The Romani, colloquially known as Gypsies or Roma, are an Indo-Aryan ethnic group, traditionally itinerant, living in Europe and the Americas and originating from the northern Indian subcontinent, from the Rajasthan and Punjab regions of modern-day India. Genetic findings appear to confirm that the Romani "came from a single group that left northwestern India about 1,500 years ago." Genetic research published in the European Journal of Human Genetics "revealed that over 70% of males belong to a single lineage that appears unique to the Roma." They are a dispersed people, but their most concentrated populations are located in Europe Central and Southern Europe. The Romani originated in northern India and arrived in Mid-West Asia and Europe around 1,000 years ago, they have been associated with another Indo-Aryan group, the Dom people: the two groups have been said to have separated from each other or, at least, to share a similar history. The ancestors of both the Romani and the Dom left North India sometime between the 6th and 11th century.
The Romani are known among English-speaking people by the exonym Gypsies, which some people consider pejorative due to its connotations of illegality and irregularity. Since the 19th century, some Romani have migrated to the Americas. There are an estimated one million Roma in the United States. Brazil includes a notable Romani community descended from people deported by the Portuguese Empire during the Portuguese Inquisition. In migrations since the late 19th century, Romani have moved to other countries in South America and to Canada. In February 2016, during the International Roma Conference, the Indian Minister of External Affairs stated that the people of the Roma community were children of India; the conference ended with a recommendation to the Government of India to recognize the Roma community spread across 30 countries as a part of the Indian diaspora. The Romani language is divided into several dialects which together have an estimated number of speakers of more than two million; the total number of Romani people is at least twice as high.
Many Romani are native speakers of the dominant language in their country of residence or of mixed languages combining the dominant language with a dialect of Romani. French bohème, bohémien, from the Kingdom of Bohemia, where they were incorrectly believed to have come from, carrying writs of protection from King Sigismund of Bohemia. French gitan, English gypsy, Spanish gitano, Catalan gitano, Italian gitano, Portuguese cigano, Turkish kipti, all from Greek Αἰγύπτιος Aigýptios "Egyptian", Hungarian fáreónépe from Greek φαραώ pharaó "pharaoh" – referring to their Egyptian provenance. Usage of "gypsy" and derived words differs between groups as some Roma groups use this word as a self-identifier while others consider this word a racial slur. English tzigane, Spanish zíngaro, cíngaro, French tzigane, Old High German zigeuner, German Zigeuner, Dutch zigeuner, Danish sigøjner, Swedish zigenare, Norwegian sigøynere Old Church Slavic ациганинъ atsyganin, Italian zingaro, Romanian țigan, Hungarian cigány, Serbo-Croatian cigan, Albanian cigan, Polish cygan, Czech cikán, Portuguese cigano, Turkish çigan, Azerbaijani çıqan, Slovak cigán or cigáň, Venetian singano, Russian цыгане tsygane, Ukrainian цигани tsyhany, Lithuanian čigonai, Latvian čigāni, Georgian ციგანი.
Due to the negative connotations of referring to an ethnic group as "untouchable" words derived from this source are considered derogatory and outdated by modern Roma peoples. Albanian Jevg, gabel, Magjup Azerbaijani qaraçı Arabic Nawar and Zott. Egyptian Arabic ghager Rom means husband in the Romani language, it has the variants dom and lom, related with the Sanskrit words dam-pati, lom, loman, romaça. Another possible origin is from Sanskrit डोम doma. In the Romani language, Rom is a masculine noun, meaning'man of the Roma ethnic group' or'man, husband', with the plural Roma; the feminine of Rom in the Romani language is Romni. However, in most cases, in other languages Rom is now used for people of both genders. Romani is the feminine adjective; some Romanies use Rom or Roma as an ethnic name, while others do not use this term as a self-ascription for the entire ethnic group. Sometimes and romani are spelled with a double r, i.e. rrom and rromani. In this case rr is used to represent the phoneme /ʀ/, which in some Romani dialects has remained different from the one written with a single r.
