The Importance of Being Earnest
The Importance of Being Earnest, A Trivial Comedy for Serious People is a play by Oscar Wilde. First performed on 14 February 1895 at the St James's Theatre in London, it is a farcical comedy in which the protagonists maintain fictitious personæ to escape burdensome social obligations. Working within the social conventions of late Victorian London, the play's major themes are the triviality with which it treats institutions as serious as marriage, the resulting satire of Victorian ways; some contemporary reviews praised the play's humour and the culmination of Wilde's artistic career, while others were cautious about its lack of social messages. Its high farce and witty dialogue have helped make The Importance of Being Earnest Wilde's most enduringly popular play; the successful opening night marked the climax of Wilde's career but heralded his downfall. The Marquess of Queensberry, whose son Lord Alfred Douglas was Wilde's lover, planned to present the writer with a bouquet of rotten vegetables and disrupt the show.
Wilde was tipped off and Queensberry was refused admission. Their feud came to a climax in court, where Wilde's homosexuality was revealed to the Victorian public and he was sentenced to imprisonment. Despite the play's early success, Wilde's notoriety caused the play to be closed after 86 performances. After his release from prison, he published the play from exile in Paris, but he wrote no further comic or dramatic work; the Importance of Being Earnest has been revived many times since its premiere. It has been adapted for the cinema on three occasions. In The Importance of Being Earnest, Dame Edith Evans reprised her celebrated interpretation of Lady Bracknell. After the success of Wilde's plays Lady Windermere's Fan and A Woman of No Importance, Wilde's producers urged him to write further plays. In July 1894, he mooted his idea for The Importance of Being Earnest to George Alexander, the actor-manager of the St James's Theatre. Wilde spent the summer with his family at Worthing, where he wrote the play in August.
His fame now at its peak, he used the working title Lady Lancing to avoid preemptive speculation of its content. Many names and ideas in the play were borrowed from people or places the author had known. Wilde scholars agree the most important influence on the play was W. S. Gilbert's 1877 farce Engaged, from which Wilde borrowed not only several incidents but "the gravity of tone demanded by Gilbert of his actors". Wilde continually revised the text over the next months. No line was left untouched and the revision had significant consequences. Sos Eltis describes Wilde's revisions as refined art at work; the earliest and longest handwritten drafts of the play labour over farcical incidents, broad puns, nonsense dialogue and conventional comic turns. In revising, "Wilde transformed standard nonsense into the more systemic and disconcerting illogicality which characterises Earnest's dialogue". Richard Ellmann argues Wilde had reached his artistic maturity and wrote more and rapidly. Wilde hesitated about submitting the script to Alexander, worrying it might be unsuitable for the St James's Theatre, whose typical repertoire was more serious, explaining it had been written in response to a request for a play "with no real serious interest".
When Henry James's Guy Domville failed, Alexander agreed to put on Wilde’s play. After working with Wilde on stage movements with a toy theatre, Alexander asked the author to shorten the play from four acts to three. Wilde combined elements of the second and third acts; the largest cut was the removal of the character of Mr. Gribsby, a solicitor who comes from London to arrest the profligate "Ernest" for unpaid dining bills; the four-act version is still sometimes performed. Some consider the three-act structure more effective and theatrically resonant than the expanded published edition; the play was first produced at the St James's Theatre on Valentine's Day 1895. It was freezing cold but Wilde arrived dressed in "florid sobriety", wearing a green carnation; the audience, according to one report, "included many members of the great and good, former cabinet ministers and privy councillors, as well as actors, writers and enthusiasts". Allan Aynesworth, who played Algernon Moncrieff, recalled to Hesketh Pearson that "In my fifty-three years of acting, I never remember a greater triumph than first night".
