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Dwarf (mythology)

In Germanic mythology, a dwarf is a human-shaped entity that dwells in mountains and in the earth, is variously associated with wisdom, smithing and crafting. Dwarfs are sometimes described as short and ugly, although some scholars have questioned whether this is a development stemming from comical portrayals of the beings. Dwarfs continue to be depicted in modern popular culture in a variety of media. Dwarves are depicted with beards; the modern English noun dwarf descends from the Old English dweorg. It has a variety of cognates in other Germanic languages, including Old Norse dvergr and Old High German twerg. According to Vladimir Orel, the English noun and its cognates descend from Proto-Germanic *đwergaz. A different etymology of dwarf traces it to Proto-Germanic *dwezgaz, with r being the product of Verner's Law. Anatoly Liberman connects the Germanic word with Modern English dizzy: dwarfs inflicted mental diseases on humans, in this respect did not differ from elves and several other supernatural beings.

For forms earlier than the Proto-Germanic reconstruction, the etymology of the word dwarf is contested. Scholars have proposed theories about the origins of the being by way of historical linguistics and comparative mythology, including that dwarfs may have originated as nature spirits, as beings associated with death, or as a mixture of concepts. Competing etymologies include a basis in the Indo-European root *dheur-, the Indo-European root *dhreugh, comparisons have been made with Sanskrit dhvaras. Modern English has two plurals for the word dwarf: dwarves. Dwarfs remains the most employed plural; the minority plural dwarves was recorded as early as 1818. However, it was popularized by the fiction of philologist and legendarium author J. R. R. Tolkien, originating as a hypercorrective mistake, it was employed by Tolkien since some time before 1917. Regarding his use of this plural, Tolkien wrote in 1937, "I am afraid it is just a piece of private bad grammar, rather shocking in a philologist.

For Tolkien's version of the beings themselves, see Dwarf. Norse mythology provides different origins for the beings, as recorded in the Poetic Edda and the Prose Edda; the Poetic Edda poem Völuspá details that the dwarfs were the product of the primordial blood of the being Brimir and the bones of Bláinn. The Prose Edda, describes dwarfs as beings similar to maggots that festered in the flesh of Ymir before being gifted with reason by the gods; the Poetic Edda and Prose Edda contain over 100 dwarf names, while the Prose Edda gives the four dwarfs Norðri, Suðri, Austri and Vestri a cosmological role: they hold up the sky. In addition, scholars have noted that the Svartálfar appear to be the same beings as dwarfs, given that both are described in the Prose Edda as the denizens of Svartálfaheimr. Few beings explicitly identifiable as dwarfs appear in the Poetic Edda and Prose Edda, they have quite diverse roles: murderous creators who create the mead of poetry,'reluctant donors' of important artifacts with magical qualities, or sexual predators who lust after goddesses.

They are associated with metalsmithing, with death, as in the story of King Sveigðir in Ynglinga saga, the first segment of the Heimskringla—the doorways in the mountains that they guard may be regarded as doors between worlds. One dwarf named Alvíss claimed the hand of Thor's daughter Þrúðr in marriage, but he was kept talking until daybreak and turned to stone, much like some accounts of trolls. After the Christianization of the Germanic peoples, tales of dwarfs continued to be told in the folklore of areas of Europe where Germanic languages were spoken. In the late legendary sagas, dwarfs demonstrate skill in healing as well as in smithing. In the early Norse sources, there is no mention of their being short. Anatoly Liberman suggests that dwarfs may have been thought of as lesser supernatural beings, which became literal smallness after Christianization. Old Norse dwarf names include Fullangr and Hár, whereas Anglo-Saxon glosses use dweorg to render Latin terms such as nanus and pygmaeus.

Dwarfs in folklore are described as old men with long beards. Female dwarfs are hardly mentioned. Dvalinn the dwarf has daughters, the 14th-century romantic saga Þjalar Jóns saga gives the feminine form of Old Norse dyrgja, but the few folklore examples cited by Grimm in Teutonic Mythology may be identified as other beings. However, in the Swedish ballad "Herr Peder och Dvärgens Dotter", the role of supernatural temptress is played by a dwarf's daughter; the Anglo-Saxon charm Wið Dweorh appears to relate to sleep disturbances. This may indicate that the dwarf antagonist is similar to the oppressive supernatural figure the mare, the etymological source of the word "nightmare", or that the word had come to be used to mean "fever". In the Old English Herbal, it translates warts. In Middle High German heroic poetry, most dwarfs are portrayed as having long beards, but some may have a childish appearance. In some stories, the dwarf takes on the attributes of a knight, he is most separated from normal humans by his small size, in some cases only reaching up to