The rr spelling is common in certain institutions, or used in certain countries, e.g. Romania, to distinguish from the endonym/homonym for Romanians. In the English language, Rom is a noun and an adje
Barcelona is a city in Spain. It is the capital and largest city of the autonomous community of Catalonia, as well as the second most populous municipality of Spain. With a population of 1.6 million within city limits, its urban area extends to numerous neighbouring municipalities within the Province of Barcelona and is home to around 4.8 million people, making it the sixth most populous urban area in the European Union after Paris, Madrid, the Ruhr area and Milan. It is one of the largest metropolises on the Mediterranean Sea, located on the coast between the mouths of the rivers Llobregat and Besòs, bounded to the west by the Serra de Collserola mountain range, the tallest peak of, 512 metres high. Founded as a Roman city, in the Middle Ages Barcelona became the capital of the County of Barcelona. After merging with the Kingdom of Aragon, Barcelona continued to be an important city in the Crown of Aragon as an economic and administrative centre of this Crown and the capital of the Principality of Catalonia.
Barcelona has a rich cultural heritage and is today an important cultural centre and a major tourist destination. Renowned are the architectural works of Antoni Gaudí and Lluís Domènech i Montaner, which have been designated UNESCO World Heritage Sites; the headquarters of the Union for the Mediterranean are located in Barcelona. The city is known for hosting the 1992 Summer Olympics as well as world-class conferences and expositions and many international sport tournaments. Barcelona is one of the world's leading tourist, trade fair and cultural centres, its influence in commerce, entertainment, fashion and the arts all contribute to its status as one of the world's major global cities, it is a major cultural and economic centre in southwestern Europe, 24th in the world and a financial centre. In 2008 it was the fourth most economically powerful city by GDP in the European Union and 35th in the world with GDP amounting to €177 billion. In 2012 Barcelona had a GDP of $170 billion. In 2009 the city was ranked one of the world's most successful as a city brand.
In the same year the city was ranked Europe's fourth best city for business and fastest improving European city, with growth improved by 17% per year, the city has been experiencing strong and renewed growth for the past three years. Since 2011 Barcelona has been a leading smart city in Europe. Barcelona is a transport hub, with the Port of Barcelona being one of Europe's principal seaports and busiest European passenger port, an international airport, Barcelona–El Prat Airport, which handles over 50 million passengers per year, an extensive motorway network, a high-speed rail line with a link to France and the rest of Europe; the name Barcelona comes from the ancient Iberian Barkeno, attested in an ancient coin inscription found on the right side of the coin in Iberian script as, in ancient Greek sources as Βαρκινών, Barkinṓn. Some older sources suggest that the city may have been named after the Carthaginian general Hamilcar Barca, supposed to have founded the city in the 3rd century BC, but there is no evidence that Barcelona was a Carthaginian settlement, or that its name in antiquity, had any connection with the Barcid family of Hamilcar.
During the Middle Ages, the city was variously known as Barchinona, Barçalona and Barchenona. Internationally, Barcelona's name is wrongly abbreviated to'Barça'. However, this name refers only to the football club; the common abbreviated form used by locals is Barna. Another common abbreviation is'BCN', the IATA airport code of the Barcelona-El Prat Airport; the city is referred to as the Ciutat Comtal in Catalan, Ciudad Condal in Spanish, owing to its past as the seat of the Count of Barcelona. The origin of the earliest settlement at the site of present-day Barcelona is unclear; the ruins of an early settlement have been found, including different tombs and dwellings dating to earlier than 5000 BC. The founding of Barcelona is the subject of two different legends; the first attributes the founding of the city to the mythological Hercules. The second legend attributes the foundation of the city directly to the historical Carthaginian general, Hamilcar Barca, father of Hannibal, who named the city Barcino after his family in the 3rd century BC, but there is no historical or linguistic evidence that this is true.