Aynesworth was himself "debonair and stylish", Alexander, who played Jack Worthing, "demure". The cast was: John Worthing, J. P.—George Alexander Algernon Moncrieff—Allan Aynesworth Rev. Canon Chasuble, D. D.—H. H. Vincent Merriman—Frank Dyall Lane—F. Kinsey Peile Lady Bracknell—Rose Leclercq Hon. Gwendolen Fairfax—Irene Vanbrugh Cecily Cardew—Evelyn Millard Miss Prism—Mrs. George CanningeThe Marquess of Queensberry, the father of Wilde's lover Lord Alfred Douglas, had planned to disrupt the play by throwing a bouquet of rotten vegetables at the playwright when he took his bow at the end of the show. Wilde and Alexander learned of the plan, the latter cancelled Queensberry's ticket and arranged for policemen to bar his entrance, he continued harassing Wilde, who launched a private prosecution against the peer for criminal libel, triggering a series of trials ending in Wilde's imprisonment for gross indecency. Alexander tried, unsuccessfully, to save the production by removing Wilde's name from the billing, but t
Maryland is a state in the Mid-Atlantic region of the United States, bordering Virginia, West Virginia, the District of Columbia to its south and west. The state's largest city is Baltimore, its capital is Annapolis. Among its occasional nicknames are Old Line State, the Free State, the Chesapeake Bay State, it is named after the English queen Henrietta Maria, known in England as Queen Mary. Sixteen of Maryland's twenty-three counties border the tidal waters of the Chesapeake Bay estuary and its many tributaries, which combined total more than 4,000 miles of shoreline. Although one of the smallest states in the U. S. it features a variety of climates and topographical features that have earned it the moniker of America in Miniature. In a similar vein, Maryland's geography and history combines elements of the Mid-Atlantic and South Atlantic regions of the country. One of the original Thirteen Colonies of Great Britain, Maryland was founded by George Calvert, a Catholic convert who sought to provide a religious haven for Catholics persecuted in England.
In 1632, Charles I of England granted Calvert a colonial charter, naming the colony after his wife, Queen Mary. Unlike the Pilgrims and Puritans, who enforced religious conformity in their settlements, Calvert envisioned a colony where people of different religious sects would coexist under the principle of toleration. Accordingly, in 1649 the Maryland General Assembly passed an Act Concerning Religion, which enshrined this principle by penalizing anyone who "reproached" a fellow Marylander based on religious affiliation. Religious strife was common in the early years, Catholics remained a minority, albeit in greater numbers than in any other English colony. Maryland's early settlements and population centers clustered around rivers and other waterways that empty into the Chesapeake Bay, its economy was plantation-based, centered on the cultivation of tobacco. The need for cheap labor led to a rapid expansion of indentured servants, penal labor, African slaves. In 1760, Maryland's current boundaries took form following the settlement of a long-running border dispute with Pennsylvania.
Maryland was an active participant in the events leading up to the American Revolution, by 1776 its delegates signed the Declaration of Independence. Many of its citizens subsequently played key military roles in the war. In 1790, the state ceded land for the establishment of the U. S. capital of Washington, D. C. Although a slave state, Maryland remained in the Union during the U. S. Civil War, its strategic location giving it a significant role in the conflict. After the war, Maryland took part in the Industrial Revolution, driven by its seaports, railroad networks, mass immigration from Europe. Since the Second World War, the state's population has grown to six million residents, it is among the most densely populated states in the nation; as of 2015, Maryland had the highest median household income of any state, owing in large part to its close proximity to Washington, D. C. and a diversified economy spanning manufacturing, higher education, biotechnology. Maryland has been ranked as one of the best governed states in the country.
The state's central role in American history is reflected by its hosting of some of the highest numbers of historic landmarks per capita. Maryland is comparable in overall area with Belgium, it is the 42nd largest and 9th smallest state and is closest in size to the state of Hawaii, the next smaller state. The next larger state, its neighbor West Virginia, is twice the size of Maryland. Maryland possesses a variety of topography within its borders, contributing to its nickname America in Miniature, it ranges from sandy dunes dotted with seagrass in the east, to low marshlands teeming with wildlife and large bald cypress near the Chesapeake Bay, to rolling hills of oak forests in the Piedmont Region, pine groves in the Maryland mountains to the west. Maryland is bounded on its north by Pennsylvania, on its west by West Virginia, on its east by Delaware and the Atlantic Ocean, on its south, across the Potomac River, by West Virginia and Virginia; the mid-portion of this border is interrupted by District of Columbia, which sits on land, part of Montgomery and Prince George's counties and including the town of Georgetown, Maryland.
