2010 United States Census
The 2010 United States Census is the twenty-third and most recent United States national census. National Census Day, the reference day used for the census, was April 1, 2010; the census was taken via mail-in citizen self-reporting, with enumerators serving to spot-check randomly selected neighborhoods and communities. As part of a drive to increase the count's accuracy, 635,000 temporary enumerators were hired; the population of the United States was counted as 308,745,538, a 9.7% increase from the 2000 Census. This was the first census in which all states recorded a population of over half a million, as well as the first in which all 100 largest cities recorded populations of over 200,000; as required by the United States Constitution, the U. S. census has been conducted every 10 years since 1790. The 2000 U. S. Census was the previous census completed. Participation in the U. S. Census is required by law in Title 13 of the United States Code. On January 25, 2010, Census Bureau Director Robert Groves inaugurated the 2010 Census enumeration by counting World War II veteran Clifton Jackson, a resident of Noorvik, Alaska.
More than 120 million census forms were delivered by the U. S. Post Office beginning March 15, 2010; the number of forms mailed out or hand-delivered by the Census Bureau was 134 million on April 1, 2010. Although the questionnaire used April 1, 2010 as the reference date as to where a person was living, an insert dated March 15, 2010 included the following printed in bold type: "Please complete and mail back the enclosed census form today." The 2010 Census national mail participation rate was 74%. From April through July 2010, census takers visited households that did not return a form, an operation called "non-response follow-up". In December 2010, the U. S. Census Bureau delivered population information to the U. S. President for apportionment, in March 2011, complete redistricting data was delivered to states. Identifiable information will be available in 2082; the Census Bureau did not use a long form for the 2010 Census. In several previous censuses, one in six households received this long form, which asked for detailed social and economic information.
The 2010 Census used only a short form asking ten basic questions: How many people were living or staying in this house, apartment, or mobile home on April 1, 2010? Were there any additional people staying here on April 1, 2010 that you did not include in Question 1? Mark all that apply: Is this house, apartment, or mobile home – What is your telephone number? What is Person 1's name? What is Person 1's sex? What is Person 1's age and Person 1's date of birth? Is Person 1 of Hispanic, Latino, or Spanish origin? What is Person 1's race? Does Person 1 sometimes live or stay somewhere else? The form included space to repeat all of these questions for up to twelve residents total. In contrast to the 2000 census, an Internet response option was not offered, nor was the form available for download. Detailed socioeconomic information collected during past censuses will continue to be collected through the American Community Survey; the survey provides data about communities in the United States on a 1-year or 3-year cycle, depending on the size of the community, rather than once every 10 years.
A small percentage of the population on a rotating basis will receive the survey each year, no household will receive it more than once every five years. In June 2009, the U. S. Census Bureau announced. However, the final form did not contain a separate "same-sex married couple" option; when noting the relationship between household members, same-sex couples who are married could mark their spouses as being "Husband or wife", the same response given by opposite-sex married couples. An "unmarried partner" option was available for couples; the 2010 census cost $13 billion $42 per capita. Operational costs were $5.4 billion under the $7 billion budget. In December 2010 the Government Accountability Office noted that the cost of conducting the census has doubled each decade since 1970. In a detailed 2004 report to Congress, the GAO called on the Census Bureau to address cost and design issues, at that time, had estimated the 2010 Census cost to be $11 billion. In August 2010, Commerce Secretary Gary Locke announced that the census operational costs came in under budget.
Locke credited the management practices of Census Bureau director Robert Groves, citing in particular the decision to buy additional advertising in locations where responses lagged, which improved the overall response rate. The agency has begun to rely more on questioning neighbors or other reliable third parties when a person could not be reached at home, which reduced the cost of follow-up visits. Census data for about 22% of U. S. househol
Memphis is a city located along the Mississippi River in southwestern Shelby County, United States. The 2017 city population was 652,236, making Memphis the largest city on the Mississippi River, second-largest city in Tennessee, as well as the 25th largest city in the United States. Greater Memphis is the 42nd largest metropolitan area in the United States, with a population of 1,348,260 in 2017; the city is the anchor of West Tennessee and the greater Mid-South region, which includes portions of neighboring Arkansas and Mississippi. Memphis is the seat of the most populous county in Tennessee; as one of the most historic and cultural cities of the southern United States, the city features a wide variety of landscapes and distinct neighborhoods. The first European explorer to visit the area of present-day Memphis was Spanish conquistador Hernando de Soto in 1541 with his expedition into the New World; the high bluffs protecting the location from the waters of the Mississippi would be contested between the Spanish and the English as Memphis took shape.
