Scotia is a census-designated place in Humboldt County, California. It is located 8.5 miles south-southeast of Fortuna, at an elevation of 194 feet, the population was 850 at the 2010 census. Scotia is a town which was previously wholly owned by the Pacific Lumber Company. While it is home to approximately 800 past or present mill employees and their dependents, via U. S. Route 101, the town is 28 miles south of Eureka, California and 244 miles north of San Francisco. Scotia was founded in 1863 as Forestville and it was renamed 25 years because another community in California had a similar name. It is said that because it was populated by residents who originated from New Brunswick and Nova Scotia, the name Scotia was chosen by a coin toss. At the time of its founding, Scotia was just one of many towns across the Pacific Northwest. Early economic development started in 1883 when the Pacific Lumber Company started construction on a mill, however, was one of a relative handful of company towns to survive this period.
Most of the houses were built between the 1920s and 1950s. The first post office at Scotia opened in 1888, the Humboldt Bay and Eel River Railroad connected Scotia to Humboldt Bay in 1885. The town was formed following the flood of 1861-1862, that flood level was not observed again until 1955. The Eel River crested at a height of 72 feet on 23 December 1964. The 1992 Cape Mendocino earthquakes caused widespread damage in Humboldt County, including Scotia, the first was a magnitude 7.2 quake at 11,06 p. m. on April 25, causing mill damage that took months to repair. The second quake at 12,41 a. m. on April 26, a fire, starting in Hobys Market, burning the entire shopping center down. Fire crews, who were en route to North Court in response to a gas leak from a house falling and breaking a gas line, fought the fire the rest of the night and this earthquake cause extensive damage to the North Court area of Scotia with numerous homes damaged. Pacific Gas & Electric responded to repair the gas line in North Court while all the residents were sequestered on a hill the entire night.
The third quake at 4,26 a. m. on April 26, measuring 6.7, the town was without water and electricity for some time. PALCO rebuilt the entire shopping center, PALCO announced in 2006 a desire to sell the homes and commercial property
Loleta is a census-designated place in Humboldt County, California which derives its name from lalōekā, the Wiyot name for the trail on the top of Table Bluff. Loleta is located 5.5 miles south of Fields Landing, the population was 783 at the 2010 census. Residents live in a community area and rural outskirts. There are two separate Native American reservations on the outskirts of Table Bluff, California. The ZIP Code is 95551, and the community is inside area code 707, european settlement began in the early 1850s although Wiyot people had inhabited the area for generations. Potato farming was the biggest agricultural use of land until the 1870s, the town was originally known as Swauger or Swaugers Station, for local landowner Samuel A. Swauger. The town was renamed Loleta in 1897, however, a 1918 list of place names collected by Kroeber and Waterman two years after Kroebers 1916 publication shows that the trail from Table Bluff along the peak of that feature was named lalōekā. The Eel River and Eureka Railroad reached Swaugers Station from Humboldt Bay in 1883, the Swauger post office opened in 1888, and changed its name to Loleta in 1898.
The Humboldt Creamery plant opened in the town proper in 1893, in the early years of the 20th century, fish buyers from San Francisco congregated in Loleta every fall to bid on the salmon catch, which averaged $50,000. The Aleutian Cackling Goose has in recent years extended its spring staging area to Loleta, flocks of over 400 individual birds may be seen in March. The 2010 United States Census reported that Loleta had a population of 783, the population density was 368.5 people per square mile. The racial makeup of Loleta was 643 White,12 African American,16 Native American,5 Asian,0 Pacific Islander,65 from other races, hispanic or Latino of any race were 114 persons. The Census reported that 783 people lived in households,0 lived in non-institutionalized group quarters, there were 40 unmarried opposite-sex partnerships, and 4 same-sex married couples or partnerships. 97 households were made up of individuals and 21 had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older, the average household size was 2.49.
There were 181 families, the family size was 3.17. The median age was 36.5 years, for every 100 females there were 90.0 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 83.7 males, there were 341 housing units at an average density of 160.5 per square mile, of which 178 were owner-occupied, and 136 were occupied by renters. The homeowner vacancy rate was 2. 7%, the vacancy rate was 4. 2%
Carlotta is an unincorporated community in Humboldt County, California. It is located 6.5 miles southeast of Fortuna, at an elevation of 131 feet, Carlotta is named after Carlotta Vance, daughter of John M. Vance, who laid out the town as a summer resort. The first post office at Carlotta opened in 1903, at that time, it had several cottages, a hotel, store and saloon. Around 1915, a farm at Carlotta was converted into a branch of Cottage Garden Nurseries, a company headquartered in New York. The hotel was essentially unchanged in 1975 which the National Register application form was filed and it was 36 by 80 feet with a kitchen annex which burned down in 1974. The hotel was three high with dormers on a hip roof, wood shingle on the upper two stories but board and batten below. A veranda with gingerbread features ran the length of the face. Both ends had brick chimneys on the outside, the building was one of several resorts on the Overland Stage Route, todays Route 36. The hotel was known for popular Sunday dinners, Fourth of July celebrations and games, the Vance family sold the town of Carlotta to local investors, including two of the local shopkeepers, in December 1921.