This land was ceded to the United States Federal Government in 1790 to form the District of Columbia.. The Chesapeake Bay nearly bisects the state and the counties east of the bay are known collectively as the Eastern Shore. Most of the state's waterways are part of the Chesapeake Bay watershed, with the exceptions of a tiny portion of extreme western Garrett County, the eastern half of Worcester County, a small portion of the state's northeast corner. So prominent is the Chesapeake in Maryland's geography and economic life that there has been periodic agitation to change the state's official nickname to the "Bay State", a nickname, used by Massachusetts for decades; the highest point in Maryland, with an elevation of 3,360 feet, is Hoye Crest on Backbone Mountain, in the southwest corner of Garrett County, near the bo
Hornsby Girls' High School
Hornsby Girls' High School is an academically selective, public high school for girls, located in Hornsby, a suburb on the Upper North Shore of Sydney, New South Wales, Australia. Founded in 1930, the school's first principal was Sarah Agnes Angus Brewster. Academically, Hornsby Girls' is ranked first in the Hornsby region in terms of Higher School Certificate results and is ranked as one of the top five performing schools in the state, they have a student exchange program with three of their languages - Japanese and German. Their Japanese sister school is Shukutoku Yono, situated in Saitama, their German sister school is Graf-Rasso in Furstenfeldbruck and have visited New Caledonia a few times in recent years; the 13 faculties in the school are: Computing Studies, History, Languages, Music, Personal Development and Physical Education, Social Sciences and Applied Studies, Visual Arts. At Hornsby Girls High school, there is a prefect system with a School Captain, School Vice-Captain, two Senior Prefects and 14 other prefects.
The Prefects aim to serve the school community in four main areas: School spirit and environment, public relations and policy, events. A new group Year 12 Travel Prefects have been introduced from 2010, their main responsibility is to monitor the conduct of HGHS students when in the public domain, travelling to and from school. Prefects are responsible for many school initiatives and each year continue the tradition of the school's bi-annual concerts; the first major event organised by the newly elected prefects is the Christmas Concert. This is a light-hearted day concert for the whole school, helps to maintain the Christmas and holiday spirit in the last week of school. Prefects and Year 12 combined organise the annual LipSync concert as their last official contribution to the school; the auditions for LipSync are form a free day concert for all students to see. From these auditions, outstanding performances are chosen to participate in front of a large audience of the public and the school community at the evening concert.
Lipsync is a concert of dancing and LipSyncing. The'Teachers' Act' is traditional, as are the'Prefects' Act' and the'SRC Act'; the Student Representative Council are a democratically, peer elected group of students who liaise with teachers and the principal. Students can express their concerns about the school or make suggestions which might be beneficial to the school; the SRC organises mufti days and school dances with Normanhurst Boys' High School. The SRC organise charity day events and special events like Valentines Day; the SRC organise "Spirit Week" during Week 10 of Term 2. This special week is full of fun activities such as'The HGHS Fugitive' and inviting teachers to run the multi-stage fitness test affectionately called'the beep test' by the girls. Another popular event in Spirit Week must include "The Great Debate" combined with Normanhurst Boys'High School; this consists of four representatives from both schools who compete in a variety of games and challenges leading up to a humorous debate to determine a winner.
This event is showcased to grades Yr 9–12. The main purpose of Spirit week is to give the students relief from the probable stress stemmed from half-yearly exams, most of all, to promote and increase school spirit and a sense of belonging within the school community. Fashion Parade – This is an event organised by the senior textiles students whereby students from all grades present garments; the event happens every two years. The most recent theme being "Secrets". Community Fair – Takes place in late August to celebrate the variety of cultures within the school. Lipsync – Occurs at the end of term 3 organised by the Year 12's; the theme of Lipsync 2011 was "Magicale", Lipsync 2012 was "Technicale" and Lipsync 2013 was "Tropicale". Lipsync 2014 was "Physicale". Lipsync 2015 was "Mysticale". Battle of the Bands – Held in conjunction with Normanhurst Boys' High School. Christmas Concert – A festive talent show for students to enjoy at the close of the school year on the last day of school Genie Auction – Year 12 Prefects go under auction as the rest of the school bids to have them as their daily genie to do work for them.
Profits go to natural disaster relief. It was called "The Slave Drive", however that name was announced politically incorrect. House Choir – A competitive choir battle between all the sport houses. Hornsby Girls' offers students the opportunity to participate in a number of musical groups, namely the Concert Band, Symphonic Band, Jazz Band and String Orchestra. Smaller musical outfits are other outlets, such as the flute choir and several chamber ensembles made up from those students who play an instrument and wish to be involved in extra-curricular musical groups. Other musical groups are the Junior and Senior Vocal Ensembles, who participate in a range of competitions, including the MacDonald's Performing Arts Competition and School Spectacular, they have received many awards, high commendations from judges and critics. In 2008, they appeared in Battle of the Choirs, screened on Channel 7. In 2010, a small chamber vocal ensemble was introduced with the aim of allowing some students a small ensemble experience.