In about 15 BC, the Romans redrew the town as a castrum centred on the "Mons Taber", a little hill near the contemporary city hall. Under the Romans, it was a colony with the surname of Faventia, or, in full, Colonia Faventia Julia Augusta Pia Barcino or Colonia Julia Augusta Faventia Paterna Barcino. Pomponius Mela mentions it among the small towns of the district as it was eclipsed by its neighbour Tarraco, but it may be gathered from writers that it grew in wealth and consequence, favoured as it was with a beautiful situation and an excellent harbour, it enjoyed immunity from imperial burdens. The city minted its own coins. Important Roman vestiges are displayed in Plaça del Rei underground, as a part of the Barcelona City History Museum; some remaining fragments of the Roman walls have been incorporated into the cathedral. The cathedral known as the Basilica La Seu, is said to have been founded in 343; the city
Buenos Aires is the capital and largest city of Argentina. The city is located on the western shore of the estuary of the Río de la Plata, on the South American continent's southeastern coast. "Buenos Aires" can be translated as "fair winds" or "good airs", but the former was the meaning intended by the founders in the 16th century, by the use of the original name "Real de Nuestra Señora Santa María del Buen Ayre". The Greater Buenos Aires conurbation, which includes several Buenos Aires Province districts, constitutes the fourth-most populous metropolitan area in the Americas, with a population of around 15.6 million. The city of Buenos Aires is the Province's capital. In 1880, after decades of political infighting, Buenos Aires was federalized and removed from Buenos Aires Province; the city limits were enlarged to include the towns of Flores. The 1994 constitutional amendment granted the city autonomy, hence its formal name: Autonomous City of Buenos Aires, its citizens first elected a chief of government in 1996.
Buenos Aires is considered an'alpha city' by the study GaWC5. Buenos Aires' quality of life was ranked 91st in the world, being one of the best in Latin America in 2018, it is the most visited city in South America, the second-most visited city of Latin America. Buenos Aires is a top tourist destination, is known for its preserved Eclectic European architecture and rich cultural life. Buenos Aires held the 1st Pan American Games in 1951 as well as hosting two venues in the 1978 FIFA World Cup. Buenos Aires hosted the 2018 the 2018 G20 summit. Buenos Aires is a multicultural city, being home to multiple religious groups. Several languages are spoken in the city in addition to Spanish, contributing to its culture and the dialect spoken in the city and in some other parts of the country; this is because in the last 150 years the city, the country in general, has been a major recipient of millions of immigrants from all over the world, making it a melting pot where several ethnic groups live together and being considered one of the most diverse cities of the Americas.
It is recorded under the archives of Aragonese that Catalan missionaries and Jesuits arriving in Cagliari under the Crown of Aragon, after its capture from the Pisans in 1324 established their headquarters on top of a hill that overlooked the city. The hill was known to them as Bonaira, as it was free of the foul smell prevalent in the old city, adjacent to swampland. During the siege of Cagliari, the Catalans built a sanctuary to the Virgin Mary on top of the hill. In 1335, King Alfonso the Gentle donated the church to the Mercedarians, who built an abbey that stands to this day. In the years after that, a story circulated, claiming that a statue of the Virgin Mary was retrieved from the sea after it miraculously helped to calm a storm in the Mediterranean Sea; the statue was placed in the abbey. Spanish sailors Andalusians, venerated this image and invoked the "Fair Winds" to aid them in their navigation and prevent shipwrecks. A sanctuary to the Virgin of Buen Ayre would be erected in Seville.
In the first foundation of Buenos Aires, Spanish sailors arrived thankfully in the Río de la Plata by the blessings of the "Santa Maria de los Buenos Aires", the "Holy Virgin Mary of the Good Winds", said to have given them the good winds to reach the coast of what is today the modern city of Buenos Aires. Pedro de Mendoza called the city "Holy Mary of the Fair Winds", a name suggested by the chaplain of Mendoza's expedition – a devotee of the Virgin of Buen Ayre – after the Sardinian Madonna de Bonaria. Mendoza's settlement soon came under attack by indigenous people, was abandoned in 1541. For many years, the name was attributed to a Sancho del Campo, said to have exclaimed: How fair are the winds of this land!, as he arrived. But Eduardo Madero, in 1882 after conducting extensive research in Spanish archives concluded that the name was indeed linked with the devotion of the sailors to Our Lady of Buen Ayre. A second settlement was established in 1580 by Juan de Garay, who sailed down the Paraná River from Asunción.
