of each company and 2003, when the BMW-controlled entity started producing cars under the Rolls-Royce brand.
The Rolls-Royce Phantom four-door sedan was the first product offered for sale in 2003. Since the company has expanded its product line to include extended wheelbase, two-door coupé, convertible versions of the Phantom sedan, as well as the smaller Ghost four-door sedan and Wraith two-door coupé. Rolls-Royce Motor Cars Limited was created as a wholly owned subsidiary of BMW in 1998 after BMW licensed the rights to the Rolls-Royce brand name and logo from Rolls-Royce PLC and acquired the rights to the Spirit of Ecstasy and Rolls-Royce grille shape trademarks from Volkswagen AG. Rolls-Royce Motor Cars Limited has been manufacturing Rolls-Royce branded cars since 2003. Although the Rolls-Royce brand has been in use on vehicles since 1906, the Rolls-Royce Motor Cars subsidiary of BMW AG has no direct relationship to Rolls-Royce branded vehicles produced prior to 2003; the Bentley subsidiary of Volkswagen AG is the direct successor to Rolls-Royce Motors and the other various predecessor entities that produced Rolls-Royce and Bentley branded cars between the foundation of each company and 2003.
Current chief executive Torsten Müller-Ötvös joined the company in January 2010, with a pledge to regain the quality standards that made Rolls-Royce famous. That year sales in China increased by 600%, making it the company's second largest market after the US. In 1998, Vickers decided to sell Rolls-Royce Motors; the most buyer was BMW, which supplied engines and other components for Rolls-Royce and Bentley cars, but BMW's final offer of £340 million was beaten by Volkswagen's £430 million. A stipulation in the ownership documents of Rolls-Royce dictated that Rolls-Royce plc, the aero-engine maker, would retain certain essential trademarks, including the Rolls-Royce name and logo if the automotive division was sold. Although Vickers plc sold the vehicle designs, administrative headquarters, production facilities, Spirit of Ecstasy and Rolls-Royce grille shape trademarks to Volkswagen AG, Rolls-Royce plc chose to license the Rolls-Royce name and logo to BMW AG for £40 million, because Rolls-Royce plc had had joint business ventures with BMW.
BMW's contract to supply engines and components to Rolls-Royce Motors allowed BMW to cancel the contract with 12 months' notice. Volkswagen would be unable to re-engineer the Rolls-Royce and Bentley vehicles to use other engines within that time frame. With the Rolls-Royce brand identification marks split between the two companies and Volkswagen's engine supply in jeopardy, the two companies entered into negotiations. Volkswagen agreed to sell BMW the Spirit of Ecstasy and grille shape trademarks and BMW agreed to continue supplying engines and components until 2003. Volkswagen continued to produce Rolls-Royce branded vehicles between 1998 and 2003, giving BMW time to build a new Rolls-Royce administrative headquarters and production facility on the Goodwood Estate near Chichester, West Sussex, develop the Phantom, the first Rolls-Royce from the new company. Rolls-Royce Motor Cars Limited became the exclusive manufacturer of Rolls-Royce branded cars in 2003. Rolls-Royce announced in September 2014 that a new technology and logistics centre will be built, due to open in 2016, 8 miles away from the main headquarters, in the seaside resort town of Bognor Regis.
From 2010 – Ghost 4-door sedan. Rolls-Royce announced in September 2006; the Ghost will be smaller, the Phantom. Only 20% of the components would be sourced from BMW F01 7 Series, it will be positioned below the Phantom. On 4 March 2014, the new Ghost Series II was revealed to the public at the Geneva Motor Show, it has a facelift front with new LED headlights. The interior has had an update as well. From 2013 – Rolls-Royce Wraith coupé. Rolls-Royce Motor Cars launched a new car at the Geneva Motor Show on 5 March 2013; the new car, named the Rolls-Royce Wraith was a luxury coupe, with a long bonnet and a sleek roof line, was a coupe version of the Ghost. It was powered by twin-turbocharged V12 engine connected to an eight-speed gearbox. Deliveries were expected to begin by the end of 2013. Rolls-Royce had stated that the Wraith would be the most powerful Rolls-Royce motor car to that date. From 2015 – The Rolls-Royce Dawn is a British handmade 4 seat luxury convertible, it was announced in time for the 2015 Frankfurt Motor Show.
