Dong Qichang, was a Chinese painter, scholar and art theorist of the period of the Ming Dynasty. His work favored expression over formal likeness, he avoided anything he deemed to be slick or sentimental. This led him to create landscapes with intentionally distorted spatial features. Still his work was in no way abstract, his views on expression had importance to "individualist" painters. He considered there to be a Northern school, represented by Zhe, a Southern school represented by literati painters; these names are misleading as they refer to Northern and Southern schools of Chan Buddhism thought rather than geographic areas. Hence a Northern painter could be geographically from the south and a Southern painter geographically from the north. In any event he favored the Southern school and dismissed the Northern school as superficial or decorative, his ideal of Southern school painting was one where the artist forms a new style of individualistic painting by building on and transforming the style of traditional masters.
This was to correspond with sudden enlightenment, as favored by Southern Chan Buddhism. He was a great admirer of Ni Zan. By relating to the ancient masters' style, artists are to create a place for themselves within the tradition, not by mere imitation, but by extending and surpassing the art of the past. Dong's theories, combining veneration of past masters with a creative forward looking spark, would be influential on Qing Dynasty artists as well as collectors, "especially some of the newly rich collectors of Sungchiang, Huichou in Southern Anhui and other places where wealth was concentrated in this period". Together with other early self-appointed arbiters of taste known as the Nine Friends, he helped determine which painters were to be considered collectible; as Cahill points out, such men were the forerunners of today's art historians. His classifications were quite perceptive and he is credited with being "the first art historian to do more than list and grade artists." Dong Qichang was the son of a teacher and somewhat precocious as a child.
At 12 he passed the prefectural Civil service entrance examination and won a coveted spot at the prefectural Government school. He first took the imperial civil service exam at seventeen, but placed second to a cousin because his calligraphy was clumsy; this led him to train. Once this occurred he rose up the ranks of the imperial service passing the highest level at the age of 35, he rose to an official position with the Ministry of Rites. His positions in the bureaucracy were not without controversy. In 1605 he was giving the exam when the candidates demonstrated against him causing his temporary retirement. In other cases he beat women who came to his home with grievances; that led to his house being burned down by an angry mob. He had the tense relations with the eunuchs common to the scholar bureaucracy. Dong's tomb in Songjiang District was vandalized during the Cultural Revolution, his body dressed in official Ming court robes, was desecrated by Red Guards. Xiao, Yanyi, "Dong Qichang". Encyclopedia of China, 1st ed. Masterpieces of Chinese Art, by Rhonda and Jeffrey Cooper, Todtri Productions, 1997.
ISBN 1-57717-060-1 WWU article Bryant, Shelly. The Classical Gardens of Shanghai. Hong Kong University Press, 2016. P. 26-40. Calligraphy Gallery of Dong Qichang at China Online Museum Painting Gallery of Dong Qichang at China Online Museum Calligraphy by Dong Qichang at Chinapage The Biography of Dong Qichang and His Achievements in Calligraphy and Painting - Mild China Paintings at the site of the Museum of Fine Arts Boston's online collection Landscapes Clear and Radiant: The Art of Wang Hui, an exhibition catalog from The Metropolitan Museum of Art, which contains material on Dong Qichang
Paper is a thin material produced by pressing together moist fibres of cellulose pulp derived from wood, rags or grasses, drying them into flexible sheets. It is a versatile material with many uses, including writing, packaging, decorating, a number of industrial and construction processes. Papers are essential in non-legal documentation; the pulp papermaking process is said to have been developed in China during the early 2nd century CE as early as the year 105 CE, by the Han court eunuch Cai Lun, although the earliest archaeological fragments of paper derive from the 2nd century BCE in China. The modern pulp and paper industry is global, with China leading its production and the United States right behind it; the oldest known archaeological fragments of the immediate precursor to modern paper date to the 2nd century BCE in China. The pulp paper-making process is ascribed to a 2nd-century CE Han court eunuch. In the 13th century, the knowledge and uses of paper spread from China through the Middle East to medieval Europe, where the first water powered paper mills were built.