Hornsby Girls hosts dance groups, featuring ballet, jazz and contemporary styles of dancing. Hornsby Girls' enjoys great success in the area of aerobics gymnastics, with individuals and groups achieving state awards. Students
St George Girls High School
St George Girls High School is an academically selective, public high school for girls, located in Kogarah, in the Southern Suburbs of Sydney, New South Wales, Australia. Established in 1916 and operated by the New South Wales Department of Education and Training, the school caters for 920 students from Years 7 to 12. For first year entry, students must sit the Selective High Schools Test and are offered admission into the school based on academic merit. In June 1913 it was decided. On 31 October 1914, the land occupied by the cottage ` Harrow Villa'; this cottage with portable buildings added. St George Girls High School opened in February 1916 with 143 students and nine teachers. Important annual events on the St George calendar include: Swimming and Athletics Carnivals The Walkathon SRC Week Drama Night, showcasing the talents of Drama students Senior Drama Night, showcasing talents of Year 12 Drama'Inspired' Night, a textiles and design fashion parade The Summer Music Festival in conjunction with the Multicultural Food Festival Gala Music Festival SRC School Dance The "Listen" concerts, which include the Stage Band and Concert Band The "Sing" concerts, which comprise the Vocal Ensemble and the Singing Tutorial girls The School has four school organisations which provide support to the school: P & C Association - St George Girls High School Parents & Citizen' Association takes an active interest in the welfare and education of students.
When possible, they have a guest speaker. St Georgians - The St Georgians is the association for ex-students of the school to meet regularly. Prefects - At St George Girls High School, there are 15 School Prefects, of them are two Vice Captains and one School Captain; these students are nominated and voted by their fellow Year 12 peers and lead in the planning events for their cohort and the wider school community. Student Representative Council - St George Girls High School has an active Student Representative Council. Students from each year elect representatives from their class to represent them at SRC meetings; the SRC consists of four Year 11 students selected by the students of the school. In the past, the SRC has participated in charities such as Daffodil Day, Jeans for Genes day and Pink Ribbon day as well as fundraising activities such as the Walkathon, Gelato Days and Mufti Days. Money raised from school fundraising activities is used for improvements within the school. Recent SRC projects include planting of trees for shade, purchasing teaching resources in the school and providing additional seating arrangements around the school quadrangles.
Although St George Girls High School is an all-girls school, Sydney Technical High School is referred to as their male counterpart. Being the'Brother School' of St George Girls High School, Sydney Technical High School engages in joint SRC fundraising activities. Examples of these include SRC school dances, the St George vs. Sydney Tech netball game during SRC week, as well as P&C meetings; each schools' ISCF Group join to become Lightly Salted. Notable alumnae are referred to as Old Girls. Brenna Harding - Logie Award winning Actress. Has been in several TV shows, including'Puberty Blues','My Place', and'Packed to the Rafters'. Eleanor Hall - ABC journalist Fiona Wright - award-winning essayist and poet. Linda Marigliano - Radio host on national radio station Triple J, presenting the Good Nights program. Christina Stead - Australian novelist. Stead's novel, The Man Who Loved Children was heralded as a forgotten 20th Century "masterpiece" by American author Jonathan Franzen in the New York Times, who compared her to James Joyce and William Faulkner.
Van Badham - columnist for The Guardian, commentator and author Susien Chong - Fashion designer Elizabeth Minchin - Professor of classics at the Australian National University Patricia Brennan - AM, MBBS, M Forensic Med, PhD was a medical missionary and mother, television broadcaster, forensic physician, haematology registrar at Prince of Wales Hospital and surgeon at the Sudan Interior Mission Hospital in Jos and Galmi surgical and obstetric hospital in Niger. Dr. Jean Sinclair Isbister OBE - A pioneer in the development of hospital and outpatient services for mothers and babies in the area of childbirth practices and post-natal care, her epidemiological studies at the Royal North Shore Hospital and Tresillian led to the establishment of numerous programs for mothers and the care of children. Mary Gwenyth Fleming MB BS, FRACP - One of the first women Doctors to pass through the University of Sydney, graduating with a Bachelor of Medicine and Bachelor of Surgery in 1939. Fleming was the first female Major in the Royal Australian Army Medical Corps and her specialty was thoracic medicine.