Rolls-Royce unveiled a new Phantom at "The Great Eight Phantoms Exhibit", which would go into production at the end of 2017, with sales starting in 2018. After much an
Ford Kent engine
The Ford Kent is an internal combustion engine from Ford of Europe. Developed in 1959 for the Ford Anglia, it is an in-line four-cylinder overhead-valve–type pushrod engine with a cast-iron cylinder head and block; the Kent family can be divided into three basic sub-families. The arrival of the Duratec-E engine in the fifth generation Fiesta range in 2002 signalled the end of the engine's use in production vehicles after a 44-year career, although the Valencia derivative remained in limited production in Brazil, as an industrial use engine by Ford's Power Products division, where it is known as the VSG-411 and VSG-413; this series of engines became known as the Kent engine because Alan Worters, the company's Executive Engineer, lived across the river from Ford's Dagenham plant in the English county of Kent. Within Ford, it is said that the Kent name was born with the A711 and A711M blocks with square main bearing caps for the Crossflow series, which represented a vast improvement in the durability of the engines.
However, the name caught on to be used outside the company to include pre-711M engines as well. The original OHV three main bearing Kent engine appeared in the 1959 Anglia with a capacity of 1.0 L developing 39 bhp at 5,000 rpm – unusually high for the time. With a 80.96 mm × 48.41 mm bore and stroke, combined with independent four intake and four exhaust ports, it was a departure from traditional undersquare English engine design. The same engine, with its bore unchanged, but with longer 65 and 72.75 mm stroke and thus larger capacities were subsequently used in the Ford Consul Classic and Consul Capri, the Mk1 and early Mk2 Cortinas, the early Corsairs. In addition to its'over-square' cylinder dimensions, a further unusual feature of the Kent engine at its introduction was an externally mounted combined oil filter/pump unit designed to facilitate efficient low-cost production and easy maintenance; the engine is now referred to as the pre-crossflow Kent, in reverse-flow cylinder head configuration with both the inlet and exhaust being on the same side of the head.
Applications: Ford Anglia Ford Cortina Ford Consul Classic and Consul Capri. Ford Corsair 107E Ford Prefect Marcos 1500 GT Otosan Anadol 1.2 L – 1.3 L TVR GranturaThe Pre-Crossflow Kent engine was used by Lotus on Lotus Mk. VII. A 1967 redesign gave it a cross-flow type cylinder head, hence the Kent's alternative name Ford Crossflow, it would go on to power the smaller-engined versions of the Ford Cortina and Ford Capri, the first and second editions of the European Escort as well as the North American Ford Pinto. In South Africa it powered the 1.6 L Mk II, Mk III, Mk IV, & Mk V Ford Cortina and 1.6 L Ford Sierra. The Crossflow featured a change in combustion chamber design, using a Heron type combustion chamber in the top of the piston rather than in the head; the head itself was flat with each engine capacity featuring different pistons with different sized bowls in 681F and 701M blocks. The 1.6 L 691M block had the stronger'square' bearing caps used in the 711M, small combustion chambers in the near-flat head.
In 1970, the new A711 block for 1.3 L and A711M block for 1.6 L were introduced with thicker block wall, square main bearing caps, large diameter cam followers and wider cam lobes, with the latter block having a 7/16" taller deck height, together with a return to the flat head. These changes represented a significant improvement in the reliability of the engines, the blocks are referred to as'711M' blocks; the Ford Crossflow engine powered the Reliant Anadol. Other makes such as Morgan used the Crossflow on Morgan 4/4, Caterham on Caterham 7, TVR used the engine in the Grantura, 1600M, it has been fitted in countless other applications as well, being a favourite of kit-car builders not only in Great Britain. Destined for the American market, beginning with the 1977 model year, the Valencia plant began manufacturing a 1.6L, 63 bhp, five-main bearing version that included a low emission bowl-in-pistons combustion chamber design based on the Crossflow head, was equipped with a Dura-Spark electronic ignition.