Garay preserved the name chosen by Mendoza, calling the city Ciudad de la Santísima Trinidad y Puerto de Santa María del Buen Aire. The short form "Buenos Aires" became the common usage during the 17th century; the usual abbreviation for Buenos Aires in Spanish is Bs. As, it is common as well to refer to it as "B. A." or "BA". While "BA" is used more by expats residing in the city, the locals more use the abbreviation "Baires", in one word. Seaman Juan Díaz de Solís, navigating in the name of Spain, was the first European to reach the Río de la Plata in 1516, his expedition was cut short when he was killed during an attack by the native Charrúa tribe in what is now Uruguay. The city of Buenos Aires was first established as Ciudad de Nuestra Señora Santa María del Buen Ayre after Our Lady of Bonaria on 2 February 1536 by a Spanish expedition led by Pedro de Mendoza; the settlement founded by Mendoza was located in what is today the San Telmo district of Buenos Aires, south of the city centre. More attacks by the indigenous
Concert for Freedom
The Concert for Freedom was a concert held at Camp Nou football stadium in Barcelona on June 29, 2013, organized by Òmnium Cultural in conjunction with other civil society organization such as the Assemblea Nacional Catalana and the Plataforma Pro Seleccions Esportives Catalanes with the goal using the universal language of music to demand the right of Catalonia and other nations of the world to and democratically decide their future. Some 90,000 people were in attendance. Between the 2012 Catalan independence demonstration and the Catalan Way, the concert was another social mobilization event in favor of independence. More than 400 artists performed, among them Lluís Llach, Sopa de Cabra, Miquel Gil, Joana Serrat, Jofre Bardagí, Jordi Batiste, Lídia Pujol, Maria del Mar Bonet, Marina Rossell, Mercedes Peón, Nena Venetsanou, Orfeó Català, Paco Ibáñez, Pascal Comelade, Pau Alabajos, Pep Sala, Projecte Mut, Sabor de Gràcia, Ferran Piqué, Joan Enric Barceló & Eduard Costa from Els Amics de les Arts, Brams.
The artistic directors were Gerard Quintana and Lluís Danés, in charge of set design. The stage featured various steps symbolizing the path toward freedom. Present at Camp Nou were nine members of the Catalan government and representatives from the majority of Catalan political parties that support Catalonia's right to self-determination. Muriel Casals, the president of Òmnium Cultural, gave a speech affirming that "Catalonia's independence movement is not against anyone or anything" and requesting that politicians not delay the process toward a referendum. Concert tickets went on sale on Monday, June 3, all were sold the same day, with online wait times to purchase tickets that exceeded six hours; this caused the organization to freeze ticket sales and release 30,000 tickets for sale on the 17th, though these were for seats at the south goal post of the stadium, behind the stage. When the singer Dyango announced his participation in the Concert for Freedom, some Spaniards were outraged. Dyango was not intimidated by the attitudes of the hosts on 13 TV, an ecclesiastic television channel, one of the stalwarts of Spanish nationalism, in the face of his support for separatism.
He affirmed that the current goal is to hold a Catalan referendum, achieve full separation from Spain. Peret denounced pressure and threats he has received for participating in the concert. Singer-songwriter from the Canary Islands, Pedro Guerra, cancelled his participation in the concert alleging that the event had veered toward "purely separatist motivations that he doesn't share" and that "this is not his fight," while affirming that he was not pressured into withdrawing. Singer Mayte Martín withdrew at the last minute for similar motives. Before the concert an information fair was set up outside Camp Nou and the local Food Bank established collection points to benefit the needy, collecting a total of 25 tons of food; the event was divided in two halves. In the first half, various artists interpreted songs related to freedom and popular Catalan tunes such as "L'emigrant" sung by Peret. Sung by María del Mar Bonet and Companyia Elèctrica Dharma, "Camins" sung by Sopa de Cabra; the second half featured songs by Lluís Llach sung both by the artist himself and other artists such as Orfeó Català, Ramoncín, Pastora and Miquel Gil, in homage to Llach's concert at Camp Nou in 1985, remembered as a protest in supports of the rights of the Catalan nation.
At halftime, the Castellers de Vilafranca orchestrated a 9 level high human tower called a 3 de 9 amb folre and they played the Catalan national anthem "Els segadors," while forming a giant mosaic reading "Freedom Catalonia 2014." During the first half, readings were performed between songs by Cristina Plazas, Anna Sahun, Bonaventura Clotet, Manel Esteller, Miquel Casas, Pere Joan Cardona, Alícia Casals, Isona Passola, Ventura Pons, Joel Joan, Jordi Díaz, Josep Pedrals, Lluís Soler, Màrius Serra, Matthew Tree, Montserrat Carulla, Núria Feliu, Quim Masferrer, Roger Coma and Sílvia Bel. Readings were written by Bertolt Brecht, Dolors Miquel, Enric Casasses, Jacint Verdaguer, Joan Margarit, Joana Raspall, Maria Àngels Anglada, Marià Villangómez, Miquel Martí i Pol, Montserrat Abelló, Salvador Espriu, Vicent Andrés Estellés, Joan Brossa, Josep Maria de Sagarra; the Concert for Freedom was covered by several international media agencies and various newspapers and radio stations from France, Italy, the Netherlands, etc.