The Matteucci family operated the hotel and restaurant for about 30 years, the Carlotta Hotel was nominated to the National Register of Historic Places for significant architecture, little change since construction and a representative of roadside hotels. The town and hotel were sold to Angelo Batini in 1977 who reopened the Carlotta Hotel in 1984, the hotel and restaurant operated until an electrical fire in the mid-1990s destroyed the building. In 2006, the two abandoned mills were standing, but most of Carlottas residents commute to Fortuna or Eureka for work. The town is adjacent to Yager Creek which joins the Van Duzen slightly downstream from Carlotta, the community is inside area code 707. The nearest airport is the Rohnerville Airport in Fortuna, Carlotta is the seat of the Cuddeback Union School District, and home of the Cuddeback School, a public K-8 school located just off Route 36. In the state legislature, Carlotta is in the 2nd Senate District, represented by Democrat Mike McGuire, Carlotta is in Californias 2nd congressional district, represented by Democrat Jared Huffman.
Robert F. Fisher lived in Carlotta from 1912 until his death in 1969 and he served as California State Assemblyman for Humboldt County from 1926 to 1932 and was the last surviving serviceman of the Spanish–American War in Humboldt County. In February 2003, the town was put up for sale on Ebay
Garberville is a census-designated place in Humboldt County, California. It is located on the South Fork of the Eel River 52 miles south-southeast of Eureka, the population was 913 at the 2010 United States Census. It is approximately 200 miles north of San Francisco and within a fifteen-minute drive to Humboldt Redwoods State Park and a drive to Eureka. Garberville is the town in the area known as the Mateel Region, consisting of parts of the Mattole and Eel River watersheds in southern Humboldt. Prior to recorded history the area was populated by southern Sinkyone people, in 1853 a Spanish explorer, Antone Garcia, settled in the area near Town Gulch, which runs through modern-day Garberville. The first post office in Garberville opened in 1874, jacob C. Garber the town postmaster named the town after himself in 1879. Garberville is located at 40°06′01″N 123°47′42″W, the town is stretched out in a small forested valley bisected by U. S. Route 101, at an elevation of 535 feet. The nearby Kings Peak rises to 4,087 feet, the Köppen Climate Classification subtype for this climate is Csb. characterized by cold, rainy winters and hot, dry summers.
The 2010 United States Census reported that Garberville had a population of 913, the population density was 330.5 people per square mile. The racial makeup of Garberville was 815 White,14 African American,29 Native American,17 Asian,0 Pacific Islander,7 from other races, hispanic or Latino of any race were 54 persons. The Census reported that 785 people lived in households,128 lived in non-institutionalized group quarters, there were 50 unmarried opposite-sex partnerships, and 5 same-sex married couples or partnerships. 172 households were made up of individuals and 49 had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older, the average household size was 2.01. There were 182 families, the family size was 2.69. The median age was 40.0 years, for every 100 females there were 109.9 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 105.2 males, there were 434 housing units at an average density of 157.1 per square mile, of which 175 were owner-occupied, and 215 were occupied by renters.
The homeowner vacancy rate was 2. 2%, the vacancy rate was 2. 3%. 388 people lived in owner-occupied housing units and 397 people lived in housing units. The main street of Garberville, U. S. Business 101 is lined with shops, gas stations, grocery store and the only movie house in the area
International Standard Book Number
The International Standard Book Number is a unique numeric commercial book identifier. An ISBN is assigned to each edition and variation of a book, for example, an e-book, a paperback and a hardcover edition of the same book would each have a different ISBN. The ISBN is 13 digits long if assigned on or after 1 January 2007, the method of assigning an ISBN is nation-based and varies from country to country, often depending on how large the publishing industry is within a country. The initial ISBN configuration of recognition was generated in 1967 based upon the 9-digit Standard Book Numbering created in 1966, the 10-digit ISBN format was developed by the International Organization for Standardization and was published in 1970 as international standard ISO2108. Occasionally, a book may appear without a printed ISBN if it is printed privately or the author does not follow the usual ISBN procedure, this can be rectified later. Another identifier, the International Standard Serial Number, identifies periodical publications such as magazines, the ISBN configuration of recognition was generated in 1967 in the United Kingdom by David Whitaker and in 1968 in the US by Emery Koltay.