Because paper was introduced to the West through the city of Baghdad, it was first called bagdatikos. In the 19th century, industrialization reduced the cost of manufacturing paper. In 1844, the Canadian inventor Charles Fenerty and the German F. G. Keller independently developed processes for pulping wood fibres. Before the industrialisation of paper production the most common fibre source was recycled fibres from used textiles, called rags; the rags were from hemp and cotton. A process for removing printing inks from recycled paper was invented by German jurist Justus Claproth in 1774. Today this method is called deinking, it was not until the introduction of wood pulp in 1843 that paper production was not dependent on recycled materials from ragpickers. The word "paper" is etymologically derived from Latin papyrus, which comes from the Greek πάπυρος, the word for the Cyperus papyrus plant. Papyrus is a thick, paper-like material produced from the pith of the Cyperus papyrus plant, used in ancient Egypt and other Mediterranean cultures for writing before the introduction of paper into the Middle East and Europe.
Although the word paper is etymologically derived from papyrus, the two are produced differently and the development of the first is distinct from the development of the second. Papyrus is a lamination of natural plant fibres, while paper is manufactured from fibres whose properties have been changed by maceration. To make pulp from wood, a chemical pulping process separates lignin from cellulose fibres; this is accomplished by dissolving lignin in a cooking liquor, so that it may be washed from the cellulose. Paper made from chemical pulps are known as wood-free papers–not to be confused with tree-free paper; the pulp can be bleached to produce white paper, but this consumes 5% of the fibres. There are three main chemical pulping processes: the sulfite process dates back to the 1840s and it was the dominant method extent before the second world war; the kraft process, invented in the 1870s and first used in the 1890s, is now the most practiced strategy, one of its advantages is the chemical reaction with lignin, that produces heat, which can be used to run a generator.
Most pulping operations using the kraft process are net contributors to the electricity grid or use the electricity to run an adjacent paper mill. Another advantage is that this process reuses all inorganic chemical reagents. Soda pulping is another specialty process used to pulp straws and hardwoods with high silicate content. There are two major mechanical pulps: groundwood pulp. In the TMP process, wood is chipped and fed into steam heated refiners, where the chips are squeezed and converted to fibres between two steel discs. In the groundwood process, debarked logs are fed into grinders where they are pressed against rotating stones to be made into fibres. Mechanical pulping does not remove the lignin, so the yield is high, >95%, however it causes the paper thus produced to turn yellow and become brittle over time. Mechanical pulps have rather short fibres. Although large amounts of electrical energy are required to produce mechanical pulp, it costs less than the chemical kind. Paper recycling processes can use mechanically produced pulp.
Most recycled paper contains a proportion of virgin fibre for the sake of quality. There are three main classifications of recycled fibre:. Mill broke or internal mill waste – This incorporates any substandard or grade-change paper made within the paper mill itself, which goes back into the manufacturing system to be re-pulped back into paper; such out-of-specification paper is not sold and is therefore not classified as genuine reclaimed recycled fibre, however most paper mills have been reusing their own waste fibre for many years, long before recycling became popular. Preconsumer waste – This is offcut and processing waste, such as guillotine trims and envelope blank waste.
Chinese painting is one of the oldest continuous artistic traditions in the world. Painting in the traditional style is known today in Chinese as guóhuà, meaning "national" or "native painting", as opposed to Western styles of art which became popular in China in the 20th century. Traditional painting involves the same techniques as calligraphy and is done with a brush dipped in black ink or coloured pigments; as with calligraphy, the most popular materials on which paintings are made are silk. The finished work can be mounted on scrolls, such as hanging handscrolls. Traditional painting can be done on album sheets, lacquerware, folding screens, other media; the two main techniques in Chinese painting are: Gongbi, meaning "meticulous", uses detailed brushstrokes that delimit details precisely. It is highly coloured and depicts figural or narrative subjects, it is practised by artists working for the royal court or in independent workshops. Ink and wash painting, in Chinese shui-mo loosely termed watercolour or brush painting, known as "literati painting", as it was one of the "Four Arts" of the Chinese Scholar-official class.