In 1945 Gwen was one of the first women admitted as a member of the Royal Australasian College of Physicians and in 1973, she was made a Fellow. Lady Rita Cornforth - A chemist and the wife of Nobel Prize recipient Sir John Warcup Cornforth, they collaborated on a total of 41 papers. Julie Campbell - A cell biologist and is recognised as a world leader in the field of smooth muscle biology. Jocelyn Ho - Concert pianist Michelle Ford - Olympic gold medallist in the Moscow 1980 games List of Government schools in New South Wales List of selective high schools in New South Wales Sydney Technical High School St George Girls High School website NSW Department of Education and Training: St George Girls High
Staffordshire is a landlocked county in the West Midlands of England. It borders with Cheshire to the northwest and Leicestershire to the east, Warwickshire to the southeast, West Midlands and Worcestershire to the south, Shropshire to the west; the largest city in Staffordshire is Stoke-on-Trent, administered separately from the rest of the county as an independent unitary authority. Lichfield has city status, although this is a smaller cathedral city. Major towns include Stafford, Burton upon Trent, Newcastle-under-Lyme and Tamworth. Smaller towns include Stone, Uttoxeter, Burntwood/Chasetown, Eccleshall and the large villages of Wombourne, Tutbury, Barton-under-Needwood and Abbots Bromley. Cannock Chase AONB is within the county as well as parts of the National Forest and the Peak District national park. Wolverhampton, West Bromwich and Smethwick are within the historic county boundaries of Staffordshire, but since 1974 have been part of the West Midlands county. Apart from Stoke-on-Trent, Staffordshire is divided into the districts of Cannock Chase, East Staffordshire, Newcastle-under-Lyme, South Staffordshire, Staffordshire Moorlands, Tamworth.
Staffordshire was divided into five hundreds: Cuttlestone, Pirehill and Totmonslow. The historic boundaries of Staffordshire cover much of what is now the metropolitan county of West Midlands. An administrative county of Staffordshire was set up in 1889 under the Local Government Act 1888 covering the county except the county boroughs of Wolverhampton and West Bromwich in the south, Hanley in the north; the Act saw the towns of Tamworth and Burton upon Trent united in Staffordshire. In 1553 Queen Mary made Lichfield a county corporate, meaning it was administered separately from the rest of Staffordshire, it remained so until 1888. Handsworth and Perry Barr became part of the county borough of Birmingham in the early 20th century, thus associated with Warwickshire. Burton, in the east of the county, became a county borough in 1901, was followed by Smethwick, another town in the Black Country in 1907. In 1910 the six towns of the Staffordshire Potteries, including Hanley, became the single county borough of Stoke-on-Trent.
A significant boundary change occurred in 1926 when the east of Sedgley was transferred to Worcestershire to allow the construction of the new Priory Estate on land purchased by Dudley County Borough council. A major reorganisation in the Black Country in 1966, under the recommendation of the Local Government Commission for England led to the creation of an area of contiguous county boroughs; the County Borough of Warley was formed by the merger of the county borough of Smethwick and municipal borough of Rowley Regis with the Worcestershire borough of Oldbury: the resulting county borough was associated with Worcestershire. Meanwhile, the county borough of Dudley a detached part of Worcestershire and became associated with Staffordshire instead; this reorganisation led to the administrative county of Staffordshire having a thin protrusion passing between the county boroughs and Shropshire, to the west, to form a short border with Worcestershire. Under the Local Government Act 1972, on 1 April 1974 the county boroughs of the Black Country and the Aldridge-Brownhills Urban District of Staffordshire became, along with Birmingham and Coventry and other districts, a new metropolitan county of West Midlands.
County boroughs were abolished, with Stoke becoming a non-metropolitan district in Staffordshire, Burton forming an unparished area in the district of East Staffordshire. On 1 April 1997, under a recommendation of the Banham Commission, Stoke-on-Trent became a unitary authority independent of Staffordshire once more. In July 2009 the largest hoard of Anglo-Saxon gold found in Britain was discovered in a field near Lichfield; the artefacts, known as The Staffordshire Hoard have tentatively been dated to the 7th or 8th centuries, placing the origin of the items in the time of the Kingdom of Mercia. This is a chart of trend of regional gross value added of the non-metropolitan county of Staffordshire at current basic prices published by Office for National Statistics with figures in millions of British pounds sterling; some nationally and internationally known companies have their base in Staffordshire. They include the Britannia Building Society, based in Leek. JCB is based in Rocester near Uttoxeter and Bet365, based in Stoke-on-Trent.