Michigan Hawks

Michigan Hawks was an American women's soccer team that joined the United Soccer Leagues W-League in 2004 as the Detroit Jaguars and renamed to the Michigan Hawks as growth from the larger Michigan Wolves/Hawks organization. The Hawks played in the Midwest Division of the Central Conference; the senior team folded after the 2008 season, though the Hawks youth teams continue to compete in the Elite Clubs National League. The team played their home games at the stadium on the campus of Livonia-Stevenson High School in the city of Livonia, Michigan; the club's colors was black. Note: Flags indicate national team as defined under FIFA eligibility rules. Players may hold more than one non-FIFA nationality. USL W-League Midwest Division Champions 2005, 2006 Melissa Tancredi Michigan Wolves/Hawks

Michael Brown (New Zealand priest)

Michael Henry Brown is a New Zealand Anglican priest. After a range of clerical roles in Canterbury, he was Dean of Saint Paul's Cathedral, Wellington from 1985 to 2002. Brown was born in Christchurch on 15 April 1936, the son of Catherine and Harry Brown, educated at Christchurch Boys' High School, he saw military service with the Regiment of New Zealand Artillery between 1955 and 1958, before going on to study at the University of Canterbury, graduating Bachelor of Commerce in 1963, qualifying as an associate chartered accountant the same year. He gained a Master of Business Administration degree from Canterbury in 1991. In 1965, Brown married Anne Elizabeth Pierre. Brown completed study for the Licentiate of Theology and was ordained in 1964. After curacies in Linwood and Ashburton he held incumbencies at Marchwiel and Merivale, he was Archdeacon of Rangiora. He continued his military involvement with the Royal New Zealand Chaplains Department between 1967 and 1984, was awarded the Efficiency Decoration in 1983.

In 1990, Brown was awarded the New Zealand 1990 Commemoration Medal. In the 1999 Queen's Birthday Honours, he was appointed a Companion of the New Zealand Order of Merit, for services to the community

Station Master's Residence, Forsayth

Station Master's Residence is a heritage-listed detached house at Fourth Street, Shire of Etheridge, Australia. It was built c. 1910. It was added to the Queensland Heritage Register on 21 October 1992; the former Forsayth Station Master's Residence was constructed around 1910 as part of the private Etheridge railway line linking the mines and smelters of the Chillagoe Railway and Mining Company to the Queensland Government railway network. The mining company's Engineer-in-Charge, Archibald Smith Frew, designed this and two other similar residences at Almaden and at Einasleigh on the line; the important mining entrepreneur, John Moffat, prospected for copper in the Chillagoe area from the late 1880s and in the 1890s formed a syndicate with Melbourne investors to build a private railway linking Chillagoe with the government railway network at Mareeba. The bill to approve this project was passed in A S Frew surveyed the line. Archibald Smith Frew was employed as an engineer by the Queensland Railways Department from 1879, was second in charge at the construction of the Croydon railway line in 1890-1891, constructed much of the Cairns railway network in the early years of the 20th century.

He designed the structures needed to service the Chillagoe railway line. Many of the buildings, since vanished, displayed the distinctive multiple gabled roofs seen on this residence; the Etheridge railway line was built between 1906 and 1910 and the principal towns along the line were Almaden and Forsayth, the terminus. Forsayth was called Charleston, but the name was changed on 15 December 1910 to honour the Commissioner for Railways, James Forsayth Thallon. A S Frew designed Station Master's residences at each of the service towns as part of the overall provision of facilities that included a station building, cattle yards, turning fork, loading bank and goods shed; the Station Master's houses at each town are similar in plan and all feature a distinctive roof arranged in three parallel gables, which indicate the room arrangement. The central room was a dining room flanked by pairs of bedrooms; the Einasleigh and Forsayth houses were larger than that at Almaden and were designed with lattice at each end of the dining room, allowing this to operate as a central breezeway.