In theory this was an art practiced by gentlemen, a distinction that begins to be made in writings on art from the Song dynasty, though in fact the careers of leading exponents could benefit considerably. This style is referred to as "xieyi" or freehand style. Landscape painting was regarded as the highest form of Chinese painting, still is; the time from the Five Dynasties period to the Northern Song period is known as the "Great age of Chinese landscape". In the north, artists such as Jing Hao, Li Cheng, Fan Kuan, Guo Xi painted pictures of towering mountains, using strong black lines, ink wash, sharp, dotted brushstrokes to suggest rough stone. In the south, Dong Yuan and other artists painted the rolling hills and rivers of their native countryside in peaceful scenes done with softer, rubbed brushwork; these two kinds of scenes and techniques became the classical styles of Chinese landscape painting. Chinese painting and calligraphy distinguish themselves from other cultures' arts by emphasis on motion and change with dynamic life.
The practice is traditionally first learned by rote, in which the master shows the "right way" to draw items. The apprentice must copy these items and continuously until the movements become instinctive. In contemporary times, debate emerged on the limits of this copyist tradition within modern art scenes where innovation is the rule. Changing lifestyles and colors are influencing new waves of masters; the earliest paintings were not representational but ornamental. Early pottery was painted with spirals, dots, or animals, it was only during the Warring States period. In imperial times and calligraphy in China were among the most appreciated arts in the court and they were practiced by amateurs—aristocrats and scholar-officials—who had the leisure time necessary to perfect the technique and sensibility necessary for great brushwork. Calligraphy and painting were thought to be the purest forms of art; the implements were the brush pen made of animal hair, black inks made from pine soot and animal glue.
In ancient times, writing, as well as painting, was done on silk. However, after the invention of paper in the 1st century AD, silk was replaced by the new and cheaper material. Original writings by famous calligraphers have been valued throughout China's history and are mounted on scrolls and hung on walls in the same way that paintings are. Artists from the Han to the Tang dynasties painted the human figure. Much of what we know of early Chinese figure painting comes from burial sites, where paintings were preserved on silk banners, lacquered objects, tomb walls. Many early tomb paintings were meant to help their souls to get to paradise. Others illustrated the teachings of the Chinese philosopher Confucius or showed scenes of daily life. During the Six Dynasties period, people began to appreciate painting for its own beauty and to write about art. From this time we begin to learn about individual artists, such as Gu Kaizhi; when these artists illustrated Confucian moral themes – such as the proper behavior of a wife to her husband or of children to their parents – they tried to make the figures graceful.
The "Six principles of Chinese painting" were established by Xie He, a writer, art historian and critic in 5th century China, in "Six points to consider when judging a painting", taken from the preface to his book "The Record of the Classification of Old Painters". Keep in mind that this was written circa 550 CE and refers to "old" and "ancient" practices; the six elements that define a painting are: "Spirit Resonance", or vitality, which refers to the flow of energy that encompasses theme and artist. Xie He said that without Spirit Resonance, there was no need to look further. "Bone Method", or the way of using the brush, refers not only to texture and brush stroke, but to the close link between handwriting and personality. In his day, the art of calligraphy was inseparable from painting. "Correspondence to the Object", or the depicting of form, which would include shape and line. "Suitability to Type", or the application of color, including layers and tone. "Division and Planning", or placing and
National Palace Museum
The National Palace Museum, located in Taipei and Taibao, Chiayi County, has a permanent collection of nearly 700,000 pieces of ancient Chinese imperial artifacts and artworks, making it one of the largest of its type in the world. The collection encompasses 8,000 years of history of Chinese art from the Neolithic age to the modern. Most of the collection are high quality pieces collected by China's emperors; the National Palace Museum shares its roots with the Palace Museum in the Forbidden City, whose extensive collection of artwork and artifacts were built upon the imperial collections of the Ming and Qing dynasties. The National Palace Museum was established as the Palace Museum in the Forbidden City on 10 October 1925, shortly after the expulsion of Puyi, the last emperor of China, from the Forbidden City by warlord Feng Yuxiang; the articles in the museum consisted of the valuables of the former Imperial family. In 1931, shortly after the Mukden Incident Generalissimo Chiang Kai-shek's Nationalist Government ordered the museum to make preparations to evacuate its most valuable pieces out of the city to prevent them from falling into the hands of the Imperial Japanese Army.
