U.S. Route 59 in Texas
U. S. Highway 59 in the U. S. state of Texas is named the Lloyd Bentsen Highway, after Lloyd Bentsen, former U. S. senator from Texas. In northern Houston, US 59, co-signed with Interstate 69, is the Eastex Freeway. To the south, co-signed with I-69, it is the Southwest Freeway; the stretch of the Southwest Freeway just west of The Loop was one of the busiest freeways in North America, with a peak AADT of 371,000 in 1998. US 59 straddles the border between Texas and Arkansas north of I-30 near Texarkana, with the east side of the highway on the Arkansas side and the west side of the highway on the Texas side. In the past, both highways remained on the border past I-30 as State Line Avenue to downtown Texarkana. Nearly 90 percent of this route is designated to become part of I-69 in the future. 75-mile-per-hour speed limits are allowed on US 59 in Duval County and portions of northern Polk County. The total length of the southernmost segment of US 59 that passes through Texas and terminates at the Mexico–US border is 615 miles.
The US 96 designation was applied in 1926 from Rosenberg, near Houston, to Pharr in the Rio Grande valley. This diagonal route, south of U. S. 90, did not violate the convention of numbers for east–west routes. The highway's east–west nature was boosted in 1934 when US 96 was rerouted from Alice to Laredo. US 59 begins at the Mexico–US border with Loop 20 on the World Trade International Bridge over the Rio Grande in Laredo; the portion of US 59, co-signed with Loop 20 is named the Bob Bullock Loop. At under 2 miles, the two highways run together concurrent with I-69W from the Mexico–US border until I-35 in Laredo, where I-69W temporarily ends. US 59 and Loop 20 continue to run together until just south of Lake Casa Blanca, where Loop 20 heads south to Mangana-Hein Road and US 59 heads towards Freer. In Duval County, the speed limit on US 59 is 75 miles per hour, the highest speed limit on the highway. US 59 shares a short congruency with SH 44 around Freer. From Freer, US 59 passes through the southeastern part of McMullen County, but does not intersect any highways.
The highway continues northeast, intersecting US 281 in George West, before intersecting I-37 about 55 miles north of Corpus Christi. Between Laredo and Interstate 37, US 59 passes through ranching sites. From I-37, US 59 heads northeast passing through Beeville. US 59 bypasses Victoria to the south, becomes a divided highway, has a series of interchanges, until it becomes a freeway south of Houston in Rosenberg and resumes the designation of I-69. Between Houston and Victoria, US 59 passes through Edna, Ganado, El Campo, Wharton. US 59 intersects many major Texas highways in Houston, including I-10 and I-45. Leaving Houston, US 59 intersects Beltway 8 again on the northside of town, passing by Bush Intercontinental Airport and heads into Humble. Between Houston and Livingston, most of US 59 is a limited-access freeway but the I-69 designation temporarily ends at the Montgomery-Liberty county line. US 59 bypasses the towns of Cleveland and Livingston. 46 miles north of Livingston, US 59 bypasses Lufkin, where it overlaps US 69.
10 miles north of Lufkin, US 59 bypasses Nacogdoches and heads in an entirely east-west direction. Drivers wishing to stay on US 59 must turn left in Tenaha, where the highway intersects US 96 and ends its overlap with US 84. US 59 passes through Carthage before intersecting I-20 south of Marshall. US 59 intersects US 80 in Marshall. US 59 passes through Jefferson, 15 miles west of Caddo Lake. US 59 passes through the towns of Atlanta before arriving in Bowie County. US 59 intersects SH 93 south of the old highway through the city. Shortly after, I-369 designation with US 59 when the freeway intersects Spur 151, where US 59 becomes a freeway on the westside of the city. Before US 59 intersects I-30, overlaps I-30 until exit 223B, at the state line, I-369 designation ends. After leaving I-30, US 59 joins US 71, where both highways run on the state line between Texas and Arkansas, where both highways continue north towards DeQueen, Arkansas. US 59 is in the process of being upgraded between Laredo & Victoria, to become I-69W.