However, they may not have been constructed in this way and are enclosed at each end. A detached building at the rear of the house incorporated a kitchen and servant's room with the roof extended to the back to cover a laundry; the Chillagoe Company experienced considerable difficulties, undergoing several financial reconstructions. Although it was not profitable, it survived until 1923, had an important influence on the mining and railway industries of North Queensland. There is evidence of its operations in the ruined smelter at Chillagoe, abandoned mine sites at Mungana, Mount Mulligan and elsewhere; however the railway lines built by the company from the government railhead at Mareeba to Mungana in 1901, to Forsayth in 1910, have survived in use. When constructed, they were part of the longest owned railway network in Australia, but were incorporated into the Queensland Government rail system in June 1919 when most of the Chillagoe Company's assets were purchased by the Queensland Government.

At this time Forsayth railway station became a Queensland Railways station. The Station Master was withdrawn after floods closed the line in early 1927; when the line reopened for rail motor traffic a Porter in Charge was appointed. This remained the position until the 1990s when the Porter was withdrawn and a local agent appointed to handle the small remaining railway business for QR; the line is now chiefly a tourist attraction running the Savannahlander from Cairns. Queensland Rail subdivided the land and sold the house as a private residence in 1991; the former Station Master's Residence is a single storey timber building set on concrete stumps and has a detached kitchen. The core of the building is clad in weatherboards and has a roof comprising three parallel gables clad in corrugated iron, it is encircled by a verandah with a separate roof supported by timber posts. It has French doors opening onto the verandah at the front and rear. At the rear of the house is a rectangular timber building linked to it by a walkway.

This building has exposed a single gabled roof clad with corrugated iron. The roof is supported on timber posts. A small extension has been made at the side of the building to accommodate a bathroom; the buildings are surrounded by chain wire fence. The former Station Master's Residence Forsayth was listed on the Queensland Heritage Register on 21 October 1992 having satisfied the following criteria; the place is important in demonstrating the pattern of Queensland's history. The former Station Master's Residence at Forsayth is one of three such residences built as part of the infrastructure servicing the private railway of a major mining company, they express the dominance of the Chillagoe Company in the economy of North Queensland, 1898-1914. The line was a vital link in the Company's operations, bringing in fuel for the smelters and taking out minerals, but it worked as a community railway servicing the needs of those living on the line and in the service towns; the Etheridge line is rare as a private railway and the provision of Station Master's residences demonstrates the quality and importance of the facility to the Chillagoe Company.

The place demonstrates uncommon or endangered aspects of Queensland's cultural heritage. The Etheridge line is rare as a private railway and the provision of Station Master's residences demonstrates the

Issues (Issues album)

Issues is the self-titled debut studio album by American metalcore band Issues. Released on February 18, 2014 on Rise Records, the album debuted at number 9 on the Billboard 200, selling over 22,000 copies in its first week; the album was produced by Kris Crummett, Matt Malpass, the group's keyboardist and disc jockey Tyler "Scout" Acord. The album's initial release was in November 2013, however had been pushed back to February 2014, it is the band's first release with current drummer Josh Manuel after Case Snedecor's departure in early 2013. The band released a teaser for the track, "Stingray Affliction" on November 19, 2013; the official track listing was released on December 7, 2013. The album's first single, "Stingray Affliction" was released on December 18, 2013, along with the album's artwork; the album was released as CD and as an LP through Rise Records. On November 18, 2014 the deluxe edition was released. At Alternative Press, Brian Kraus rated the album four stars out of five stars as he praised the album's DJ-based breakdowns and called the album a mixture of metalcore and post-hardcore with elements of nu metal.

Gregory Heaney of AllMusic gave the album a lower score as he criticized the album's sound as the two genres saying, "can be a little hard to wrap your head around" and called it a new variant of the old nu metal genre. However, he praised its efforts on some tracks. Sputnikmusic's Robert Lowe expressed negativity against the album, he criticized the album's use of throwing in random genres with metalcore, including R&B, hip hop and nu metal and stated this failed miserably, calling it a mixture of Limp Bizkit and Justin Bieber elements, went as far as to say, "it could be the worst album ever." The album was included at number 16 on Rock Sound's "Top 50 Albums of the Year" list. The album was included at number 43 on Kerrang!'s "The Top 50 Rock Albums Of 2014" list. Citations Sources Issues at YouTube