As a result, from 6 February to 15 May 1933, the Palace Museum's 13,491 crates and 6,066 crates of objects from the Exhibition Office of Ancient Artifacts, the Summer Palace and the Imperial Hanlin Academy were moved in five groups to Shanghai. In 1936, the collection was moved to Nanking after the construction of the storage in the Taoist monastery Chaotian Palace was complete; as the Imperial Japanese Army advanced farther inland during the Second Sino-Japanese War, which merged into the greater conflict of World War II, the collection was moved westward via three routes to several places including Anshun and Leshan until the surrender of Japan in 1945. In 1947, it was shipped back to the Nanjing warehouse; the Chinese Civil War resumed following the surrender of the Japanese resulting in Generalissimo Chiang Kai-shek's decision to evacuate the arts to Taiwan, handed over to the ROC in 1945. When the fighting worsened in 1948 between the Communist and Nationalist armies, the National Beijing Palace Museum and other five institutions made the decision to send some of the most prized items to Taiwan.
Hang Li-wu director of the museum, supervised the transport of some of the collection in three groups from Nanking to the harbor in Keelung, Taiwan between December 1948 and February 1949. By the time the items arrived in Taiwan, the Communist army had seized control of the National Beijing Palace Museum collection so not all of the collection could be sent to Taiwan. A total of 2,972 crates of artifacts from the Forbidden City moved to Taiwan only accounted for 22% of the crates transported south, although the pieces represented some of the best of the collection; the collection from the National Beijing Palace Museum, the Preparatory Office of the National Central Museum, the National Central Library, the National Beiping Library was stored in a railway warehouse in Yangmei following transport across the Taiwan Strait and was moved to the storage in cane sugar mill near Taichung. In 1949, the Executive Yuan created the Joint Managerial Office, for the National Beijing Palace Museum, the Preparatory Office of the National Central Museum and the National Central Library to oversee the organization of the collection.
For security reasons, the Joint Managerial Office chose the mountain village of Beigou, located in Wufeng, Taichung as the new storage site for the collection in the same year. In the following year, the collection stored in cane sugar mill was transported to the new site in Beigou. With the National Central Library's reinstatement in 1955, the collection from the National Beijing Library was incorporated into the National Central Library; the Joint Managerial Office of the National Beijing Palace Museum and the Preparatory Office of the National Central Museum stayed in Beigou for another ten years. During the decade, the Office obtained a grant from the Asia Foundation to construct a small-scale exhibition hall in the spring of 1956; the exhibition hall, opened in March 1957, was divided into four galleries in which it was possible to exhibit more than 200 items. In the autumn of 1960, the Office received a grant of NT$32 million from AID; the Republic of China government contributed more than NT$30 million to establish a special fund for the construction of a museum in the Taipei suburb of Waishuanxi.
The construction of the museum in Waishuanxi was completed in August 1965. The new museum site was christened the "Chung-Shan Museum" in honor of the founding father of the ROC, Sun Yat-sen, first opened to the public on the centenary of Sun Yat-sen's birthday. Since the museum in Taipei has managed and exhibited the collections of the National Beiping Palace Museum and the Preparatory Office of the National Central Museum. During the 1960s and 1970s, the National Palace Museum was used by the Kuomintang to support its claim that the Republic of China was the sole legitimate government of all China, in that it was the sole preserver of traditional Chinese culture amid social change and the Cultural Revolution in mainland China, tended to emphasize Chinese nationalism; the People's Republic of China government has long said that the collection was stolen and that it legitimately belongs in China, but Taiwan has defended its collection as a necessary act to protect the pieces from destruction during the Cultural Revolution.