Modern Memphis was founded in 1819 by three prominent Americans: John Overton, James Winchester, future president Andrew Jackson. Memphis grew into one of the largest cities of the Antebellum South as a market for agricultural goods, natural resources like lumber, the American slave trade. After the American Civil War and the end of slavery, the city experienced faster growth into the 20th century as it became among the largest world markets for cotton and lumber. Home to Tennessee's largest African-American population, Memphis played a prominent role in the American civil rights movement and was the site of Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr.'s 1968 assassination. The city now hosts the National Civil Rights Museum—a Smithsonian affiliate institution. Since the civil rights era, Memphis has grown to become one of the nation's leading commercial centers in transportation and logistics; the city's largest employer is the multinational courier corporation FedEx, which maintains its global air hub at Memphis International Airport, making it the second-busiest cargo airport in the world.
Today, Memphis is a regional center for commerce, media and entertainment. The city has long had a prominent music scene, with historic blues clubs on Beale Street originating the unique Memphis blues sound during early 20th century; the city's music has continued to be shaped by a multi-cultural mix of influences across the blues, rock n' roll and hip-hop genres. Memphis barbecue has achieved international prominence, the city hosts the World Championship Barbecue Cooking Contest, which attracts over 100,000 visitors to the city annually. Occupying a substantial bluff rising from the Mississippi River, the site of Memphis has been a natural location for human settlement by varying cultures over thousands of years; the area was known to be settled in the first millennium A. D. by people of the Mississippian Culture, who had a network of communities throughout the Mississippi River Valley and its tributaries. They built complexes with large earthwork ceremonial and burial mounds as expressions of their sophisticated culture.
The historic Chickasaw Indian tribe, believed to be their descendants occupied the site. French explorers led by René-Robert Cavelier, Sieur de La Salle and Spanish explorer Hernando de Soto encountered the Chickasaw tribe in that area in the 16th century. J. D. L. Holmes, writing in Hudson's Four Centuries of Southern Indians, notes that this site was a third strategic point in the late 18th century through which European powers could control United States encroachment and their interference with Indian matters—after Fort Nogales and Fort Confederación: "... Chickasaw Bluffs, located on the Mississippi River at the present-day location of Memphis. Spain and the United States vied for control of this site, a favorite of the Chickasaws."In 1795 the Spanish Governor-General of Louisiana, Francisco Luis Héctor de Carondelet sent his Lieutenant Governor, Manuel Gayoso de Lemos, to negotiate and secure consent from the local Chickasaw so that a Spanish fort could be erected on the bluff. Holmes notes that consent was reached despite opposition from "disappointed Americans and a pro-American faction of the Chickasaws", when the "pro-Spanish faction signed the Chickasaw Bluffs Cession and Spain provided the Chickasaws with a trading post…".
Fort San Fernando de las Barrancas remained a focal point of Spanish activity until, as Holmes summarizes: he Treaty of San Lorenzo or Pinckney's Treaty of 1795, all of the careful, diplomatic work by Spanish officials in Louisiana and West Florida, which has succeeded for a decade in controlling the Indians, was undone. The United States gained the right to navigate the Mississippi River and won control over the Yazoo Strip north of the thirty-first parallel; the Spanish dismantled the fort, shipping its iron to their locations in Arkansas. In 1796, the site became the westernmost point of the newly admitted state of Tennessee, located in what was called the Southwest United States; the area was still occupied and controlled by the Chickasaw nation. Captain Isaac Guion led an American force down the Ohio River to claim the land, arriving on July 20, 1797. By this time, the Spanish had departed; the fort's ruins went unnoticed twenty years when Memphis was laid out as a city, after the United States government paid the Chickasaw for land.