One of the most talked-about images from the event by the media was the mosaic that unfolded in the stands during the playing of the national anthem of Catalonia. Among the articles covering the event were: Le Figaro: Un stade sang et or pour l'indépendace de la Catalogne L'Indépendant: Grand concert pour l'indépendance catalane ce samedi soir au Camp Nou avec Lluis Llach Wiener Zeitung: 90.000 fordern bei "Konzert für Freiheit" Unabhängigkeit Kataloniens DS De Standaard: 90.000 mensen op concert voor onafhankelijkheid Catalonië RTBF Info: Quelque 90 000 personnes au “Concert pour la Paix” pour indépendance de la Catalogne Stol: 90 000 fordern bei „Konzert für Freiheit“ Unabhängigkeit Kataloniens (90,000 Call for Catalan Independe
Catalan independence movement
The Catalan independence movement is a social and political movement with roots in Catalan nationalism, which seeks the independence of Catalonia from Spain. The Catalan independence movement began in 1922, when Francesc Macià founded the political party Estat Català. In 1931, Estat Català and other parties formed Esquerra Republicana de Catalunya. Macià proclaimed a Catalan Republic in 1931, subsequently accepting autonomy within the Spanish state after negotiations with the leaders of the Second Spanish Republic. During the Spanish Civil War, General Francisco Franco abolished Catalan autonomy in 1938. Following Franco's death in 1975, Catalan political parties concentrated on autonomy rather than independence; the modern independence movement began in 2010 when the Constitutional Court of Spain ruled that some of the articles of the 2006 Statute of Autonomy—which had been agreed with the Spanish government and passed by a referendum in Catalonia—were unconstitutional, others were to be interpreted restrictively.
Popular protest against the decision turned into demands for independence. Starting with the town of Arenys de Munt, over 550 municipalities in Catalonia held symbolic referendums on independence between 2009 and 2011. All of the towns returned a high "yes" vote, with a turnout of around 30% of those eligible to vote. A 2010 protest demonstration against the court's decision, organised by the cultural organisation Òmnium Cultural, was attended by over a million people; the popular movement fed upwards to the politicians. Catalan president Artur Mas called a snap general election, which resulted in a pro-independence majority for the first time in the region's history; the new parliament adopted the Catalan Sovereignty Declaration in early 2013, asserting that the Catalan people had the right to decide their own political future. The Government of Catalonia announced a referendum on the question of statehood, to be held in November 2014; the referendum asked two questions: "Do you want Catalonia to become a state?" and if so, "Do you want this state to be independent?"
The Government of Spain referred the proposed referendum to the Constitutional Court, which ruled it unconstitutional. The Government of Catalonia changed it from a binding referendum to a non-binding "consultation". Despite the Spanish court banning the non-binding vote, the Catalan self-determination referendum went ahead on 9 November 2014; the result was an 81% vote for "yes-yes", with a turnout of 42%. Mas called another election for September 2015. Although winning the majority of the seats, Pro-independence parties fell just short of a majority of votes in the September election; the new parliament passed a resolution declaring the start of the independence process in November 2015. The following year, new president Carles Puigdemont, announced a binding referendum on independence. Although deemed illegal by the Spanish government and Constitutional Court, the referendum was held on 1 October 2017. In a vote where the anti-independence parties called for non-participation, results showed a 90% vote in favour of independence, with a turnout of 43%.