The 10-digit ISBN format was developed by the International Organization for Standardization and was published in 1970 as international standard ISO2108, the United Kingdom continued to use the 9-digit SBN code until 1974. The ISO on-line facility only refers back to 1978, an SBN may be converted to an ISBN by prefixing the digit 0. For example, the edition of Mr. J. G. Reeder Returns, published by Hodder in 1965, has SBN340013818 -340 indicating the publisher,01381 their serial number. This can be converted to ISBN 0-340-01381-8, the check digit does not need to be re-calculated, since 1 January 2007, ISBNs have contained 13 digits, a format that is compatible with Bookland European Article Number EAN-13s. An ISBN is assigned to each edition and variation of a book, for example, an ebook, a paperback, and a hardcover edition of the same book would each have a different ISBN. The ISBN is 13 digits long if assigned on or after 1 January 2007, a 13-digit ISBN can be separated into its parts, and when this is done it is customary to separate the parts with hyphens or spaces.
Separating the parts of a 10-digit ISBN is done with either hyphens or spaces, figuring out how to correctly separate a given ISBN number is complicated, because most of the parts do not use a fixed number of digits. ISBN issuance is country-specific, in that ISBNs are issued by the ISBN registration agency that is responsible for country or territory regardless of the publication language. Some ISBN registration agencies are based in national libraries or within ministries of culture, in other cases, the ISBN registration service is provided by organisations such as bibliographic data providers that are not government funded. In Canada, ISBNs are issued at no cost with the purpose of encouraging Canadian culture. In the United Kingdom, United States, and some countries, where the service is provided by non-government-funded organisations. Australia, ISBNs are issued by the library services agency Thorpe-Bowker
Fieldbrook is a census-designated place in Humboldt County, California. It is located 7 miles north-northeast of Arcata, at an elevation of 203 feet, the population was 859 at the 2010 census. Fieldbrook is located on Californias North Coast, approximately 300 miles north of San Francisco and 65 miles south of the Oregon state line, located on the edge of the dense redwood forest, the area was once home to thriving lumber companies. The community is inside area code 707, Fieldbrook is located at the right-angle bend where Murray Road becomes Fieldbrook Road. In the mid-1990s Fieldbrook was a sleepy country hamlet, with junk cars sitting in weedy yards along the main road in one block. Sprawling ranch-style homes on isolated 5-acre lots wedged between timber tracts are selling for $500,000, and at least one 40-acre timber tract has become a gated community. The road connects there with State Highway 299, a rather adventurous winding route that crosses the mountains and connects with Interstate 5 in Redding, Fieldbrook is very nearly on the north bank of the Mad River, which flows into the Pacific Ocean between Arcata and McKinleyville.
Although the Mad River supplies the water to much of Humboldt Countys population, the north side of Fieldbrook Road is second-growth redwood forest with the occasional clearing for a house, and the logging rules allow the forest canopy to maintain a height of 200 to 300 feet. The region abounds with wildlife and residents routinely find deer and elk grazing in their yards and raccoons digging through their garbage, a post office operated at Fieldbrook from 1902 to 1932. In the late 1800s to early 1900s much of Fieldbrook was owned by Lumber Companies, railroad lines ran through Fieldbrook to Humboldt Bay. Fieldbrook is the seat of the Fieldbrook Elementary School District, and home of the Fieldbrook School, the 2010 United States Census reported that Fieldbrook had a population of 859. The population density was 82.0 people per square mile, the racial makeup of Fieldbrook was 763 White,4 African American,19 Native American,5 Asian,0 Pacific Islander,14 from other races, and 54 from two or more races.
