Detroit Red Wings
The Detroit Red Wings are a professional ice hockey team based in Detroit. They are members of the Atlantic Division in the Eastern Conference of the National Hockey League and are one of the Original Six teams of the league. Founded in 1926, the team was known as the Detroit Cougars from until 1930. For the 1930–31 and 1931–32 seasons the team was called the Detroit Falcons, in 1932 changed their name to the Red Wings; as of 2019, the Red Wings have won the most Stanley Cup championships of any NHL franchise based in the United States and are third overall in total Stanley Cup championships, behind the Montreal Canadiens and Toronto Maple Leafs. The Wings played their home games at Joe Louis Arena from 1979 until 2017, after playing for 52 years in Olympia Stadium, they moved into the new Little Caesars Arena beginning with the 2017–18 season. The Red Wings are one of the most popular and successful franchises in the NHL. Between the 1931–32 and 1965–66 seasons, the Red Wings missed the playoffs only four times.
Between the 1966–67 and 1982–83 seasons, the Red Wings made the playoffs only two times. However, from 1983–84 to 2015–16, they made the playoffs 30 times in 32 seasons, including 25-straight from 1990–91 to 2015–16, at the time the longest streak of postseason appearances in all of North American professional sports. Since 1983–84, the Red Wings have tallied six regular season first-place finishes and have won the Stanley Cup four times. Following the 1926 Stanley Cup playoffs, during which the Western Hockey League was reported to be on the verge of folding, the NHL held a meeting on April 17 to consider applications for expansion franchises, at which it was reported that five different groups sought a team for Detroit. During a subsequent meeting on May 15, the league approved a franchise to the Townsend-Seyburn group of Detroit and named Charles A. Hughes as governor. Frank and Lester Patrick, the owners of the WHL, made a deal to sell the league's players to the NHL and cease league operations.
The new Detroit franchise purchased the players of the WHL's Victoria Cougars, who had won the Stanley Cup in 1925 and had made the Finals the previous winter, to play for the team. The new Detroit franchise adopted the Cougars' nickname in honor of the folded franchise. Since no arena in Detroit was ready at the time, the Cougars played their first season at the Border Cities Arena in Windsor, Ontario. For the 1927–28 season, the Cougars moved into the new Detroit Olympia, which would be their home rink until December 15, 1979; this was the first season behind the bench for Jack Adams, who would be the face of the franchise for the next 36 years as either coach or general manager. The Cougars made the Stanley Cup playoffs for the first time in 1929 with Carson Cooper leading the team in scoring; the Cougars were outscored 7–2 in the two-game series with the Toronto Maple Leafs. In 1930, the Cougars were renamed the Falcons, but their woes continued, as they finished near the bottom of the standings though they made the playoffs again in 1932.
In 1932, the NHL let grain merchant James E. Norris, who had made two previous unsuccessful bids to buy an NHL team, purchase the Falcons. Norris' first act was to choose a new name for the team—the Red Wings. Earlier in the century, Norris had been a member of the Montreal Amateur Athletic Association, a sporting club with cycling roots; the MAAA's teams were known by their club emblem and these Winged Wheelers were the first winners of the Stanley Cup in 1893. Norris decided that a version of their logo was perfect for a team playing in the Motor City and on October 5, 1932, the club was renamed the Red Wings. Norris placed coach Jack Adams on a one-year probation for the 1932–33 NHL season. Adams managed to pass his probationary period by leading the renamed franchise to its first-ever playoff series victory, over the Montreal Maroons; the team lost in the semi-finals to the New York Rangers. In 1934, the Red Wings made the Stanley Cup Finals for the first time, with John Sorrell scoring 21 goals over 47 games and Larry Aurie leading the team in scoring.