Based on this result, on 27 October 2017 the Parliament of Catalonia approved a resolution creating an independent Republic unilaterally, by a vote considered illegal by the lawyers of the Parliament of Catalonia for violating the decisions of the Constitutional Court of Spain. In the Parliament of Catalonia, parties explicitly supporting independence are Partit Demòcrata Europeu Català named Convergència Democràtica de Catalunya. Parties opposed to the regional independence are Ciutadans, the PP Català, the Partit dels Socialistes de Catalunya, Podemos, the third largest party in the Spanish parliament; the latter supports a legal and agreed referendum. Its main symbol is the Estelada flag, which has red versions; the Senyera Estelada is a combination of the traditional Catalan Senyera with the Cuban and Puerto Rican revolutionary flags of the early 20th century. Since the Estelada has taken many forms, with the Estelada Vermella associated with left-wing Republicanism, the Estelada Blava representing a more conservative mainstream movement, the Estelada Blaugrana a flag for Pro-Independence supporters of FC Barcelona.
The Principality of Catalonia was an entity of the Crown of Aragon, created by the dynastic union of the County of Barcelona and the Kingdom of Aragon in 1137. In the late 15th century, Aragon united by marriage with the Crown of Castile to form what would become Kingdom of Spain; the various entities of the Crown of Aragon, including Catalonia, kept their own fueros and political institutions as guarantee of their sovereignty, for which they fought a civil war during the actual union of the crowns, known as the Catalan Civil War between foralists and royalists. In 1640, during the Thirty Years War and Franco-Spanish War, Catalan peasants revolted, starting the Reapers' War; the following year, the Catalan government seceded stablishing the independence of the Principality, called France for protection and named Louis XIII count of Barcelona. After a decade of war, the Spanish Monarchy counter-attacked in 1652 and recovered Barcelona and the rest of Catalonia, except for Roussillon, annexed by France.
Catalonia retained its fueros. During
EMI Group Limited was a British Transnational conglomerate founded in March 1931 in London. At the time of its break-up in 2012, it was the fourth largest business group and record label conglomerate in the music industry, was one of the big four record companies; the company was once a constituent of the FTSE 100 Index, but faced financial troubles and US$4 billion in debt, leading to its acquisition by Citigroup in February 2011. Citigroup's ownership was temporary, as EMI announced in November 2011 that it would sell its music arm to Vivendi's Universal Music Group for $1.9 billion and its publishing business to a Sony/ATV consortium for around $2.2 billion. Other members of the Sony consortium include the Estate of Michael Jackson, The Blackstone Group, the Abu Dhabi–owned Mubadala Development Company. EMI's locations in the United Kingdom, the United States, Canada were all disassembled to repay debt, but the primary head office located outside those countries is still functional, it is owned by Sony/ATV Music Publishing, the music publishing division of Sony Music which bought another 70% stake in EMI Music Publishing.
Electric and Musical Industries Ltd was formed in March 1931 by the merger of the Columbia Graphophone Company and the Gramophone Company, with its "His Master's Voice" record label, firms that have a history extending back to the origins of recorded sound. The new vertically integrated company produced sound recordings as well as recording and playback equipment; the company's gramophone manufacturing led to forty years of success with larger-scale electronics and electrical engineering. In 1934, the company developed the electronic Marconi-EMI system for television broadcasting, which replaced Baird's electro-mechanical system following its introduction in 1936. After the war, the company resumed its involvement in making broadcasting equipment, notably providing the BBC's second television transmitter at Sutton Coldfield, it manufactured broadcast television cameras for British television production companies as well as for the BBC. The commercial television ITV companies used them alongside cameras made by Pye and Marconi.
Their best-remembered piece of broadcast television equipment was the EMI 2001 colour television camera, which became the mainstay of much of the British television industry from the end of the 1960s until the early 1990s. Exports of this piece of equipment were low, EMI left this area of product manufacture. Alan Blumlein, an engineer employed by EMI, conducted a great deal of pioneering research into stereo sound recording many years prior to the practical implementation of the technique in the early 1950s, he was killed in 1942 whilst conducting flight trials on an experimental H2S radar set. During and after World War II, the EMI Laboratories in Hayes, Hillingdon developed radar equipment, microwave devices such as the reflex klystron oscillator, electro-optic devices such as infra-red image converters, guided missiles employing analogue computers; the company was for many years an internationally respected manufacturer of photomultipliers. This part of the business was transferred to Thorn as part of Thorn-EMI later became the independent concern Electron Tubes Ltd.