Hispanic or Latino of any race were 51 persons, the Census reported that 859 people lived in households,0 lived in non-institutionalized group quarters, and 0 were institutionalized. There were 27 unmarried opposite-sex partnerships, and 8 same-sex married couples or partnerships,72 households were made up of individuals and 23 had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.48, there were 232 families, the average family size was 2.87. The median age was 47.0 years, for every 100 females there were 100.2 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 96.9 males, there were 377 housing units at an average density of 36.0 per square mile, of which 281 were owner-occupied, and 66 were occupied by renters. The homeowner vacancy rate was 0. 4%, the vacancy rate was 6. 8%
Trinidad is a seaside city in Humboldt County, located on the Pacific Ocean 8 miles north of the Arcata-Eureka Airport and 15 miles north of the college town of Arcata. Situated at an elevation of 174 feet above its own North Coast harbor, Trinidad is noted for its spectacular coastline with ten public beaches and offshore rocks, part of the California Coastal National Monument, of which Trinidad is a Gateway City. Fishing operations related to Trinidad Harbor are vital to local tourism and commercial fishery interests in the region. Before 1700 AD, Yurok people established the village of Tsurai on bluffs overlooking Trinidad Bay, the first European sighting of Trinidad Harbor was by the Manila galleon captain Sebastian Rodriguez Cermeño, who did not make landfall. The next visit was by Bruno de Heceta and Juan Francisco de la Bodega y Quadra of the Spanish Navy and their two ships anchored in Trinidad Bay on June 9,1775. On 11 June, which was Trinity Sunday, an act of possession was conducted.
At the place where a cross was erected stands a carved stone cross bearing the inscription. Carolus III Dei G. Hyspaniorum Rex. in the name of King Carlos of Spain, the area was named la Santisima Trinidad. Settlers arrived on the James R. Whitting in 1850 and founded the town, the first post office opened in Trinidad in 1851. Trinidad was the county seat of the eponymous Trinity County from 1850 to 1851. At that time Trinidad became part of the newly created Humboldt County after its creation in 1853, Klamath County was finally dissolved in 1874. Trinidad was incorporated in 1870 as a City of the State of California, USA. Trinidad resident Henry A. Boyes was a First Sergeant with the Fifth Marines in World War II, his service was described by Eugene Sledge in the book, With the Old Breed, At Peleliu and Okinawa. Part of the wreck scene in The Majestic was shot at College Cove Beach on 19 March 2001. Trinidad has a climate and is relatively temperate compared with inland areas. Annual temperatures range from approximately 40 °F to 60 °F, winter months are rainy with the average amount being around 50 inches, Although rain falls in all months of the year, it is less pronounced in the summertime.
Spring and fall cold fronts often form advection fog which pushes the marine layer towards the coast, in summer, low pressure troughs produced by intense heating inland can create strong pressure gradients pulling the marine layer ashore. Summer fogs, moderate precipitation, and mild temperatures are characteristic of Northern California coastal forests ecoregion and are vital to the growth of local Coast Redwood, protected stands of old growth redwoods can be visited 20 miles north of Trinidad, in Redwood National and State Parks
California is the most populous state in the United States and the third most extensive by area. Located on the western coast of the U. S, California is bordered by the other U. S. states of Oregon and Arizona and shares an international border with the Mexican state of Baja California. Los Angeles is Californias most populous city, and the second largest after New York City. The Los Angeles Area and the San Francisco Bay Area are the nations second- and fifth-most populous urban regions, California has the nations most populous county, Los Angeles County, and its largest county by area, San Bernardino County. The Central Valley, an agricultural area, dominates the states center. What is now California was first settled by various Native American tribes before being explored by a number of European expeditions during the 16th and 17th centuries, the Spanish Empire claimed it as part of Alta California in their New Spain colony. The area became a part of Mexico in 1821 following its war for independence.
The western portion of Alta California was organized as the State of California, the California Gold Rush starting in 1848 led to dramatic social and demographic changes, with large-scale emigration from the east and abroad with an accompanying economic boom. If it were a country, California would be the 6th largest economy in the world, fifty-eight percent of the states economy is centered on finance, real estate services and professional, scientific and technical business services. Although it accounts for only 1.5 percent of the states economy, the story of Calafia is recorded in a 1510 work The Adventures of Esplandián, written as a sequel to Amadis de Gaula by Spanish adventure writer Garci Rodríguez de Montalvo. The kingdom of Queen Calafia, according to Montalvo, was said to be a land inhabited by griffins and other strange beasts. This conventional wisdom that California was an island, with maps drawn to reflect this belief, shortened forms of the states name include CA, Cal. Calif. and US-CA.