However, relations regarding this treasure have warmed in recent years and the Palace Museum in Beijing has agreed to lend relics to the National Palace Museum for exhibitions since 2009. The Palace Museum curator Zheng Xinmiao has sa
The Qiantang River is a river in East China. An important commercial artery, it runs for 459 kilometers through Zhejiang, passing through the provincial capital Hangzhou before flowing into the East China Sea via Hangzhou Bay, its upper stretch near the Anhui–Jiangxi border is known as the Xin'an River. It was linked by the Eastern Zhejiang Canal to Shaoxing during the Spring and Autumn Period and to Ningbo's Yong River during the Three Kingdoms Period, it was linked by the Grand Canal to Beijing during the Sui Dynasty. Its present name derives from a major dyke constructed near Hangzhou by the Tang warlord Qian Liu, who established the Wuyue Kingdom in the early 10th century; the river and Hangzhou Bay are known for the world's largest tidal bore. The oldest known tide table is for the Qiantang River and may have aided ancient travellers wishing to see the famous tidal bore; the tide rushing into the river mouth from the bay causes a bore which can reach up to 9 metres in height, travel at up to 40 km per hour.
Known locally as the Silver Dragon, the wave sweeps past Hangzhou, menacing shipping in the harbor. In August 2013, the tidal bore turned out stronger than expected due to Typhoon Trami, reaching more than twice its usual height as it broke on the flood barrier, sweeping it and injuring numerous spectators. There have been attempts to surf the tidal bore; the first person to ride the Bore was Stuart Matthews from England. The 1988 record was 1.9 km by Stuart Matthews. In October 2007, a group of international surfers brought by Antony Colas, did several attempts, one wave being ridden continuously by French Patrick Audoy and Brazilian Eduardo Bagé for 1h10min, for 17 km. In September 2008 a group of American surfers convinced the Chinese government to allow them to surf a section of the river. In November 2013, Red Bull held the first surf competition on the river, called the Qiantang Shoot Out; the bore was considered the most unusual wave in the world for a surfing contest. Puyang River "A Visit to the Hangchow Bore I".
Popular Science Monthly. Vol. 72. February 1908. ISSN 0161-7370 – via Wikisource. "A Visit to the Hangchow Bore II". Popular Science Monthly. Vol. 72. March 1908. ISSN 0161-7370 – via Wikisource
Taipei known as Taipei City, is the capital and a special municipality of Taiwan. Sitting at the northern tip of the island, Taipei City is an enclave of the municipality of New Taipei City that sits about 25 km southwest of the northern port city Keelung. Most of the city is located in an ancient lakebed; the basin is bounded by the narrow valleys of the Keelung and Xindian rivers, which join to form the Tamsui River along the city's western border. The city proper is home to an estimated population of 2,704,810, forming the core part of the Taipei–Keelung metropolitan area, which includes the nearby cities of New Taipei and Keelung with a population of 7,047,559, the 40th most-populous urban area in the world—roughly one-third of Taiwanese citizens live in the metro district; the name "Taipei" can refer either to the city proper. Taipei is the political, economic and cultural center of Taiwan and one of the major hubs in East Asia. Considered to be a global city and rated as an Alpha City by GaWC, Taipei is part of a major high-tech industrial area.
Railways, high-speed rail, highways and bus lines connect Taipei with all parts of the island. The city is served by two airports -- Taiwan Taoyuan. Taipei is home to various world-famous architectural or cultural landmarks, which include Taipei 101, Chiang Kai-shek Memorial Hall, Dalongdong Baoan Temple, Hsing Tian Kong, Lungshan Temple of Manka, National Palace Museum, Presidential Office Building, Taipei Guest House and several night markets dispersed throughout the city. Natural features such as Maokong and hot springs are well known to international visitors. In English-language news reports the name Taipei serves as a synecdoche referring to Taiwan's national government. Due to the ambiguous political status of Taiwan internationally, the term Chinese Taipei is sometimes pressed into service as a synonym for the entire country, as when Taiwan's governmental representatives participate in international organizations or Taiwan's athletes participate in international sporting events; the spelling Taipei derives from the Wade–Giles romanization T'ai-pei.