Segments of I-69 are designated. I-69W runs between Mexico and I-35. I-69 runs through the Houston Metro, a segment of I-369 exists on the west side of Texarkana; the entire I-69 project in Texas does not have a completion date
The Texas Revolution was a rebellion of colonists from the United States and Tejanos in putting up armed resistance to the centralist government of Mexico. While the uprising was part of a larger one that included other provinces opposed to the regime of President Antonio López de Santa Anna, the Mexican government believed the United States had instigated the Texas insurrection with the goal of annexation; the Mexican Congress passed the Tornel Decree, declaring that any foreigners fighting against Mexican troops "will be deemed pirates and dealt with as such, being citizens of no nation presently at war with the Republic and fighting under no recognized flag." Only the province of Texas succeeded in breaking with Mexico, establishing the Republic of Texas, being annexed by the United States. The revolution began in October 1835, after a decade of political and cultural clashes between the Mexican government and the large population of American settlers in Texas; the Mexican government had become centralized and the rights of its citizens had become curtailed regarding immigration from the United States.
Colonists and Tejanos disagreed on whether the ultimate goal was independence or a return to the Mexican Constitution of 1824. While delegates at the Consultation debated the war's motives, Texians and a flood of volunteers from the United States defeated the small garrisons of Mexican soldiers by mid-December 1835; the Consultation declined to declare independence and installed an interim government, whose infighting led to political paralysis and a dearth of effective governance in Texas. An ill-conceived proposal to invade Matamoros siphoned much-needed volunteers and provisions from the fledgling Texian Army. In March 1836, a second political convention declared independence and appointed leadership for the new Republic of Texas. Determined to avenge Mexico's honor, Santa Anna vowed to retake Texas, his Army of Operations entered Texas in mid-February 1836 and found the Texians unprepared. Mexican General José de Urrea led a contingent of troops on the Goliad Campaign up the Texas coast, defeating all Texian troops in his path and executing most of those who surrendered.
Santa Anna led a larger force to San Antonio de Béxar, where his troops defeated the Texian garrison in the Battle of the Alamo, killing all of the defenders. A newly created Texian army under the command of Sam Houston was on the move, while terrified civilians fled with the army, in a melee known as the Runaway Scrape. On March 31, Houston paused his men at Groce's Landing on the Brazos River, for the next two weeks, the Texians received rigorous military training. Becoming complacent and underestimating the strength of his foes, Santa Anna further subdivided his troops. On April 21, Houston's army staged a surprise assault on Santa Anna and his vanguard force at the Battle of San Jacinto; the Mexican troops were routed, vengeful Texians executed many who tried to surrender. Santa Anna was taken hostage. Mexico refused to recognize the Republic of Texas, intermittent conflicts between the two countries continued into the 1840s; the annexation of Texas as the 28th state of the United States, in 1845, led directly to the Mexican–American War.
After a failed attempt by France to colonize Texas in the late 17th century, Spain developed a plan to settle the region. On its southern edge, along the Medina and Nueces Rivers, Spanish Texas was bordered by the province of Coahuila. On the east, Texas bordered Louisiana. Following the Louisiana Purchase of 1803, the United States claimed the land west of the Sabine River, all the way to the Rio Grande. From 1812 to 1813 anti-Spanish republicans and U. S. filibusters rebelled against the Spanish Empire in what is known today as the Gutiérrez–Magee Expedition during the Mexican War of Independence. They won battles in the beginning and captured many Texas cities from the Spanish that led to a declaration of independence of the state of Texas as part of the Mexican Republic on April 17, 1813; the new Texas government and army met their doom in the Battle of Medina in August 1813, 20 miles south of San Antonio, where 1,300 of the 1,400 rebel army were killed in battle or executed shortly afterwards by royalist soldiers.
It was the deadliest single battle in Texas history. 300 republican government officials in San Antonio were captured and executed by the Spanish royalists shortly after the battle. What is significant is a Spanish royalist lieutenant named Antonio López de Santa Anna fought in this battle and followed his superiors' orders to take no prisoners. Another interesting note is two founding fathers of the Republic of Texas and future signers of the Texas Declaration of Independence in 1836, José Antonio Navarro and José Francisco Ruiz, took part in the Gutiérrez–Magee Expedition. Although the United States renounced that claim as part of the Transcontinental Treaty with Spain in 1819, many Americans continued to believe that Texas should belong to their nation, over the next decade the United States made several offers to purchase the region. Following the Mexican War of Independence, Texas became part of Mexico. Under the Constitution of 1824, which defined the country as a federal republic, the provinces of Texas and Coahuila were combined to become the state Coahuila y Tejas.