Settled by successive waves of arrivals during the last 10,000 years, various estimates of the native population range from 100,000 to 300,000. The Indigenous peoples of California included more than 70 distinct groups of Native Americans, ranging from large, settled populations living on the coast to groups in the interior. California groups were diverse in their organization with bands, villages. Trade and military alliances fostered many social and economic relationships among the diverse groups, the first European effort to explore the coast as far north as the Russian River was a Spanish sailing expedition, led by Portuguese captain Juan Rodríguez Cabrillo, in 1542. Some 37 years English explorer Francis Drake explored and claimed a portion of the California coast in 1579. Spanish traders made unintended visits with the Manila galleons on their trips from the Philippines beginning in 1565
Camp Grant, California
Camp Grant is a ghost town in Humboldt County located on the South Fork Eel River 2 miles northeast of Weott and 3 miles east of Dyerville. It was originally settled by Northern Sinkyone people, followed by a Union Army camp and a logging, the area was formerly inhabited by Northern Sinkyone people whose main village, named IlhtcuntaHduñ was 3 miles downstream at the confluence of Bull Creek, named Dyerville. In early 1850, half of the Josiah Gregg expedition, including Lewis K. Wood who would found Arcata, the other half, including the dying Gregg, had tried to follow the coast road and failed. The rush of Euro-American settlers followed immediately north on the traditional, strenuous trails over Island Mountain, settlers bound for Eureka passed Camp Grant on their way north from the intersection of present-day U. S. Highway 101 and Cummings Creek, south of Leggett. This migration of Euro/Americans through an area without the resources to support the increase in population led to disease, indian Agent Redick McKees 1851 expedition brought a rush of homestead filings.
The resulting conflicts led to the establishment of organized vigilante committees such as the Volunteer Company of Dragoons, the Bald Hills War against the local Indians was waged during the American Civil War. Camp Grant was established on the Eel River,3 miles east of the confluence of the South Fork of the Eel with Bull Creek, Camp Grant was commanded by Captain John Y. Simpson with Company E, 1st Battalion of Mountaineers, California Volunteers as its garrison. During these operations they captured 166 Native Americans and sent them to the Round Valley Reservation in 1864, in August 1864 the Bald Hills War ended and Company E was mustered out at Fort Humboldt on June 14,1865. Camp Grant was abandoned shortly thereafter, the location remained as a settlement, a post office operated at Camp Grant from 1868 to 1895. In the 20th century, many owners in the area sold their land to the Humboldt Redwoods State Park. The area is now considered a part of Weott
Ferndale is a city in Humboldt County, United States. Its population was 1,371 at the 2010 census, down from 1,382 at the 2000 census, the city contains dozens of well-preserved Victorian storefronts and homes. Before American settlement, Ferndale was a glade of giant ferns reaching more than six feet, surrounded by alder, Sitka spruce, Douglas fir, coast redwood, swampy land and windswept prairies. The town was established in 1852 from settlement by Willard Allard, Seth Louis Shaw, in September 1852 they cleared a five-acre area of ferns and began building a cabin near the base of the Wildcat Road even though Allard was sick with the ague. By January 1853, twelve men were living in the Shaws cabin including Seth Kinman, who provided the group with meat, and Joe Russ, whose holdings included the Fern Cottage Historic District. About this time, Stephen Shaw painted the portrait of Wiyot elder Kiwelattah, Seth Shaw settled in the area now marked by Main and Lewis streets where he began construction of the now-historic Shaw House on his property in 1854.
The Shaw House served as the areas first polling place in 1854, post office in 1860, Seth Shaw was justice of the peace and postmaster, and his home served for many gatherings although it was not finished until 1866. Other small towns were established around Ferndale, including Centerville, Port Kenyon, Grizzly Bluff, produce from Ferndale was shipped out via Centerville and transferred to ships at anchor offshore prior to the opening of docks at Port Kenyon in 1876. In 1865 the first shipment of oil from the Union Mattole Oil Company was shipped through Ferndale to San Francisco. While the earliest settlers were English speaking from England, New England, Canada or Ireland, waves of immigrants arrived in Ferndale from Denmark, Germany, Italy and China. Danish settlers founded and built Our Saviors Lutheran Church in 1899 and dedicated Danish Hall, a influx of Romansh Swiss included the ancestors of College Football Hall of Fame coach Len Casanova. Sausage, salami-making and wine-making can be traced to Italians who arrived than the Danish and Swiss, the Germans arrived early, the first was businessman Arnold Berding in 1857.
Most Germans worked on ranches or were dairymen, but at least one owned the Milwaukee Brewery Depot Saloon, congressman Don Clausen is descended from German settlers of Ferndale. Except for three Portuguese brothers who arrived in the 1870s and a few from mainland Portugal, most came from the Azores islands between 1900 and 1915, Ferndale Portuguese have celebrated their traditional Festival of the Holy Ghost since 1924. Chinese arrived in California in the earliest gold-rush days, and were settled in all parts of Humboldt County almost as soon as English-speaking whites. They worked in mining on the Klamath and Trinity Rivers, before settling mostly in Eureka. A year later, the Cutting Packing Company brought in a crew of Chinese for the season, Chinese crews were used again at the same cannery in 1887 and 1889. After threats of action, the Chinese were taken to an old cookhouse on Indian Island from which all whites were barred