However, the Chicago Black Hawks defeated the Red Wings in the Finals, winning the best-of-five series in four games to claim their first title. Two seasons the Red Wings won their first Stanley Cup in 1936, defeating Toronto in four games. Detroit repeated as Stanley Cup champions in 1937. In 1938, the Red Wings and the Montreal Canadiens became the first NHL teams to play in Europe, playing in Paris and London; the Wings played nine games against the Canadiens and went 3–5–1. They did not play in Europe again until the pre-season and start of the 2009–10 NHL season, in Sweden, against the St. Louis Blues; the Red Wings made the Stanley Cup Finals in three consecutive years during the early 1940s. In 1941, they were swept by the Boston Bruins, in 1942, they lost a seven-game series to Toronto after winning the first three games. However, in 1943, with Mud Bruneteau and Syd Howe scoring 23 and 20 goals Detroit won their third Stanley Cup by sweeping the Bruins. Through the rest of the decade, the team made the playoffs every year, reached the Finals three more times.
In 1946, one of the greatest players in hockey history came into the NHL with the Red Wings. Gordie Howe, a right winger from Floral, only scored seven goals and 15 assists in his first season and would not reach his prime for a few more years, it was the last season as head coach for Adams, who stepped down after the season to concentrat
United States Air Force
The United States Air Force is the aerial and space warfare service branch of the United States Armed Forces. It is one of the five branches of the United States Armed Forces, one of the seven American uniformed services. Formed as a part of the United States Army on 1 August 1907, the USAF was established as a separate branch of the U. S. Armed Forces on 18 September 1947 with the passing of the National Security Act of 1947, it is the youngest branch of the U. S. Armed Forces, the fourth in order of precedence; the USAF is the largest and most technologically advanced air force in the world. The Air Force articulates its core missions as air and space superiority, global integrated intelligence and reconnaissance, rapid global mobility, global strike, command and control; the U. S. Air Force is a military service branch organized within the Department of the Air Force, one of the three military departments of the Department of Defense; the Air Force, through the Department of the Air Force, is headed by the civilian Secretary of the Air Force, who reports to the Secretary of Defense, is appointed by the President with Senate confirmation.
The highest-ranking military officer in the Air Force is the Chief of Staff of the Air Force, who exercises supervision over Air Force units and serves as one of the Joint Chiefs of Staff. Air Force components are assigned, as directed by the Secretary of Defense, to the combatant commands, neither the Secretary of the Air Force nor the Chief of Staff of the Air Force have operational command authority over them. Along with conducting independent air and space operations, the U. S. Air Force provides air support for land and naval forces and aids in the recovery of troops in the field; as of 2017, the service operates more than 5,369 military aircraft, 406 ICBMs and 170 military satellites. It has a $161 billion budget and is the second largest service branch, with 318,415 active duty airmen, 140,169 civilian personnel, 69,200 reserve airmen, 105,700 Air National Guard airmen. According to the National Security Act of 1947, which created the USAF: In general, the United States Air Force shall include aviation forces both combat and service not otherwise assigned.
It shall be organized and equipped for prompt and sustained offensive and defensive air operations. The Air Force shall be responsible for the preparation of the air forces necessary for the effective prosecution of war except as otherwise assigned and, in accordance with integrated joint mobilization plans, for the expansion of the peacetime components of the Air Force to meet the needs of war. §8062 of Title 10 US Code defines the purpose of the USAF as: to preserve the peace and security, provide for the defense, of the United States, the Territories and possessions, any areas occupied by the United States. The stated mission of the USAF today is to "fly and win...in air and cyberspace". "The United States Air Force will be a trusted and reliable joint partner with our sister services known for integrity in all of our activities, including supporting the joint mission first and foremost. We will provide compelling air and cyber capabilities for use by the combatant commanders. We will excel as stewards of all Air Force resources in service to the American people, while providing precise and reliable Global Vigilance and Power for the nation".
The five core missions of the Air Force have not changed since the Air Force became independent in 1947, but they have evolved, are now articulated as air and space superiority, global integrated intelligence and reconnaissance, rapid global mobility, global strike, command and control. The purpose of all of these core missions is to provide, what the Air Force states as, global vigilance, global reach, global power. Air superiority is "that degree of dominance in the air battle of one force over another which permits the conduct of operations by the former and its related land, sea and special operations forces at a given time and place without prohibitive interference by the opposing force". Offensive Counterair is defined as "offensive operations to destroy, disrupt, or neutralize enemy aircraft, launch platforms, their supporting structures and systems both before and after launch, but as close to their source as possible". OCA is the preferred method of countering air and missile threats since it attempts to defeat the enemy closer to its source and enjoys the initiative.