The city of Memphis was founded on May 22, 1819 by John Overton, James Winchester and Andrew Jackson. They named it after the ancient capita
Lauderdale County, Tennessee
Lauderdale County is a county located on the western edge of the U. S. state of Tennessee, with its border the Mississippi River. As of the 2010 census, the population was 27,815, its county seat is Ripley. Since the antebellum years, it has been developed for cotton as a major commodity crop. Lauderdale County was created in 1835 from parts of Tipton and Haywood counties, it was named for Lieutenant Colonel James Lauderdale, killed at the Battle of New Orleans in the War of 1812. Planters developed large cotton plantations along the waterways, used enslaved African Americans in gangs to work and process this commodity crop. After the American Civil War, many freedmen stayed in the area, working the land as sharecroppers or tenant farmers. Whites used violence to enforce white supremacy after the war. In the period after Reconstruction and into the early 20th century, whites in Lauderdale County committed eight lynchings of blacks; this was the fifth-highest total of any county in the state, but three other counties had eight lynchings each in this period.
In 1861, the Confederate States Army built extensive defensive fortifications in Lauderdale County along the Mississippi River and named the site for General Gideon J. Pillow; because of its strategic location, the fort was taken over by the Union Army in 1864, which had occupied the state since 1862. In 1864, Confederates attacked and overran the fort's Union defenders, who were about evenly split between white and black soldiers, they were reported to have refused to surrender. The Confederates gave the soldiers no quarter, killed black soldiers in twice the proportion of white ones. After the Union Army established the United States Colored Troops, made up of numerous recruits who were escaped slaves, Southern military officials vowed to kill them rather than take them prisoner. People in the North considered this event to be a massacre, blacks in the Union Army used the cry, "Remember Fort Pillow!" to rally during the remainder of the war. Fort Pillow State Park has a museum to interpret the battle and has reconstructed fortifications on the original site of the fort.
According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 508 square miles, of which 472 square miles is land and 36 square miles is water; the county's western boundary is formed by the Mississippi River, its northern boundary with Dyer County is formed by the Forked Deer River, its southern boundary with Haywood County is formed by the Hatchie River. Lauderdale County is situated on the southeastern edge of the New Madrid Seismic Zone, an area with a high earthquake risk. Dyer County Crockett County Haywood County Tipton County Mississippi County, Arkansas Chickasaw National Wildlife Refuge Lower Hatchie National Wildlife Refuge Cold Creek Wildlife Management Area Fort Pillow State Park Alex Haley House and Museum Sunk Lake State Natural Area John Tully State Forest John Tully Wildlife Management Area Future Interstate 69 U. S. Highway 51 Tennessee State Route 19 Tennessee State Route 87 Tennessee State Route 88 Tennessee State Route 180 Tennessee State Route 181 Tennessee State Route 371 As of the census of 2000, there were 27,101 people, 9,567 households, 6,811 families residing in the county.
The population density was 58 people per square mile. There were 10,563 housing units at an average density of 22 per square mile; the racial makeup of the county was 63.82% White, 34.08% Black or African American, 0.62% Native American, 0.16% Asian, 0.02% Pacific Islander, 0.52% from other races, 0.78% from two or more races. 1.16% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. There were 9,567 households out of which 32.80% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 49.70% were married couples living together, 17.60% had a female householder with no husband present, 28.80% were non-families. 25.60% of all households were made up of individuals and 11.10% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.55 and the average family size was 3.06. In the county, the population was spread out with 24.80% under the age of 18, 10.30% from 18 to 24, 31.20% from 25 to 44, 21.70% from 45 to 64, 12.10% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 35 years.
For every 100 females there were 108.10 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 109.00 males. The median income for a household in the county was $29,751, the median income for a family was $36,841. Males had a median income of $28,325 versus $21,238 for females; the per capita income for the county was $13,682. About 16.20% of families and 19.20% of the population were below the poverty line, including 24.70% of those under age 18 and 26.50% of those age 65 or over. Sleepy John Estes was a U. S. blues guitarist and vocalist, born in Ripley, Tennessee. He died on June 5, 1977 in his home of 17 years in Haywood County, Tennessee. Sleepy John is buried at Elam Baptist Church Cemetery in Lauderdale County; the Veterans' Museum on the grounds of the former Dyersburg Army Air Base in Halls is dedicated to the preservation and documentation of materials related to military activities from World War I to the present day wars and conflicts, as well as documenting the history of the air base itself.