The theme park Alton Towers is in the Staffordshire Moorlands and several of the world's largest pottery manufacturers are based in Stoke-on-Trent. Staffordshire has a comprehensive system with eight independent schools. Most secondary schools are from 11–16 or 18, but two in Staffordshire Moorlands and South Staffordshire are from 13–18. Resources are shared. There are two universities in the county, Keele University in Newcastle-under-Lyme and Staffordshire University, which has campuses in Stoke-on-Trent, Stafford and Shrewsbury; the modern county of Staffordshire has three professional football clubs – Stoke City and Port Vale, both from Stoke-on-Trent, Burton Albion, who play in Burton upon Trent. Stoke City, one of the oldest professional football clubs in existence, were founded in 1863 and played at the Victoria Ground for 119 years from 1878 until their relocation to the Britannia Stadium in 1997, they were among the 12 founder members of the Football League in 1888. By the late 1930s, they were establi
Field hockey is a team game of the hockey family. The earliest origins of the game date back to the Middle Ages in Pakistan; the game can be played on grass, water turf, artificial turf or synthetic field as well as an indoor board surface. Each team plays with eleven players, including the goalie. Players use sticks made out of wood, carbon fibre, fibre glass or a combination of carbon fibre and fibre glass in different quantities to hit a round, plastic ball; the length of the stick depends on the player's individual height. Only one face of the stick is allowed to be used. Goalies have a different kind of stick, however they can use an ordinary field hockey stick; the specific goal-keeping sticks have another curve at the end of the stick, this is to give them more surface area to save the ball. The uniform consists of shin guards, shorts, a mouth guard and a jersey. Today, the game is played globally in parts of Western Europe, South Asia, Southern Africa, New Zealand and parts of the United States.
Known as "hockey" in many territories, the term "field hockey" is used in Canada and the United States where ice hockey is more popular. In Sweden, the term "landhockey" is used and to some degree in Norway where it is governed by Norway's Bandy Association. During play, goal keepers are the only players who are allowed to touch the ball with any part of their body, while field players play the ball with the flat side of their stick. If the ball is touched with the rounded part of the stick, it will result in a penalty. Goal keepers cannot play the ball with the back of their stick. Whoever scores the most goals by the end of the match wins. If the score is tied at the end of the game, either a draw is declared or the game goes into extra time or a penalty shootout, depending on the competition's format. There are many variations to overtime play that depend on the tournament play. In college play, a seven-aside overtime period consists of a 10-minute golden goal period with seven players for each team.
If a tie still remains, the game enters a one-on-one competition where each team chooses 5 players to dribble from the 25-yard line down to the circle against the opposing goalie. The player has 8 seconds to score on the goalie keeping it in bounds; the play ends after a goal is scored, the ball goes out of bounds, a foul is committed or time expires. If the tie still persists extra rounds thereafter until one team has scored; the governing body of field hockey is the International Hockey Federation, with men and women being represented internationally in competitions including the Olympic Games, World Cup, World League, Champions Trophy and Junior World Cup, with many countries running extensive junior and masters club competitions. The FIH is responsible for organizing the Hockey Rules Board and developing the rules for the game. A popular variant of field hockey is indoor field hockey, which differs in a number of respects while embodying the primary principles of hockey. Indoor hockey is a 5-a-side variant, with a field, reduced to 40 m × 20 m.
With many of the rules remaining the same, including obstruction and feet, there are several key variations: Players may not raise the ball unless shooting on goal, players may not hit the ball, the sidelines are replaced with solid barriers which the ball will rebound off. In addition, the regulation guidelines for the indoor field hockey stick require a thinner, lighter stick than an outdoor stick. There is a depiction of a field hockey-like game in Ancient Greece, dating to c. 510 BC, when the game may have been called Κερητίζειν because it was played with a horn and a ball. Researchers disagree over, it could have been one-on-one activity. Billiards historians Stein and Rubino believe it was among the games ancestral to lawn-and-field games like hockey and ground billiards, near-identical depictions appear both in the Beni Hasan tomb of Ancient Egyptian administrator Khety of the 11th Dynasty, in European illuminated manuscripts and other works of the 14th through 17th centuries, showing contemporary courtly and clerical life.