OCA comprises attack operations, sweep and suppression/destruction of enemy air defense. Defensive Counter air is defined as "all the defensive measures designed to detect, identify and destroy or negate enemy forces attempting to penetrate or attack through friendly airspace". A major goal of DCA operations, in concert with OCA operations, is to provide an area from which forces can operate, secure from air and missile threats; the DCA mission comprises both passive defense measures. Active defense is "the employment of limited offensive action and counterattacks to deny a contested area or position to the enemy", it includes both ballistic missile defense and air-breathing threat defense, encompasses point defense, area defense, high-value airborne asset defense. Passive defense is "measures taken to reduce the probability of and to minimize the effects of damage caused by hostile action without the intention of taking the initiative", it includes warning.
William Arthur Torrey was a Canadian hockey executive. He served as a general manager in the National Hockey League for the Oakland Seals, New York Islanders, Florida Panthers, he developed the Islanders into a dynasty. He was known as "The Architect", "Bow-Tie" Bill, after the signature bow tie he always wore. Torrey was from Montreal, was raised near the Montreal Forum, his father worked as a stockbroker. He tried out for the Montreal Canadiens, attended St. Lawrence University on a scholarship to play hockey, he lost his depth perception after he was hit in the left eye with a hockey stick, breaking his orbital bone. Torrey earned a degree in psychology, while taking business classes, he worked in Barrie, Ontario, at a radio station, worked for NBC as a tour guide at Rockefeller Center. In the mid-1960s, Torrey began working for the Pittsburgh Hornets of the American Hockey League, setting up promotional events, he became general manager of the Oakland Seals, a created expansion team in the National Hockey League, in 1969.
The next year, Charlie Finley bought the team. Finley and Torrey clashed on issues ranging from personnel moves to marketing, Torrey left the organization in 1971. In 1972, the expansion New York Islanders hired Torrey as their general manager, the organization's first employee. Rather than trade for veteran players in hopes of winning right away, Torrey was committed to building through the draft, he felt. Torrey drafted Denis Potvin first overall in the 1973 entry draft. Montreal Canadiens General Manager Sam Pollock approached Torrey. Pollock's strategy was to offer a "quick-fix" package of mature players to exchange for the top draft pick, it was tempting as the Islanders would benefit from the trade. Torrey turned down the offer. Within several years Potvin blossomed into one of the NHL's elite defencemen and became captain of the team. In the Islanders' first two seasons, the team finished last in the league. However, those dreadful records netted them high picks in the draft. With those picks, Torrey assembled a roster that rose from a doormat to an NHL power.
In the 1977 NHL Amateur Draft, Torrey had the 15th pick and had to make a tough decision between two promising forwards, Mike Bossy and Dwight Foster. Bossy was known as a scorer who couldn't check, while Foster could check but wasn't good offensively. Coach Al Arbour persuaded Torrey to pick Bossy, figuring it was easier to teach a scorer how to check. Bossy emerged as one of the league's elite snipers in his first season, in which he set a then-NHL record with 53 goals as a rookie. Bossy achieved nine consecutive 50-goal seasons, as well as having more than adequate defensive skills. After helping minority owner John Pickett Jr. buy the franchise in 1979, Torrey was promoted to team president. In 1980, after the Islanders had underachieved in the playoffs for the past few years despite success in the regular season, Torrey made the difficult decision to trade longtime and popular veterans Billy Harris and Dave Lewis to the Los Angeles Kings in return for Butch Goring. Under Torrey's leadership, the Islanders won four consecutive Stanley Cups: in 1980, 1981, 1982, 1983.