Texas was granted only a single seat in the state legislature, which met in Saltillo, hundreds of miles away. After months of grumbling by Tejanos outraged at the loss of their political autonomy, state officials agreed to make Tex
Corpus Christi, Texas
Corpus Christi, colloquially Corpus, is a coastal city in the South Texas region of the U. S. state of Texas. The county seat of Nueces County, it extends into Aransas and San Patricio Counties, it is 130 miles southeast of San Antonio. Its political boundaries encompass Corpus Christi Bay, its zoned boundaries include small land parcels or water inlets of three neighboring counties. The city's population was estimated to be 320,434 in 2014, making it the eighth-most populous city in Texas; the Corpus Christi metropolitan area had an estimated population of 442,600. It is the hub of the six-county Corpus Christi-Kingsville-Alice Combined Statistical Area, with a 2013 estimated population of 516,793; the Port of Corpus Christi is the fifth-largest in the United States. The region is served by the Corpus Christi International Airport; the city's name means Body of Christ in Latin. The name was given to the settlement and surrounding bay by Spanish explorer Alonso Álvarez de Pineda in 1519, as he discovered the lush semitropical bay on the Catholic feast day of Corpus Christi.
The nickname of the city is "Sparkling City by the Sea" featured in tourist literature. Karankawans inhabited the Corpus Christi region in pre-Columbian times. Spaniard Alonso Alvarez de Pineda traveled in 1519 to this bay on the day of the religious “Feast of Corpus Christi,” thus naming the semi-tropical bay Corpus Christi. Cabeza de Vaca may have passed through Corpus Christi in the 1500s, but the first European to study the Nueces River and Corpus Christi Bay was Joaquín de Orobio y Basterra in 1747. A few years José de Escandón organized a colony of about 50 families to settle the head of the bay, though this was short-lived. In 1839, the first known permanent settlement of Corpus Christi was established by Colonel Henry Lawrence Kinney and William P. Aubrey as Kinney's Trading Post, or Kinney's Ranch, it was a small trading post that sold supplies to a Mexican revolutionary army camped about 25 mi west. In July 1845, U. S. troops commanded by General Zachary Taylor set up camp there in preparation for war with Mexico, where they remained until March 1846.
About a year the settlement was named Corpus Christi and was incorporated on September 9, 1852. The Battle of Corpus Christi was fought between August 12 and August 18, 1862, during the American Civil War. United States Navy forces blockading Texas fought a small land and sea engagement with Confederate forces in and around Corpus Christi Bay and bombarded the city. Union forces defeated Confederate States Navy ships operating in the area, but were repulsed when they landed on the coast; the Port of Corpus Christi was opened in 1926, the Corpus Christi Naval Air Station was commissioned in 1941. The 1919 Storm devastated the city, killing hundreds on September 14. Only three structures survived the storm on North Beach. To protect the city, the seawall was built; the city suffered damage from Hurricane Celia in 1970 and Hurricane Allen in 1980, but little damage from Hurricane Ike in 2008. The city was affected in 2017 by Hurricane Harvey. In November 1873, seven Mexican shepherds were lynched by a mob near the city.
The crime was never solved. In February 1929, the League of United Latin American Citizens was founded in Corpus Christi; this organization was created to battle racial discrimination against Hispanic people in the United States. Since its founding, LULAC has grown and now has a national headquarters in Washington, DC. In March 1949, the American GI Forum was founded in Corpus Christi. AGIF focuses on veteran's issues and civil-rights issues; this organization was founded after concerns over the segregation of Mexican-American veterans from other veterans groups and the denial of medical services based on race by the United States Department of Veterans Affairs. Cisneros v. Corpus Christi Independent School District was the first case to extend the U. S. Supreme Court's Brown v. the Board of Education of Kansas decision to Mexican Americans. It recognized them as a minority group that could be and was discriminated against; such segregation and discrimination was ruled unconstitutional. Judge Woodrow Seals found that the school board consciously fostered a system that perpetuated traditional segregation.