2010 California gubernatorial election

The 2010 California gubernatorial election was held November 2, 2010 to elect the Governor of California. The primary elections were held on June 8, 2010; because constitutional office holders in California have been prohibited from serving more than two terms in the same office since 1990, incumbent Republican Arnold Schwarzenegger was ineligible to run for re-election for a third term. Former Governor Jerry Brown, to whom the term limits did not apply due to a grandfather clause, defeated Meg Whitman in the general election. Brown was sworn into office on January 3, 2011. Bill Chambers, railroad switchman Douglas Hughes, retired business owner Ken Miller, former broadcast manager Steven Mozena Lawrence Naritelli and controller Robert Newman and farmer Steve Poizner and then-California Insurance Commissioner David Tully-Smith, primary care physician Meg Whitman, former CEO of eBay Richard Aguirre, businessman Jerry Brown, incumbent California Attorney General and former Governor of California Lowell Darling, independent artist Vibert Greene, mechanical engineer and CEO Charles Pineda, parole board judge Peter Schurman, non-profit organization consultant who dropped out of the race Nadia Smalley Joe Symmon, president of a non-profit organization Dianne Feinstein, U.

S. Senator Gavin Newsom, Mayor of San Francisco Chelene Nightingale, business owner Markham Robinson, owner of a software firm S. Deacon Alexander, student Laura Wells, financial systems consultant Jordan Llamas, Doctor of Psychology and Political Science Dale Ogden, business consultant and actuary Stewart Alexander, political consultant and former vice presidential candidate for Socialist Party USA Carlos Alvarez, retail worker Mohammad Arif, businessman Both Whitman and Brown were criticized for negative campaigning during the election. During their final debate at the 2010 Women's Conference a week before the election, moderator Matt Lauer asked both candidates to pull attack ads for the rest of the election, which elicited loud cheers from the audience. Brown agreed and picked one ad each of his and Whitman's that he thought, if Whitman would agree, should be the only ones run, but Whitman, loudly cheered earlier as the prospective first woman governor of the state, was booed when she stated that she would keep "the ads that talk about where Gov. Brown stands on the issues."The Los Angeles Times reported that nearly $250 million was spent on the Governor's race.

At least two spending records were broken during the campaign. Whitman broke personal spending records by spending $140 million of her own money on the campaign, independent expenditures exceeded $31.7 million, with $25 million of that spent in support of Brown. In an interview with CNN, the reporter opined that Whitman was hurt most during the campaign by a matter involving Nicky Diaz, her former Mexican maid, whom Whitman fired after Diaz asked for help as she was an illegal immigrant. Jobs: Meg Whitman 1. Eliminate small business start-up tax 2. Eliminate factory tax 3. Increase R&D tax credit 4. Promote investments in agriculture 5. Eliminate the state tax on capital gains Jerry Brown 1. Stimulate clean energy jobs 2. Invest in infrastructure/construction jobs (federal dollars for projects. Create strike team to focus on job retention 4. Cut regulations (speed up regulatory processes and eliminate duplicative functions. Increase manufacturing jobs 6. Deliver targeted workforce training programs 7.

Invest in education Education: Meg Whitman 1. Direct more money to classroom 2. Reward outstanding teachers 3. Eliminate cap on charter schools 4. Grade public schools A-F 5. Establish fast-track parent process for charter school conversions 6. Invest $1 billion in UC and CSU University systems 7. Utilize alternative paths to the classroom to attract high quality teachers Jerry Brown 1. Higher education 2. Overhaul state testing program 3. Change school funding formulas and consolidate the 62 existing categorical programs 4. Teacher recruitment and training 5. Simplify the Education Code and return more decision-making to local school districts 6. A more balanced and creative school curriculum 7. Place special emphasis on teaching science, technology and math 8. Increase proficiency in English 9. Improve high school graduation rates 10. Charter schools 11. Magnet or theme schools 12. Citizenship and character United States gubernatorial elections, 2010 California Secretary of State - Elections California State Offices at Project Vote Smart California Governor 2010 from Campaign contributions for 2010 California Governor from Follow the Money 2010 California Gubernatorial General Election: All Head-to-Head Matchups graph of multiple polls from Election 2010: California Governor from Rasmussen Reports 2010 California Governor - Whitman vs. Brown from Real Clear Politics 2010 California Governor's Race from CQ Politics Race Profile in The New York Times 2010 Governor's Race in the Los Angeles Times, endorsement for Brown California Governor Race 2010 in The Sacramento Bee, endorsement for Brown California Elections 2010 in