They won 19 consecutive postseason series. Along the way, he picked future Hall of Fame goalie Billy Smith in the team's original expansion draft and drafted five Hall of Fame players—Denis Potvin, Clark Gillies, Bryan Trottier, Mike Bossy, Pat LaFontaine—in the entry draft, he hired as head coach Al Arbour, another Hall of Famer and winner of four Cups as a player. After LaFontaine demanded a trade and held out for the start of the 1991–92 season, Torrey engineered a rebuilding project, he dealt LaFontaine, Randy Wood, Randy Hillier to the Buffalo Sabres in return for Pierre Turgeon, Benoît Hogue, Uwe Krupp and Dave McLlwain. He sent captain Brent Sutter and Brad Lauer to the Chicago Blackhawks for Steve Thomas and Adam Creighton. Pickett turned over day-to-day control to a management committee of four minority owners. After the Islanders missed the playoffs in 1992, Torrey was forced to resign. Torrey was named president of the Florida Panthers, a new expansion team, in 1993. Torrey built his new team to the Islanders, acquiring young talent that included Rob Niedermayer, Ed Jovanovski, Radek Dvořák, Rhett Warrener.
The Panthers made it to the 1996 Stanley Cup Finals. The team reached the playoffs twice more prior to his retirement in 2001, he remained with the team as special advisor. Torrey was elected to the Hockey Hall of Fame in 1995, he is honoured with a banner in Barclays Center along with Al Arbour and six of the players he drafted. Torrey's banner has the words "The Architect" and the image of a bowtie. On October 23, 2010, the Florida Panthers honoured Torrey by retiring the number 93, raising a banner in his honour to the rafters; the 93 represents the year when the Panthers franchise was incorporated into the NHL. Torrey had four sons, ten grandchildren. Torrey died at his home in West Palm Beach, Florida, on the evening of May 2, 2018. Biographical information and career statistics from Eliteprospects.com, or Legends of Hockey
Toronto is the provincial capital of Ontario and the most populous city in Canada, with a population of 2,731,571 in 2016. Current to 2016, the Toronto census metropolitan area, of which the majority is within the Greater Toronto Area, held a population of 5,928,040, making it Canada's most populous CMA. Toronto is the anchor of an urban agglomeration, known as the Golden Horseshoe in Southern Ontario, located on the northwestern shore of Lake Ontario. A global city, Toronto is a centre of business, finance and culture, is recognized as one of the most multicultural and cosmopolitan cities in the world. People have travelled through and inhabited the Toronto area, situated on a broad sloping plateau interspersed with rivers, deep ravines, urban forest, for more than 10,000 years. After the broadly disputed Toronto Purchase, when the Mississauga surrendered the area to the British Crown, the British established the town of York in 1793 and designated it as the capital of Upper Canada. During the War of 1812, the town was the site of the Battle of York and suffered heavy damage by United States troops.
York was incorporated in 1834 as the city of Toronto. It was designated as the capital of the province of Ontario in 1867 during Canadian Confederation; the city proper has since expanded past its original borders through both annexation and amalgamation to its current area of 630.2 km2. The diverse population of Toronto reflects its current and historical role as an important destination for immigrants to Canada. More than 50 percent of residents belong to a visible minority population group, over 200 distinct ethnic origins are represented among its inhabitants. While the majority of Torontonians speak English as their primary language, over 160 languages are spoken in the city. Toronto is a prominent centre for music, motion picture production, television production, is home to the headquarters of Canada's major national broadcast networks and media outlets, its varied cultural institutions, which include numerous museums and galleries and public events, entertainment districts, national historic sites, sports activities, attract over 25 million tourists each year.
Toronto is known for its many skyscrapers and high-rise buildings, in particular the tallest free-standing structure in the Western Hemisphere, the CN Tower. The city is home to the Toronto Stock Exchange, the headquarters of Canada's five largest banks, the headquarters of many large Canadian and multinational corporations, its economy is diversified with strengths in technology, financial services, life sciences, arts, business services, environmental innovation, food services, tourism. When Europeans first arrived at the site of present-day Toronto, the vicinity was inhabited by the Iroquois, who had displaced the Wyandot people, occupants of the region for centuries before c. 1500. The name Toronto is derived from the Iroquoian word tkaronto, meaning "place where trees stand in the water"; this refers to the northern end of what is now Lake Simcoe, where the Huron had planted tree saplings to corral fish. However, the word "Toronto", meaning "plenty" appears in a 1632 French lexicon of the Huron language, an Iroquoian language.