In East Asia, a similar game was entertained, using a carved wooden stick and ball prior, to 300 BC. In Inner Mongolia, the Daur people have for about 1,000 years been playing beikou, a game with some similarities to field hockey. A similar field hockey or ground billiards variant, called suigan, was played in China during the Ming dynasty. A game similar to field hockey was played in the 17th century in Punjab state in India under name khido khundi. In South America, most in Chile, the local natives of the 16th century used to play a game called chueca, which shares common elements with hockey. In Northern Europe, the games of hurling and Knattleikr, both team balls games involving sticks to drive a ball to the opponents' goal, date at least as far back as the Early Middle Ages. By the 12th century, a team ball game called la soule or choule, akin to a chaotic and sometimes long-distance version
North Sydney Girls High School
North Sydney Girls' High School is an academically selective public high school for girls, located in Crows Nest, in Sydney, New South Wales, New South Wales, Australia. Established in 1914, the school caters for 930 students from Years 7 to 12. Admission is based on academic results through the Selective High Schools Test undertaken by students in Year 6. In 2001, The Sun-Herald ranked North Sydney Girls High School first in Australia's top ten girls' schools, based on the number of its alumni mentioned in the Who's Who in Australia. North Sydney Girls' High School was founded in 1914 with an enrolment of 194 students; the school was located on the corner of Hazelbank Road and the Pacific Highway. By the 1980s, it was felt that the site could no longer meet the needs of the school, years of intense lobbying for improved facilities followed; when the New South Wales Government decided to close Crows Nest Boys High, the facility was transferred to North Sydney Girls. In December 1993, North Sydney Girls High moved to its current location, following a $6 million building and renovations project.
North Sydney Girls is an academically selective high school. A small number of students from other high schools are accepted into years 8 to 12, with applications made to the school to sit for an entrance exam. At North Sydney Girls High School, awards are given based on academic performance in the senior school only; the school performs well in public examinations, in recent years has been placed as the leading girls' school in New South Wales in the Higher School Certificate examinations. Annually, at least 30% of Year 12 students achieve places in the top 1% of the HSC. North Sydney Girls High School is registered and accredited with the New South Wales Board of Studies, therefore follows the mandated curriculum for all years. NSGHS offers a diverse range of extracurricular activities. NSGHS has a theatresports troupe, junior drama ensemble, year 10 drama night, various clubs available to seniors, they have a combined annual musical with North Sydney Boys High School. Instrumental ensembles and bands include the advanced string ensemble, stage band, jazz ensemble, concert band, symphony orchestra, wind orchestra, wind ensemble, beginner band.
Choirs and vocal ensembles include year 7 choir, junior choir, intermediate choir, combined choir, senior vocal, the a capella group. Co-curricular sports include basketball, hockey, badminton, table tennis, rowing, touch football, water polo, netball and volleyball. NSGHS has a chess club, dance ensembles, a cadet program at Marist College North Shore, has had students participate in the Duke of Edinburgh Award Scheme. Dame Valerie Beral AC FRS, breast cancer epidemiologist Anna Katherine Donald, Rhodes Scholar Dame Janet Ritterman, former director of the Royal College of Music in London, from 1993 to 2005. Sylvia Tulloch, Founding Managing Director of Dyesol, third generation solar company listed on the ASX. Jill Hellyer and poet Ruth Uhlmann, artist Benita Collings, Play School presenter Ruth Cracknell, actress Nathalie Kelley, actress Nicole Kidman, actress Katia Tiutiunnik, composer Naomi Watts, actress Catherine Martin, production designer Lucy Maunder and theatre performer Margaret Throsby, ABC Classic FM presenter Samantha Lang and theatre director Ceridwen Dovey, author Cassandra Pybus and author Janet Patterson, costume designer and production designer Wengie, YouTube personality, voice actress Amelia Lester, Editor of the New Yorker Winsome Evans, Professor of Music at University of Sydney, musician and founder director of The Renaissance Players Verity Firth, Chief Executive Officer of the Public Education Foundation in Australia, a former NSW Minister for Education and Training, the former member for NSW Legislative Assembly seat of Balmain Justice Lucy McCallum, Judge of the Supreme Court of NSW Nancy Grace Augusta Wake, resistance fighter known to the Germans as "the White Mouse".