This included a system that bused Anglo students to schools out of their neighborhoods, renovated old schools in black and Mexican-American neighborhoods rather than building new ones, assigned black and Hispanic teachers to segregated schools, limited hiring of such teachers at other schools. Corpus Christi is situated on fluvial deposits -- Pleistocene age. Although no solidified rock occurs at the surface, the Deweyville Formation of sand, silt and gravel, is locally indurated with calcium carbonate deposits. In 2017, Hurricane Harvey's storm surge eroded down to shale bedrock at a depth of 40' in Packery Channel, an artificial pass cut between North Padre and Mustang Islands; this feature has become a gathering place for game fish, can be identified from the surface by its whirlpool-like current. The large, shallow bay makes Corpus Christi an ideal feeding place for birds, this is one reason why Corpus Christi is known as the "Bird Capital" of North America; the San Diego Audubon Society has designated Corpus Christi as "America's birdiest place."
According to the United States Census Bureau, Corpus Christi has a total area of 460.2 square miles, of which 154.6 mi2 are land and 305.6 mi2 are covered by water. Drinking water for the city is supplied by three reservoirs
Tamaulipas the Free and Sovereign State of Tamaulipas, is one of the 31 states which, with Mexico City, comprise the 32 Federal Entities of Mexico. It is divided into 43 municipalities and its capital city is Ciudad Victoria. Located in northeastern Mexico, it is bordered by the states of Veracruz to the southeast, San Luis Potosí to the southwest, Nuevo León to the west. To the north, it has a 370 km stretch of the U. S.–Mexico border along the state of Texas. The name Tamaulipas is derived from Tamaholipa, a Huastec term in which the tam- prefix signifies "place". No scholarly agreement exists on the meaning of holipa. Another explanation of the state name is. In addition to the capital city, Ciudad Victoria, the state's largest cities include Reynosa, Nuevo Laredo and Mante; the area known as Tamaulipas has been inhabited for at least 8,000 years. Several different cultures have gone during that period. Tamaulipas was populated by the Olmec people and by Chichimec and Huastec tribes. Between 1445 and 1466, Mexica armies commanded by Moctezuma I Ilhuicamina conquered much of the territory and transformed it into a tributary region for the Mexica empire.
However, the Aztecs never conquered certain nomadic indigenous groups in the area. Although Hernán Cortés conquered the Aztecs rather a gradual process was needed for Spain to subjugate the inhabitants of Tamaulipas in the 16th and 17th centuries; the first permanent Spanish settlement in the area was Tampico in 1554. Further settlement was done by Franciscan missionaries. Repeated indigenous rebellions weakened colonial interest in the region. What is now Tamaulipas was first incorporated as a separate province of New Spain in 1746 with the name Nuevo Santander; the local government capital during this time moved from Santander to San Carlos, to Aguayo. The territory of this time spanned from the San Antonio River to the northeast to the Gulf of Mexico south to the Pánuco River near Tampico and west to the Sierra Madre Mountains; the area became a haven for rebellious Indians who fled there after increased Spanish settlements in Nuevo León and Coahuila. In the mid-17th century, various Apache bands from the Southern Plains, after acquiring horses from Europeans in New Mexico, moved southeastward into the Edwards Plateau, displacing the native hunting and gathering groups.
One of these groups was known as Lipan. After 1750, when most Apache groups of the Central Texas highlands were displaced by Comanche and moved into the coastal plain of southern Texas, the Europeans of the San Antonio area began referring to all Apache groups in southern Texas as Lipan or Lipan Apache. Many Indian groups of missions in southern Texas and northeastern Mexico had been displaced from their territory through the southward push by the Lipan Apaches and were still hostile toward Apaches, linking arms with the local Spanish authorities against their common foe. By 1790, Europeans turned their attention from the aboriginal groups and focused on containing the Apache invaders. In northeastern Coahuila and adjacent Texas and Apache displacements created an unusual ethnic mix. Here, the local Indians mixed with displaced groups from Chihuahua and Texas; some groups, to escape the pressure and migrated north into the Central Texas highlands. In 1824, after the Mexican War of Independence from Spain, the fall of the Mexican Empire, Tamaulipas was one of the 19 founder states of the new United Mexican States.