The Tennessee Department of Corrections operates the West Tennessee State Penitentiary in unincorporated Lauderdale County, near Henning. The Cold Creek Correctional Facility was located in the area. Ripley Gates Halls Henning Sleepy John Estes, blues guitarist born in Ripley Alex Haley -
Mississippi County, Arkansas
Mississippi County is a county located in the U. S. state of Arkansas. As of the 2010 census, the population was 46,480. There are two county seats and Osceola; the county was formed on November 1, 1833, named for the Mississippi River which borders the county to the east. Mississippi County is part of the First Congressional District in Arkansas; the Mississippi County Judge is John Alan Nelson. The Blytheville, AR Micropolitan Statistical Area includes all of Mississippi County. Jefferson W. Speck, a Mississippi County planter, was the Republican gubernatorial nominee in 1950 and 1952. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 920 square miles, of which 901 square miles is land and 19 square miles is water. Big Lake National Wildlife Refuge As of the 2010 census, there were 46,480 people residing in the county; the racial makeup of the county was 60.5% White, 33.9% Black, 0.3% Native American, 0.5% Asian, <0.0% Pacific Islander, 0.1% from some other race and 1.2% from two or more races.
3.6% were Hispanic or Latino of any race. As of the 2000 census, there were 51,979 people, 19,349 households, 13,911 families residing in the county; the population density was 58 people per square mile. There were 22,310 housing units at an average density of 25 per square mile; the racial makeup of the county was 64.45% White, 32.70% Black or African American, 0.26% Native American, 0.38% Asian, 0.03% Pacific Islander, 1.07% from other races, 1.12% from two or more races. 2.25% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. There were 19,349 households out of which 36.00% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 50.00% were married couples living together, 17.40% had a female householder with no husband present, 28.10% were non-families. 24.70% of all households were made up of individuals and 10.70% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.64 and the average family size was 3.15. In the county, the population was spread out with 29.60% under the age of 18, 9.90% from 18 to 24, 27.50% from 25 to 44, 20.80% from 45 to 64, 12.20% who were 65 years of age or older.
The median age was 33 years. For every 100 females there were 91.80 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 87.70 males. The median income for a household in the county was $27,479, the median income for a family was $32,648. Males had a median income of $29,645 versus $19,782 for females; the per capita income for the county was $13,978. About 19.00% of families and 23.00% of the population were below the poverty line, including 31.10% of those under age 18 and 19.80% of those age 65 or over. While a traditionally Democratic area, Mississippi County has voted Republican in the past three presidential elections. Mississippi County is home to the following public school districts, listed in order of student population: Blytheville School District Osceola School District Gosnell School District Southern Mississippi County School District Manila School District Buffalo Island Central School District Armorel School DistrictThe following school districts are based outside of the county but serve portions: East Poinsett County School District KIPP: Delta Public Schools Nettleton School District Mississippi County is served by the Mississippi–Crittenden Regional Library System, which includes the Mississippi County Library System and 13 branch libraries in communities throughout the county.
FM FM 88.3 KBCM Blytheville FM 93.9 KAMJ Gosnell FM 96.3 KHLS Blytheville FM 103.7 KAIA K279BJ Blytheville FM 107.3 KQXF OsceolaAM AM 860 KOSE Wilson NEA Town Courier, Blytheville, Arkansas The Osceola Times, Osceola, Arkansas There are no television stations in Mississippi County, Arkansas. Mississippi County, Arkansas is placed in TN Television Market; those stations include: ABC- WATN 24 NBC- WMC 5 CBS- WREG 3 Fox- WHBQ 13 PBS- WKNO 10 CW- WLMT 30 Ion WPXX 50However some residents in county may watch stations from the Jackson, TN, Jonesboro, AR, or Little Rock, AR Television Markets. Blytheville Gosnell Joiner Keiser Leachville Manila Osceola Townships in Arkansas are the divisions of a county; each township includes unincorporated areas. Arkansas townships have limited purposes in modern times. However, the United States Census does list Arkansas population based on townships. Townships are of value for historical purposes in terms of genealogical research; each town or city is within one or more townships in an Arkansas county based on census maps and publications.