It appears on French maps referring to various locations, including Georgian Bay, Lake Simcoe, several rivers. A portage route from Lake Ontario to Lake Huron running through this point, known as the Toronto Carrying-Place Trail, led to widespread use of the name. In the 1660s, the Iroquois established two villages within what is today Toronto, Ganatsekwyagon on the banks of the Rouge River and Teiaiagon on the banks of the Humber River. By 1701, the Mississauga had displaced the Iroquois, who abandoned the Toronto area at the end of the Beaver Wars, with most returning to their base in present-day New York. French traders abandoned it in 1759 during the Seven Years' War; the British defeated the French and their indigenous allies in the war, the area became part of the British colony of Quebec in 1763. During the American Revolutionary War, an influx of British settlers came here as United Empire Loyalists fled for the British-controlled lands north of Lake Ontario; the Crown granted them land to compensate for their losses in the Thirteen Colonies.
The new province of Upper Canada was being needed a capital. In 1787, the British Lord Dorchester arranged for the Toronto Purchase with the Mississauga of the New Credit First Nation, thereby securing more than a quarter of a million acres of land in the Toronto area. Dorchester intended the location to be named Toronto. In 1793, Governor John Graves Simcoe established the town of York on the Toronto Purchase lands, naming it after Prince Frederick, Duke of York and Albany. Simcoe decided to move the Upper Canada capital from Newark to York, believing that the new site would be less vulnerable to attack by the United States; the York garrison was constructed at the entrance of the town's natural harbour, sheltered by a long sand-bar peninsula. The town's settlement formed at the eastern end of the harbour behind the peninsula, near the present-day intersection of Parliament Street and Front Street. In 1813, as part of the War of 1812, the Battle of York ended in the town's capture and plunder by United States forces.
The surrender of the town was negotiated by John Strachan. American soldiers destroyed much of the garrison and set fire to the parliament buildings during their five-day occupation; because of the sacking of York, British troops retaliated in the war with the Burning of Wa
Minor ice hockey
Minor hockey is an umbrella term for amateur ice hockey, played below the junior age level. Players are classified with each age group playing in its own league; the rules as it relates to body contact, vary from class to class. In North America, the rules are governed by the national bodies, Hockey Canada and USA Hockey, while local hockey associations administer players and leagues for their region. Many provinces and states organize regional and provincial championship tournaments, the highest age groups in Canada and USA participate in national championships. Minor hockey is not to be confused with minor league professional hockey. In Canada, the age categories are designated by each provincial hockey governing body based on Hockey Canada's guidelines, each category may have multiple tiers based on skill. To qualify in a category, the player must be under the age limit as of December 31 of the current season. Initiation: under 7 years of age In some larger areas with multiple associations in close proximity, Tyke is broken up by age into Hockey 1 for 5-year-old players and Hockey 2 for 6 years old players.
In the Province of Quebec, players start in Pre-MAHG to initiate skating technics. Over the next two following years they are in levels MAHG 1 and MAHG 2 to develop a sense of the game. Novice: under 9 years of age In some larger areas, Novice is broken up by age into Hockey 3 for 7-year-old players and Hockey 4 for 8-year-old players. Atom: under 11 years of age Peewee: under 13 years of age Bantam: under 15 years of age Midget: under 18 years of age Juvenile under 20 years of age, for players who want to remain in hockey at a minor hockey association level; those not playing Senior. Junior: under 21 years of age Junior: divided into Major Junior, Junior A, Junior B and Junior C. Senior: No age limit There are two broad grouping of skill levels: competitive and non-competitive. From house league/recreation hockey, progression is made to competitive travel hockey. A competitive team will hold tryouts and players will be selected for the roster depending upon skill level and fit. At this level, players chosen to compete experience a higher level of on-ice competition and coaching.