During the fights between centralists and federalists that soon followed, the successful Texas Revolution led to the creation of the Republic of Texas in 1836. The new republic claimed as part of its territory northern Tamaulipas. In 1840, it became a part of the short-lived Republic of the Rio Grande. In 1848, after the Mexican–American War, Tamaulipas lost more than a quarter of its territory via the Treaty of Guadalupe-Hidalgo, its capital was kept at Aguayo, renamed Ciudad Victoria in honor of Guadalupe Victoria, first President of Mexico. The French occupation and reign of Emperor Maximilian during the 1860s was difficult for Tamaulipas, at least on the borders and in the city of Tampico. Portions of Tamaulipas supported the republican forces led by President Benito Juarez in resisting the French in the north. Two years after French occupation began, Tamaulipas as a state acceded to Maximilian's rule, the last French soldiers left the state in 1866, leading up to Maximilian's execution and fall of the Second Mexican Empire in 1867.
However, the years after Maximilian's defeat were great growth in Tamaulipas. International trade began to blossom with the coming of the railroad to Tampico, developing as not only a port city, but as an industrial and commercial center; the railroad allowed goods to flow from the mines and cities of the interior and the Texas border to Tampico for processing and shipment. This, in turn, caused significant growth in towns such as Nuevo Laredo. Since the revolution of 1910, successive governments have dedicated themselves to building industry and infrastructure in Tamaulipas, including communications and educational systems. Norberto Treviño Zapata founded t
Haute cuisine or grande cuisine is the cuisine of "high-level" establishments, gourmet restaurants and luxury hotels. Haute cuisine is characterized by meticulous preparation and careful presentation of food, at a high price level. Haute cuisine developed out of social changes in France; the "high" cuisine represented a hierarchy in 17th century France as only the privileged could eat it. Haute cuisine distinguished itself from regular French cuisine by what was cooked and served such as foods like tongue and caviar, by serving foods such as fruit out of season, by making it difficult and time consuming to cook, by using exotic ingredients not found in France. In addition to, eating haute cuisine and what it consisted of, the term can be defined by, making it and how they were doing so. Professionally trained chefs were quintessential to the birth of haute cuisine in France; the extravagant presentations and complex techniques that these chefs were known for required ingredients, time and therefore money.
For this reason, early haute cuisine was accessible to a small demographic of rich and powerful individuals. Professional French chefs were not only responsible for building and shaping haute cuisine, but their roles in the cuisine were what differentiated it from regular French cuisine. Haute cuisine was characterized by French cuisine in elaborate preparations and presentations served in small and numerous courses that were produced by large and hierarchical staffs at the grand restaurants and hotels of Europe; the cuisine was rich and opulent with decadent sauces made out of butter and flour, the basis for many typical French sauces that are still used today. The 17th century chef and writer La Varenne marked a change from cookery known in the Middle Ages, to somewhat lighter dishes, more modest presentations. In the following century, Antonin Carême published works on cooking, although many of his preparations today seem extravagant, he simplified and codified an earlier and more complex cuisine.
Georges Auguste Escoffier is a central figure in the modernisation of haute cuisine as of about 1900, which became known as cuisine classique. These were simplifications and refinements of the early work of Carême, Jules Gouffé and Urbain Dubois, it was practised in the grand restaurants and hotels of Europe and elsewhere for much of the 20th century. The major developments were to replace service à la française with service à la russe and to develop a system of cookery, based on Escoffier's Le Guide Culinaire, which formalized the preparation of sauces and dishes. In its time, it was considered the pinnacle of haute cuisine, was a style distinct from cuisine bourgeoise, the working-class cuisine of bistros and homes, cuisines of the French provinces; the 1960s were marked by the appearance of nouvelle cuisine, as chefs rebelled from Escoffier's "orthodoxy" and complexity. Although the term nouvelle cuisine had been used in the past, the modern usage can be attributed to authors André Gayot, Henri Gault, Christian Millau, who used nouvelle cuisine to describe the cooking of Paul Bocuse, Alain Chapel and Pierre Troisgros, Michel Guérard, Roger Vergé and Raymond Oliver, many of whom were once students of Fernand Point.