The EMI Electronic Business Machine, a valve and magnetic drum memory computer, was built in the 1950s to process the British Motor Corporation payroll. In 1958 the EMIDEC 1100, the UK's first commercially available all-transistor computer, was developed at Hayes under the leadership of Godfrey Hounsfield, an electrical engineer at EMI. In the early 1970s, with financial support by the UK Department of Health and Social Security as well as EMI research investment, Hounsfield developed the first CT scanner, a device which revolutionised medical imaging. In 1973 EMI was awarded a prestigious Queen's Award for Technological Innovation for what was called the EMI scanner, in 1979 Hounsfield won the Nobel Prize for his accomplishment. After brief, but brilliant, success in the medical imaging field, EMI's manufacturing activities were sold off to other companies, notably Thorn. Subsequently and manufacturing activities were sold off to other companies and work moved to other towns such as Crawley and Wells.
Emihus Electronics, based in Glenrothes, was owned 51% by Hughes Aircraft, of California, US, 49% by EMI. It manufactured integrated circuits electrolytic capacitors and, for a short period in the mid-1970s, hand-held calculators under the Gemini name. Early in its life, the Gramophone Company established subsidiary operations in a number of other countries in the British Commonwealth, including India and New Zealand. Gramophone's Australian and New Zealand subsidiaries dominated the popular music industries in those countries from the 1920s until the 1960s, when other locally owned labels began to challenge the near monopoly of EMI. Over 150,000 78-rpm recordings from around the world are held in EMI's temperature-controlled archive in Hayes, some of which have been released on CD since 2008 by Honest Jon's Records. In 1931, the year the company was formed, it opened the legendary recording studios at Abbey Road, London. During the 1930s and 1940s, its roster of artists included Arturo
Oscar Emilio León Somoza, known as Oscar D'León, is a Venezuelan musician best known for his work with salsa music. He is the author of "Llorarás,", he is ambassador for Operation Smile. Oscar D'León was a long-time resident of the Parroquia Antímano section of Caracas, he had a strong interest in percussion since he was a child, improvising bass parts with his throat while playing Latin rhythms with his hands on any available surface. He got in trouble in school early on for doing this constantly, he took interest in the upright bass, would alternate in jobs as an auto mechanic, assembly line worker or taxi driver and bass player for local conjuntos. As he acquired a reputation for being a solid bass player, clever improviser, humorous entertainer and dynamic singer, he founded orchestras such as La Golden Star and music groups such as Los Psicodélicos. Together with percussionist José Rodríguez and trombone players César Monge and José Antonio Rojas, he formed La Dimensión Latina in 1972. Four years D'León quit the group and created La Salsa Mayor.
With La Salsa Mayor he recorded the merengue standard "Juanita Morell", a version that became a radio hit in Puerto Rico. He founded La Crítica in 1978 in memory of the legends of Cuban Rumba, such as Miguelito Valdés. For a while, D'León would alternate singing with both orchestras, giving him enough flexibility to stay working constantly. During the 1980s, D'León achieved recognition in salsa music, becoming a known Caribbean music singer. In 1982 he visited Cuba, his visit was a major cultural event in the island country. Since local tastes in music had veered away from the traditional sounds of Cuban music, D'León's "retro" style of music became popular among Cubans of all ages. Meanwhile, he got tired of carrying around his double bass, "and opening the case in baggage claim at the airport only to find it reduced down to toothpicks." Therefore, he gave up playing a bass onstage. He started shaving his head as to not bother with alopecia any longer, he would, never shave off his trademark mustache.
Because of successful tours throughout America and Spain, D'León was the first latino to sign a contract with the BBC. He has performed in Japan, where he shocked a television host by heartedly recommending sexual intercourse as the key component of a healthy lifestyle during a live interview. Oscar D'Leon has been a direct or indirect victim of various robberies, among them when he was robbed of $16,000 US Dollars in Peru, when a plaque dedicated to him was stolen in Barquisimeto nine hours after he had been honored with it and the city's keys on September 13, 2014. Contributing artistThe Rough Guide to Salsa AlbumsAsí soy D'León was named Best Salsa Artist at the 2014 Pepsi Venezuela Music Awards. On July 7, 2015 he received a Honoris Causa PhD of the Universidad Pedagógica Experimental Libertador for being "a Venezuelan whose discipline and constancy in the development and execution of his musical art have led him to become artistic patrimony of Venezuela"; this article draws on the corresponding article in the Spanish-language Wikipedia, from which the 14 April 2006 version of the article was accessed.