Players learn systems. HL teams are intra-city and players may be of any skill level. Rostered Select teams will consist of better House League players who in addition to HL play, will play in additional games and practices which are organized on an ad-hoc basis. League Select teams will consist of better House League Players but can play in a league for a full season in addition to the House League Season; this is known as Select in some area. Higher-skilled players will play on "representative" or "travel" teams that will travel to play representative teams from other areas; these teams are classified by skill. Not all cities will have teams at all skill levels, depending on size and the popularity of hockey, however small communities may field teams at multiple levels; the classifications are not certified by any external organization, so there is speculation about what levels are better or stronger than others. AAA, AA, A hockey are nationally recognized as competitive levels of organized hockey, with AAA being elite competition.'House Level' Inter Association hockey never leaving own association'C' Playing other associations in a region.'B"A"AA"AAA' is the highest caliber of minor hockey In British Columbia, BC Hockey has a different system as the province has no "B" level hockey.
All teams are either non-competitive "C" house or competitive Rep teams "A". Rep teams "A' compete association vs. association under the guidance of PCAHA, OMAHA, VIAHA, are labeled as A1, A2, A3, A4. No Atom level Provincial championship exists; the OMAHA and VIAHA have "Atom Development" rep teams, while the PCAHA follows "A1,A2,A3, etc" similar to older ages. Midget Rep has a BC run Midget AAA league, the highest level of midget rep, in addition to association run rep teams "A" level teams are designated by the following tiers: Tier 1, Tier 2, Tier 3 and Tier 4. For the purposes of affiliation regulations, each Tier designation will be considered a category. BC Hockey Registrations of male Midget and Pee Wee players from the previous three years with the Associations tiers are determined the according to the following schedule: The above chart shall be utilized to determine the tier of the "initial entry" team at each division. 1.03 a) Associations may register additional teams in any Division in accordance with the following chart: b) Any association registering more than two hundred and fifty players in any Age division of Peewee, Bantam and Juvenile shall be required to register teams in that division in accordance with the following chart: First Entry, Second Entry Team Must register two Tier 1 teams Third Entry Team Tier 2 Fourth Entry Team Tier 3 Fifth Entry Team Tier 4 1.04 All Winter Clubs are designated Tier 1.
This designation is to be reviewed annually by the BC Hockey Executive Committee following consultation with the District Association. Quebec house leagues are labeled C, B, A. Competitive teams are urbanly known as the "double letters" an
Ontario Hockey League
The Ontario Hockey League is one of the three major junior ice hockey leagues which constitute the Canadian Hockey League. The league is for players aged 16–21. There are 20 teams in the OHL; the league was founded in 1980, when its predecessor league, the Ontario Major Junior Hockey League formally split away from the Ontario Hockey Association, joining the Canadian Major Junior Hockey League and its direct affiliation with Hockey Canada. The OHL traces its history of Junior A hockey back to 1933 with the partition of Junior A and B. In 1970, the OHA Junior A League was one of five Junior A leagues operating in Ontario; the OHA was promoted to Tier I Junior A for the 1970–71 season and took up the name Ontario Major Junior Hockey League. Since 1980 the league has grown into a high-profile marketable product, with many games broadcast on television and radio. Leagues for ice hockey in Ontario were first organized in 1890 by the newly created Ontario Hockey Association. In 1892 the OHA recognized junior hockey - referring to skill rather than age.