In general, nouvelle cuisine puts an emphasis on natural flavours, so the freshest possible ingredients are used, preparation is simplified, heavy sauces are less common, as are strong marinades for meat, cooking times are reduced. Nouvelle cuisine was a movement towards conceptualism and minimalism and was a direct juxtaposition to earlier haute cuisine styles of cooking, which were much more extravagant. While menus were short, dishes used more inventive pairings and relied on inspiration from regional dishes. Within 20 years, chefs began returning to the earlier style of haute cuisine, although many of the new techniques remained. Cooking and Class, A Study in Comparative Sociology, Jack Goody, University of Cambridge, June 1982, ISBN 978-0-521-28696-1 Food and love: a cultural history of East and West By Jack Goody, Verso, ISBN 978-1-859-84829-6 Tasting food, tasting freedom: excursions into eating and the past by Sidney Wilfred Mintz Beacon Press - ISBN 0-8070-4629-9 Viandier attributed to Guillaume Tirel dit Taillevent, medieval manuscript Haute Cuisine: How the French Invented the Culinary Profession By Amy B.
Trubek, University of Pennsylvania Press, ISBN 978-0-8122-1776-6 Food culture in France By Julia Abramson, Greenwood Press, ISBN 978-0-313-32797-1 Patrick Rambourg, Histoire de la cuisine et de la gastronomie françaises, Paris, Ed. Perrin, 2010, 381 pages. ISBN 978-2-262-03318-7
The Legislature of the state of Texas is the state legislature of Texas. The legislature is a bicameral body composed of a 31-member Senate and a 150-member House of Representatives; the state legislature meets at the Capitol in Austin. It is a powerful arm of the Texas government not only because of its power of the purse to control and direct the activities of state government and the strong constitutional connections between it and the Lieutenant Governor of Texas, but due to Texas's plural executive; the Legislature is the constitutional successor of the Congress of the Republic of Texas since Texas's 1845 entrance into the Union. The Legislature held its first regular session from February 16 to May 13, 1846; the Texas Legislature meets in regular session on the second Tuesday in January of each odd-numbered year. The Texas Constitution limits the regular session to 140 calendar days; the lieutenant governor, elected statewide separately from the governor, presides over the Senate, while the Speaker of the House is elected from that body by its members.
Both have wide latitude in choosing committee membership in their respective houses and have a large impact on lawmaking in the state. Only the governor may call the Legislature into special sessions, unlike other states where the legislature may call itself into session; the governor may call as many sessions as she desires. For example, Governor Rick Perry called three consecutive sessions to address the 2003 Texas congressional redistricting; the Texas Constitution limits the duration of each special session to 30 days. Any bill passed by the Legislature takes effect 90 days after its passage unless two-thirds of each house votes to give the bill either immediate effect or earlier effect; the Legislature may provide for an effective date, after the 90th day. Under current legislative practice, most bills are given an effective date of September 1 in odd-numbered years. Although members are elected on partisan ballots, both houses of the Legislature are organized on a nonpartisan basis, with members of both parties serving in leadership positions such as committee chairmanships.
As of 2017, a majority of the members of each chamber are members of the Republican Party. The Texas Constitution sets the qualifications for election to each house as follows: A senator must be at least 26 years of age, a citizen of Texas five years prior to election and a resident of the district from which elected one year prior to election; each senator serves a four-year term and one-half of the Senate membership is elected every two years in even-numbered years, with the exception that all the Senate seats are up for election for the first legislature following the decennial census in order to reflect the newly redrawn districts. After the initial election, the Senate is divided by lot into two classes, with one class having a re-election after two years and the other having a re-election after four years. A representative must be at least 21 years of age, a citizen of Texas for two years prior to election and a resident of the district from which elected one year prior to election, they are elected for two-year terms.