The townships of Mississippi County are listed below. Island 35 Mastodon List of lakes in Mississippi County, Arkansas National Register of Historic Places listings in Mississippi County, Arkansas "Mississippi. I. A N. E. county of Arkansas". The American Cyclopædia. 1879
Tornado outbreak of April 2, 2006
The Tornado outbreak of April 2, 2006 was a series of tornadoes that occurred during the late afternoon and evening of April 2, 2006, in the central United States. It was the second major outbreak of 2006, in the same area that suffered considerable destruction in a previous outbreak on March 11 and March 12, as well as an outbreak on November 15, 2005; the most notable tornadoes of the outbreak struck northeastern Arkansas, the Missouri Bootheel, West Tennessee, where several communities – including Marmaduke, Caruthersville and Newbern, Tennessee suffered devastating damage. In total, 66 tornadoes touched down across seven states, the most in a single day in 2006. In addition, there were over 850 total severe weather reports, including many reports of straight-line winds exceeding hurricane force and hail as large as softballs, which caused significant additional damage in a nine-state region; the outbreak was a deadly one. It was the deadliest tornado outbreak in the United States since the May 2003 tornado outbreak sequence in the first week of May 2003, which killed 48 people.
Twenty-six of those deaths were caused by a single supercell thunderstorm which produced damaging and long lived tornadoes from north central Arkansas into northwest Tennessee. The outbreak was caused by a cold front that tracked across the central United States, triggered by a deep low pressure area in the Upper Midwest; the warm humid air mass ahead of the cold front, along with high upper-level wind shear, produced supercells across the region. The outbreak was expected to have started the previous day in the High Plains as the cold front tracked across that region; the supercells didn't fire up as expected and only one small tornado was reported in Pawnee County, Kansas on April 1. Severe weather that day was restricted to significant microbursts and large hail; the Storm Prediction Center issued a moderate risk of severe weather for April 2, with the main risks being tornadoes and large hail. The primary risk area was the central Mississippi Valley and lower Ohio Valley up to central Illinois, where most of the tornadoes touched down.
Many tornado watches – if not any PDS watches – were issued across the region. While a significant severe weather event was expected, the extreme nature caught many forecasters by surprise, based on the risk levels and the probabilities estimated by the SPC in the area affected. Farther north, the initial thunderstorm development in eastern Missouri developed into a squall line becoming a derecho that produced many embedded – and weak – tornadoes and widespread wind damage across Illinois, Indiana and Ohio. Springfield, struck by two tornadoes less than a month earlier, was hit again by tornadoes and damaging straight-line winds of up to 80 miles per hour, as was the St. Louis, Missouri area; the storm tracked through Indiana and Kentucky with a peak wind gust of 82 miles per hour in Lexington, Kentucky. Wind damage was reported in the areas Cincinnati, Louisville and Indianapolis, Indiana among other cities; the line of storms weakened while travelong eastward, the severe weather events dissipated that evening.
The most infamous tornado of the outbreak touched down in Randolph County, Arkansas just south of Pocahontas. The tornado first struck the small community of Shannon at F1 intensity. 3 businesses and 5 homes were destroyed. Another two businesses and two homes had major damage, 18 other homes had minor damage. Past Shannon, the tornado intensified into a large high-end F3 as it crossed into Greene County and slammed into the town of Marmaduke; the town was devastated, with 25 mobile homes being destroyed. A pharmacy and some industrial buildings were destroyed, the town's water tower was damaged. Multiple vehicles were tossed around, 15 railroad cars were blown off of the tracks as well. 47 people were injured in town. Outside of town, 19 homes and 11 mobile homes were destroyed. In addition, seven houses and two mobile homes had major damage in the county. A car was thrown 80 yards from one residence well; the tornado crossed the St. Francis River into Dunklin County, where it displayed a multiple-vortex structure.
7 homes were destroyed and 33 others were damaged in rural portions of the county. Multiple power poles were downed as well; the tornado crossed into Pemiscot County, struck the town of Braggadocio at F2 intensity. The tornado's only two fatalities occurred at that location when a couple was killed in their car as they tried to flee from the tornado; the tornado re-intensified to a high-end F3 as it tore through the neighboring town of Caruthersville, destroying half of the community and injuring 130 people. 226 homes were destroyed, 542 others were damaged in town. The town's water tower, municipal airport, several churches, Caruthersville High School and Middle School, multiple businesses were destroyed as well; the tornado abruptly dissipated just outside town after traveling 77 miles. Six months after the tornado, debris remained scattered throughout Marmaduke. Many homes and businesses had been rebuilt; the Marmaduke water tower, damaged, was torn down shortly after the tornado. The primary employer in the area, American Railcar Industries, rebuilt its facility and returned it to operational status.