In 1896 the OHA moved to the modern age-limited junior hockey concept, distinct from senior and intermediate divisions. Since the evolution to the Ontario Hockey League has developed through four distinct eras of junior-aged non-professional hockey in Ontario. In 1933, the junior division was divided into two levels, Junior A and Junior B. In 1970 the Junior A level was divided into two levels, Tier I and Tier II. In 1974 the Tier I/Major Junior A group separated from the OHA and became the independent'Ontario Major Junior Hockey League'. In 1980, the OMJHL became the'Ontario Hockey League.' From 1974 until 1978, Clarence "Tubby" Schmalz was the league's commissioner. For one season, former IHL commissioner Bill Beagan served as commissioner of the OMJHL. Beginning with the 1979-80 season, David Branch has been the Commissioner of the OHL. Branch was appointed on August 11, 1979, assumed the commissioner's role on September 17, 1979. Cornwall Royals 1981-1992 - moved to Newmarket Newmarket Royals 1992-1994 - moved to Sarnia Niagara Falls Flyers 1980-1982 - moved to North Bay as Centennials North Bay Centennials 1982-2002 - moved to Saginaw Brantford Alexanders 1980-1984 - moved to Hamilton as Steelhawks Hamilton Steelhawks 1984-1988 - moved to Niagara Falls as Thunder Niagara Falls Thunder 1988-1996 - moved to Erie Guelph Platers 1980-1989 - moved to Owen Sound as Platers and as Attack 2000 Toronto Marlboros 1980-1989 - moved to Hamilton as Dukes Dukes of Hamilton 1989-1991 - moved to Guelph as Storm Detroit Junior Red Wings 1992-1995 - renamed as Whalers and moved to Plymouth in 1997 and to Flint in 2015 as Firebirds Brampton Battalion 1998-2013 - moved to North Bay as Battalion Mississauga IceDogs 1998-2007 - moved to Niagara as IceDogs Toronto St. Michael's Majors 1996-2007 - moved to Mississauga as St Michael's Majors and 2012 as Steelheads Belleville Bulls 1981-2015 - moved to Hamilton as Bulldogs The 20 OHL clubs play a 68-game unbalanced schedule, which starts in the third full week of September, running until the third week of March.
Ninety percent of OHL games are scheduled between Thursday and Sunday to minimize the number of school days missed for its players. 20% of players on active rosters in the National Hockey League have come from the OHL, about 54% of NHL players are alumni of the Canadian Hockey League. The J. Ross Robertson Cup is awarded annually to the winner of the Championship Series; the Cup is named for John Ross Robertson, president of the Ontario Hockey Association from 1901 to 1905. The OHL playoffs consist of the top 16 teams in 8 from each conference; the teams play a best-of-seven game series, the winner of each series advances to the next round. The final two teams compete for the J. Ross Robertson Cup; the OHL champion competes with the winners of the Western Hockey League, the Quebec Major Junior Hockey League, the host of the tournament to play for the Memorial Cup, awarded to the junior hockey champions of Canada. The host team of the tournament is alternated between the three leagues every season.
The most recent OHL team to win the Memorial Cup was the Windsor Spitfires in 2017. The Memorial Cup has been captured 17 times by OHL/OHA teams since the tournament went to a three-league format in 1972: The Cup was won 16 times by OHA teams in the period between 1945 and 1971: The OHL's predecessor, the OHA, had a midget and juvenile draft dating back to the 50s, until voted out in 1962. In 1966 it was resumed. Starting in the 70s the draft went through several changes; the draft was for 17-year-old midgets not associated with teams through their sponsored youth programs. In 1971 the league first allowed "underage" midgets to be picked in the first three rounds. In 1972 disagreements about the Toronto team's rights to its "Marlie" players and claims to American player Mark Howe led to a revised system. In 1973 each team was permitted to protect 8 midget area players. In 1975 the league phased out the area protections, the 1976 OHA midget draft was the first in which all midget players were eligible.
In 1999 the league changed the draft to a bantam age. It is a selection of players who are residents of the province of Ontario, the states of Michigan and New York, other designated U. S. states east of the Mississippi Missouri. Prior to 2001
Alger Joseph Arbour was a Canadian ice hockey player and executive. He is third to Joel Quenneville for games coached in National Hockey League history and fourth all-time in wins, behind Scotty Bowman, Joel Quenneville and Ken Hitchcock. Under Arbour, the New York Islanders won four consecutive Stanley Cups from 1980 to 1983. Born in Sudbury, Arbour played amateur hockey as a defenceman with the Windsor Spitfires of the Ontario Hockey League, he played his first professional games with the Detroit Red Wings in 1953. Claimed by the Chicago Black Hawks in 1958, Arbour would help the team win a championship in 1961. Arbour played with the Toronto Maple Leafs for the next five years, winning another Cup in 1962, he was selected by the St. Louis Blues in their 1967 expansion draft and played his final four seasons with the team. During his last year with the Blues, Arbour was hired mid-season to coach the team. In 107 games, he only one playoff series win. After a woeful expansion year, the New York Islanders hired Arbour as coach in 1973.