State legislators in Texas make $600 per month, or $7,200 per year, plus a per diem of $190 for every day the Legislature is in session. That adds up to $33,800 a year for a regular session, with the total pay for a two-year term being $41,000. Legislators receive a pension after eight years of service, starting at age 60; the Texas Legislature has five support agencies that are within the legislative branch of state government. Those five agencies are as follows: Texas Legislative Budget Board Texas Legislative Council Texas Legislative Reference Library Texas State Auditor Texas Sunset Advisory Commission On May 14, 2007, CBS Austin affiliate KEYE reported on the rampant multiple voting by members of the Texas House of Representatives during a voting session; the report noted how representatives would race to the nearest empty seats to register votes for absent members on the legislature's automated voting machines. Each representative would vote for the nearest absent members regardless of party affiliation.
This practice was in direct violation of a Rule of the Texas Legislature. The then-Speaker of the House Tom Craddick, responsible for enforcement of the rule, issued a statement that discipline for violations of the rule is left to the individual house members. Subsequent similar violations under House Speaker Joe Straus have been unenforced. Sunset Advisory Commission "Citizen Handbook"; the Senate of Texas. Retrieved 13 September 2009. Texas Legislature from the Handbook of Texas Online. Retrieved 13 April 2005. Stanley K. Young, Texas Legislative Handbook. Univ. of Tex. The Legislative Branch in Texas Politics. See also: Texas Government Newsletter Texas Legislature Online Texas House of Representatives Texas Senate Reference Library of Texas Open Government Texas from the Sunlight Foundation Texas at Project Vote Smart Texas Politics – The Legislative Branch Texas Government Newsletter and Voter's Guide to the Texas Legislature Billhop – Texas Legislative Wiki
Live Oak County, Texas
Live Oak County is a county located in the U. S. state of Texas. As of the 2010 census, its population was 11,531, its county seat is George West. The county was named for the groves of live oak within its borders. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 1,079 square miles, of which 1,040 square miles is land and 39 square miles is water, it is home to the Choke Canyon Reservoir. Interstate 37 U. S. Highway 59 Interstate 69W is under construction and will follow the current route of U. S. 59 in most places. U. S. Highway 281 Interstate 69C is under construction and will follow the current route of U. S. 281 in most places south of George West. SH 72 FM 99 FM 624 FM 799 FM 833 Karnes County Bee County San Patricio County Jim Wells County Duval County McMullen County Atascosa County As of the census of 2000, there were 12,309 people, 4,230 households, 3,070 families residing in the county; the population density was 12 people per square mile. There were 6,196 housing units at an average density of 6 per square mile.
The racial makeup of the county was 87.28% White, 2.45% Black or African American, 0.41% Native American, 0.19% Asian, 0.02% Pacific Islander, 7.72% from other races, 1.94% from two or more races. 38.05% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. There were 4,230 households out of which 30.90% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 60.10% were married couples living together, 8.70% had a female householder with no husband present, 27.40% were non-families. 23.90% of all households were made up of individuals and 12.40% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.53 and the average family size was 3.00. In the county, the population was spread out with 22.30% under the age of 18, 9.50% from 18 to 24, 27.10% from 25 to 44, 25.10% from 45 to 64, 16.00% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 39 years. For every 100 females there were 122.20 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 129.80 males. The median income for a household in the county was $32,057, the median income for a family was $38,235.
Males had a median income of $30,061 versus $19,665 for females. The per capita income for the county was $15,886. About 14.10% of families and 16.50% of the population were below the poverty line, including 22.20% of those under age 18 and 11.70% of those age 65 or over. The Federal Bureau of Prisons, Federal Correctional Institution, Three Rivers is located in unincorporated Live Oak County, near Three Rivers. George West Three Rivers Pernitas Point Dinero Oakville Ray Point Swinney Switch Whitsett Lebanon National Register of Historic Places listings in Live Oak County, Texas Recorded Texas Historic Landmarks in Live Oak County Live Oak County Courthouse Live Oak County Jail Live Oak County government’s website Live Oak County from the Handbook of Texas Online "Live Oak County Profile" from the Texas Association of Counties Index of Landmarks