On August 29, 2006, Caruthersville Emergency Manager and Fire Chief Charlie Jones was awarded the StormReady Community Hero Award for his actions preve
Native Americans in the United States
Native Americans known as American Indians, Indigenous Americans and other terms, are the indigenous peoples of the United States, except Hawaii. There are over 500 federally recognized tribes within the US, about half of which are associated with Indian reservations; the term "American Indian" excludes Native Hawaiians and some Alaska Natives, while Native Americans are American Indians, plus Alaska Natives of all ethnicities. Native Hawaiians are not counted as Native Americans by the US Census, instead being included in the Census grouping of "Native Hawaiian and other Pacific Islander"; the ancestors of modern Native Americans arrived in what is now the United States at least 15,000 years ago much earlier, from Asia via Beringia. A vast variety of peoples and cultures subsequently developed. Native Americans were affected by the European colonization of the Americas, which began in 1492, their population declined precipitously due to introduced diseases as well as warfare, territorial confiscation and slavery.
After the founding of the United States, many Native American peoples were subjected to warfare and one-sided treaties, they continued to suffer from discriminatory government policies into the 20th century. Since the 1960s, Native American self-determination movements have resulted in changes to the lives of Native Americans, though there are still many contemporary issues faced by Native Americans. Today, there are over five million Native Americans in the United States, 78% of whom live outside reservations; when the United States was created, established Native American tribes were considered semi-independent nations, as they lived in communities separate from British settlers. The federal government signed treaties at a government-to-government level until the Indian Appropriations Act of 1871 ended recognition of independent native nations, started treating them as "domestic dependent nations" subject to federal law; this law did preserve the rights and privileges agreed to under the treaties, including a large degree of tribal sovereignty.
For this reason, many Native American reservations are still independent of state law and actions of tribal citizens on these reservations are subject only to tribal courts and federal law. The Indian Citizenship Act of 1924 granted U. S. citizenship to all Native Americans born in the United States. This emptied the "Indians not taxed" category established by the United States Constitution, allowed natives to vote in state and federal elections, extended the Fourteenth Amendment protections granted to people "subject to the jurisdiction" of the United States. However, some states continued to deny Native Americans voting rights for several decades. Bill of Rights protections do not apply to tribal governments, except for those mandated by the Indian Civil Rights Act of 1968. Since the end of the 15th century, the migration of Europeans to the Americas has led to centuries of population and agricultural transfer and adjustment between Old and New World societies, a process known as the Columbian exchange.
As most Native American groups had preserved their histories by oral traditions and artwork, the first written sources of the conflict were written by Europeans. Ethnographers classify the indigenous peoples of North America into ten geographical regions with shared cultural traits, called cultural areas; some scholars combine the Plateau and Great Basin regions into the Intermontane West, some separate Prairie peoples from Great Plains peoples, while some separate Great Lakes tribes from the Northeastern Woodlands. The ten cultural areas are as follows: Arctic, including Aleut and Yupik peoples Subarctic Northeastern Woodlands Southeastern Woodlands Great Plains Great Basin Northwest Plateau Northwest Coast California Southwest At the time of the first contact, the indigenous cultures were quite different from those of the proto-industrial and Christian immigrants; some Northeastern and Southwestern cultures, in particular, were matrilineal and operated on a more collective basis than that with which Europeans were familiar.
The majority of Indigenous American tribes maintained their hunting grounds and agricultural lands for use of the entire tribe. Europeans at that time had patriarchal cultures and had developed concepts of individual property rights with respect to land that were different; the differences in cultures between the established Native Americans and immigrant Europeans, as well as shifting alliances among different nations in times of war, caused extensive political tension, ethnic violence, social disruption. Before the European settlement of what is now the United States, Native Americans suffered high fatalities from contact with new European diseases, to which they had not yet acquired immunity. Smallpox epidemics are thought to have caused the greatest loss of life for indigenous populations. William M Denevan, noted author and Professor Emeritus of Geography at the University of Wisconsin-Madison, said on this subject in his essay "The Pristine Myth: The Landscape of the Americas in 1492".