This version was used in the short-lived USA-market Mk1 Fiesta. This engine would be used in the XR2 version of the Mk.1 Fiesta, using the US 1600 bottom end and GT spec head and cam. 1.3L versions of the Mk I Fiesta used the Crossflow, as opposed to the Valencia. A redesigned version of the Kent engine was conceived to suit transverse installation in 1976 for the Mk1 Ford Fiesta, although entry level versions of the Escort Mk3 used the engine; this derivative would go through two major revamps in 1988 and 1995 and would be a mainstay of Ford's entry level compact range for nearly 25 years. The Valencia was available in 1.0 L and a high compression 1.1 L version. For adapting the Kent Crossflow for front wheel drive the ancillaries were repositioned, the cylinder block shortened by 30 mm; this decision was taken in order for the engine to fit transversely across the Fiesta engine bay, whilst still allowing the transmission uni
Vickers plc was the remainder of Vickers-Armstrongs after the nationalisation of three of its four operating groups: aviation and steel. It was purchased by Rolls-Royce plc in 1999, the Vickers company name became defunct in 2004; the company was created in 1977 from the rump of Vickers-Armstrongs following the nationalisation of its aviation and steel businesses. During the 1980s the company acquired businesses in the Automotive Engineering sector, the Defence sector and the Marine Engineering sector. Rolls-Royce plc purchased Vickers plc for £576 million in 1999 for its marine engineering businesses. In 2002, Vickers Defence Systems was purchased by Alvis plc to form the subsidiary Alvis Vickers. In 2003, Rolls-Royce renamed its Vickers subsidiaries Vinters plc; the Vickers name lived on in Alvis Vickers. In 2004, the board of the parent group Alvis approved a £309m takeover bid by the American defence company General Dynamics. Within 3 months BAE Systems, which had a 29% stake in the company, bid £355m for the company.
The action was seen as a defence of the home market from a foreign rival. The bid was accepted by the majority of shareholders. In September 2004, BAE announced the creation of BAE Systems Land Systems, a new company bringing together the BAE subsidiaries, RO Defence and Alvis Vickers; this saw the end of the famous Vickers name after 176 years. In 2005, the acquisition of United Defense led to the creation of BAE Systems Land and Armaments Group. In 1980, Vickers plc acquired Rolls-Royce Motors; this was not Vickers' first involvement with Rolls-Royce. In 1966, Rolls-Royce Limited acquired Bristol Aeroplane for its Bristol Siddeley engine business, but declared it had no interest in Bristol's 20% shareholding in BAC. Despite this declaration Rolls-Royce had still not disposed of its BAC stake when the former was declared bankrupt in 1971; the 20% share was acquired from receivership by Vickers and GEC. In 1990, the Cosworth automotive engineering group was purchased. Vickers divested its automotive interests in 1998, selling Cosworth and Rolls-Royce Motors to Volkswagen Group.
The disposal of Rolls-Royce was a complicated affair, involving BMW and legal issues surrounding the use of trademarks which were shared with Rolls-Royce plc. In 1986, Royal Ordnance Factory Leeds was purchased and became the core component of Vickers Defence Systems; these interests were centred on land warfare products and brought the Challenger 1 tank into Vickers' portfolio. Vickers would develop this into the Challenger 2, the current main battle tank of the British Army and Oman. In 1999 Reumech, owner of OMC, the South African defence company was purchased and renamed as Vickers OMC. In 2004, Vickers OMC was sold to BAE Systems. Vickers was the parent company of the Brown Brothers group, which produced marine steering gear and stabilisers. In 1986, it purchased Kamewa a Swedish manufacturer of waterjets, followed in 1998 by Ulstein, a major marine propulsion and engineering company; the companies were formed up as Vickers Ulstein Marine. Companies House. Retrieved 22 June 2006 Documents and clippings about Vickers plc in the 20th Century Press Archives of the German National Library of Economics