The name could be romanized as Táiběi according to Hanyu Pinyin and Tongyong Pinyin. Prior to the significant influx of Han Chinese immigrants, the region of Taipei Basin was inhabited by the Ketagalan plains aborigines; the number of Han immigrants increased in the early 18th century under Qing Dynasty rule after the government began permitting development in the area. In 1875, the northern part of the island was incorporated into the new Taipeh Prefecture; the Qing dynasty of China made Taipeh-fu the temporary capital of the island in 1887 when it was declared a province. Taipeh was formally made the provincial capital in 1894. Japan acquired Taiwan in 1895 under the Treaty of Shimonoseki after the First Sino-Japanese War. Taiwan became a colony of Imperial Japan with Taihoku as its capital; the city was administered under Taihoku Prefecture. Taiwan's Japanese rulers embarked on an extensive program of advanced urban planning that featured extensive railroad links. A number of Taipei landmarks and cultural institutions date from this period.
Following the surrender of Japan to the United States of America of 1945, effective control of Taiwan was handed to the Republic of China. After losing mainland China to the Chinese Communist Party in the Chinese Civil War, the ruling Kuomintang relocated the ROC government to Taiwan and declared Taipei the provisional capital of the ROC in December 1949. Taiwan's Kuomintang rulers regarded the city as the capital of Taiwan Province and their control as mandated by General Order No. 1. In 1990 Taipei provided the backdrop for the Wild Lily student rallies that moved Taiwanese society from one-party rule to multi-party democracy by 1996; the city has since served as the seat of Taiwan's democratically elected national government. The region known as the Taipei Basin was home to Ketagalan tribes before the eighteenth century. Han Chinese from Southern Fujian Province of Qing dynasty China began to settle in the Taipei Basin in 1709. In the late 19th century, the Taipei area, where the major Han Chinese settlements in northern Taiwan and one of the designated overseas trade ports, were located, gained economic importance due to the booming overseas trade that of tea export.
In 1875, the northern part of Taiwan was separated from Taiwan Prefecture and incorporated into the new Taipeh Prefecture as a new administrative entity of the Qing dynasty. Having been established adjoining the flourishing townships of Bangka and Twatutia, the new prefectural capital was known as Chengnei, "the inner city", government buildings were erected there. From 1875 until the beginning of Japanese rule in 1895, Taipei was part of Tamsui County of Taipeh Prefecture and the prefectural capital. In 1885, work commenced to govern the island as a province, Taipeh was temporarily made the provincial capital; the city became the capital in 1894. All that remains from the historical period is the north gate; the west gate and city walls were demolished by the Japanese while the south gate, little south gate, east gate were extensively modified by the Kuomintang and have lost much of their original character. As settlement for losing the First Sino-Japanese War, China ceded the island of Taiwan to the Empire of Japan in 1895 as part of the Treaty of Shimonoseki.
After the Japanese take-over, called Taihoku in Japanese
Switch (2013 film)
Switch is a 2013 Chinese-Hong Kong action film written and directed by Jay Sun and starring Andy Lau, Tong Dawei, Zhang Jingchu and Lin Chi-ling. A famous Chinese Yuan Dynasty painting known as "Dwelling in the Fuchun Mountains" was stolen and being sold on the black market, led by a mysterious business magnate. Special agent Jinhan is tasked to recover the painting. Meanwhile and his wife have drifted apart, due to the secret nature of his work, unaware that his wife works as a special agent tasked with protecting the painting. Andy Lau as Special Agent Xiao Jinhan Tong Dawei as Yamamoto Toshio Zhang Jingchu as Lin Yuyan Lin Chi-ling as Lisa Siqin Gaowa as The Empress Ariel Aisin-Gioro as The Princess Guan Xiaotong as Xiao Yueyue Siqin Gaowa as Old Dowager Empress Tan Songyun as Pisces Demon Switch was set to be released in 2012, but was delayed due to the decision to convert the film to 3-D; the film was released in China on 9 June 2013 and in Hong Kong on 12 June, where its running time was trimmed by 9 minutes with several scenes cut out.
In China, the film grossed RMB 49 million in its opening day. Switch on IMDb