Old World diseases were the primary killer. In many regions the tropical lowlands, populations fell by 90 percent or more in the first century after the contact. "Estimates of the pre-Columbian population of what today constitutes the U. S. vary ranging from William M Denevan's 3.8 million in his 1992 w
Missouri is a state in the Midwestern United States. With over six million residents, it is the 18th-most populous state of the Union; the largest urban areas are St. Louis, Kansas City and Columbia; the state is the 21st-most extensive in area. In the South are the Ozarks, a forested highland, providing timber and recreation; the Missouri River, after which the state is named, flows through the center of the state into the Mississippi River, which makes up Missouri's eastern border. Humans have inhabited the land now known as Missouri for at least 12,000 years; the Mississippian culture built mounds, before declining in the 14th century. When European explorers arrived in the 17th century they encountered the Osage and Missouria nations; the French established Louisiana, a part of New France, founded Ste. Genevieve in 1735 and St. Louis in 1764. After a brief period of Spanish rule, the United States acquired the Louisiana Purchase in 1803. Americans from the Upland South, including enslaved African Americans, rushed into the new Missouri Territory.
Missouri was admitted as a slave state as part of the Missouri Compromise. Many from Virginia and Tennessee settled in the Boonslick area of Mid-Missouri. Soon after, heavy German immigration formed the Missouri Rhineland. Missouri played a central role in the westward expansion of the United States, as memorialized by the Gateway Arch; the Pony Express, Oregon Trail, Santa Fe Trail, California Trail all began in Missouri. As a border state, Missouri's role in the American Civil War was complex and there were many conflicts within. After the war, both Greater St. Louis and the Kansas City metropolitan area became centers of industrialization and business. Today, the state is divided into the independent city of St. Louis. Missouri's culture blends elements from Southern United States; the musical styles of ragtime, Kansas City jazz, St. Louis Blues developed in Missouri; the well-known Kansas City-style barbecue, lesser-known St. Louis-style barbecue, can be found across the state and beyond. Missouri is a major center of beer brewing.
Missouri wine is produced in Ozarks. Missouri's alcohol laws are among the most permissive in the United States. Outside of the state's major cities, popular tourist destinations include the Lake of the Ozarks, Table Rock Lake, Branson. Well-known Missourians include U. S. President Harry S. Truman, Mark Twain, Walt Disney, Chuck Berry, Nelly; some of the largest companies based in the state include Cerner, Express Scripts, Emerson Electric, Edward Jones, H&R Block, Wells Fargo Advisors, O'Reilly Auto Parts. Missouri has been called the "Mother of the West" and the "Cave State"; the state is named for the Missouri River, named after the indigenous Missouri Indians, a Siouan-language tribe. It is said that they were called the ouemessourita, meaning "those who have dugout canoes", by the Miami-Illinois language speakers; this appears to be folk etymology—the Illinois spoke an Algonquian language and the closest approximation that can be made in that of their close neighbors, the Ojibwe, is "You Ought to Go Downriver & Visit Those People."
This would be an odd occurrence, as the French who first explored and attempted to settle the Mississippi River got their translations during that time accurate giving things French names that were exact translations of the native tongue. Assuming Missouri were deriving from the Siouan language, it would translate as "It connects to the side of it," in reference to the river itself; this is not likely either, as this would be coming out as "Maya Sunni" Most though, the name Missouri comes from Chiwere, a Siouan language spoken by people who resided in the modern day states of Wisconsin, South Dakota, Missouri & Nebraska. The name "Missouri" has several different pronunciations among its present-day natives, the two most common being and. Further pronunciations exist in Missouri or elsewhere in the United States, involving the realization of the first syllable as either or. Any combination of these phonetic realizations may be observed coming from speakers of American English; the linguistic history was treated definitively by Donald M. Lance, who acknowledged that the question is sociologically complex, but that no pronunciation could be declared "correct", nor could any be defined as native or outsider, rural or urban, southern or northern, educated or otherwise.
Politicians employ multiple pronunciations during a single speech, to appeal to a greater number of listeners. Informal respellings of the state's name, such as "Missour-ee" or "Missour-uh", are used informally to phonetically distinguish pronunciations. There is no official state nickname. However, Missouri's unofficial nickname is the "Show Me State"; this phrase has several origins. One is popularly ascribed to a speech by Congressman Willard Vandiver in 1899, who declared that "I come from a state that raises corn and cotton and Democrats, frothy eloquence neither convinces nor satisfies me. I'm from Missouri, you have got to show me." This is in keeping with the saying "I'm from Missouri" which means "I'm skeptical of the matter and not convinced." However, according to researchers, the phrase "show me" was in use