Arbour led the team to a winning record every season from 1974–75 until he stepped down in 1985–86. Arbour won nineteen consecutive playoff series, which remains an NHL and North American sports record, he was awarded the Jack Adams Award as the league's top coach in 1979. Upon retiring from the bench, Arbour was named vice-president of player development for the Islanders, he returned to coach the Islanders in the 1988–89 season and remained there through 1993-94, notably upsetting the two-time defending champion Pittsburgh Penguins in the 1993 playoffs. He was awarded the Lester Patrick Trophy for his contributions to the sport and was elected to the Hockey Hall of Fame in 1996. Arbour started his playing career in 1954 with the Detroit Red Wings, he skated for the Chicago Black Hawks, Toronto Maple Leafs, St. Louis Blues. Arbour won the Stanley Cup as a player with the 1960–61 Chicago Black Hawks and the 1961–62 and 1963–64 Toronto Maple Leafs. Arbour, along with teammate Ed Litzenberger, is one of eleven players to win consecutive Stanley Cups with two different teams.
He is one of only 11 players in Stanley Cup history to win the Cup with three or more different teams. Arbour was the first captain of the expansion St. Louis Blues, played for them when they lost in Cup finals in 1968, 1969, 1970. One of the few professional athletes to wear eyeglasses when competing, Arbour was the last NHL player to wear them on the ice. Arbour was known for laying down in front of the goaltender to block shots on goal with his body. Arbour began his coaching career with the Iowa Hawkeyes hockey team in 1967 and at the time lead them in his first year to ther best record at.500 he went to the NHL in St. Louis in 1970, taking over as coach after playing for the Blues for parts of four seasons. Following two additional seasons with St. Louis, he was recruited by GM Bill Torrey to take over a young New York Islanders team that had set a then-NHL record for futility by winning only 12 games in their inaugural season, 1972–73. In his first season as Isles' coach, Arbour's team finished last in the league for the second year in a row, but gave up 100 fewer goals and earned 56 points, up from 30 the year before.
New York Rangers defenceman Brad Park said after the Islanders beat their crosstown rivals for the first time, "They have a system. They look like a hockey team."The 1974–75 Islanders finished third in their division with 88 points, which qualified them for the playoffs, where they defeated the Rangers in overtime of the deciding third game of their first-round series. In the next round, the Isles found themselves down three games to none in a best of seven quarter-final series against the Pittsburgh Penguins; the Islanders rebounded with three straight victories to tie the series prevailed in Game 7 by a score of 1–0. It was only the second time in major sports history, the first since 1942, that a team won a series after trailing 3–0; the Islanders faced the Philadelphia Flyers in the next round, again fell behind 3–0, once again tied the series, although the Flyers prevailed in Game 7 and went on to win their second consecutive Stanley Cup. Despite achieving great regular season success, culminating in the 1978–79 campaign in which they finished with the best record in the NHL, the Islanders suffered a series of letdowns in the playoffs.
In both 1976 and 1977, they lost in the semi-finals to the eventual champion Montreal Canadiens, suffered an upset loss to the Toronto Maple Leafs in the 1978 quarter-finals, on a game-winning goal by Lanny McDonald in overtime of Game 7. In 1979, the rival Rangers defeated Arbour's Islanders in the semi-finals 4–2. Arbour won the Jack Adams Award for the team's stellar regular season. During the 1979–80 season, the Islanders struggled. However, following the acquisition of Butch Goring in March, the Islanders completed the regular season with a 12-game unbeaten streak; the regular season run carried over to the playoffs and the Islanders captured their first Stanley Cup championship on May 24, 1980, by defeating the Philadelphia Flyers in overtime of Game 6. Arbour and the Islanders went on to capture 3 more Cups in a row, a record for an American hockey club. Along the way, they set records for consecutive regular season victories, consecutive Finals victories, playoff series victories. By the time the Islanders were dethroned by the Edmonton Oilers in the 1984 Stanley Cup Finals, they had strung together 19 straight playoff series victories, a professional sports record.
No team in any of the four major sports has strung together four consecutive championships since. The closest a team in any of the major four Nor