North Wales Police
North Wales Police is the territorial police force responsible for policing North Wales. The headquarters are in Colwyn Bay, with divisional headquarters in St Asaph and Wrexham. Gwynedd Constabulary was formed in 1950 by the amalgamation of Caernarfonshire Constabulary, Anglesey Constabulary and Merionethshire Constabulary. In 1974, the Local Government Act 1972 created an administrative county of Gwynedd covering the western part of the police area; as a result of this, the force was renamed North Wales Police on 1 April 1974. Under proposals made by the Home Secretary on 6 February 2006, the force would merge with Dyfed-Powys Police, Gwent Police and South Wales Police to form a single strategic force for all of Wales; the proposals were shelved. The North Wales Police Authority consisted of 17 members, of whom 9 were councillors, 3 were magistrates and 5 were independent members; the councillors were appointed by a Joint Committee of the unitary authority councils of Anglesey, Denbighshire, Flintshire and Wrexham.
The Police Authority was replaced by the Office of the North Wales Police and Crime Commissioner in November 2012. On 4 May 2011, North Wales Police completed a major restructure, moving from 3 territorial divisions to a single North Wales-wide Policing function. North Wales Police is a partner in the following collaboration: North West Police Underwater Search & Marine Unit North Wales and Cheshire Firearms Alliance Wales Extremism and Counter Terrorism Unit In recent years North Wales Police has attracted a great deal of media attention above and beyond its size. Many have attributed this phenomenon to its former Chief Constable Richard Brunstrom, who accepts he is obsessed with speeding motorists, he has courted controversy and publicity through his vocal views on speeding motorists and the legalisation of drugs. The Sun newspaper dubbed him the "Mad Mullah of the Traffic Taleban." Despite this negative publicity he has earned respect for learning the Welsh language promoting the normalisation of its use within the force at all levels and conversing publicly through it on numerous occasions.
He is credited with modernising the organisation's infrastructure in comparison with other areas of Britain. In April 2007, Brunstrom came under fire for an incident in which he showed a photograph of the severed head of a biker in a press meeting without the family's permission. Brunstrom maintains that it was a "closed" meeting, a point made both on the invitation and verbally, that no details of the picture should have been leaked, it drew criticism because the photo enabled the media to identify the deceased, since he was wearing a distinctive T-shirt with an anti-police message on it, which gained a lot of attention during the inquest. Motorcycle News magazine handed in a 1,600 signature petition to the Independent Police Complaints Commission in London requesting Brunstrom be removed, The Independent Police Complaints Commission confirmed that it would carry out an independent review into the incident. Other people note that the motorcyclist, killed, caused the accident that disabled the other car driver, so Brunstrom has a valid point that motoring is an important area to focus on.
North Wales Police has attracted attention due to its investigation into allegations of anti-Welsh comments by TV personality Anne Robinson and UK Prime Minister Tony Blair. The force was believed to have carried out these investigations following complaints from members of the public; the 10-month investigation into the Prime Minister was dropped on 11 July 2006 due to a lack of evidence. It had cost £1,656, whereas the Anne Robinson investigation cost £3,800; as with all other territorial police force North Wales Police have police community support officers. As of 31 March 2011 North Wales Police have 159 PCSOs. Unlike the majority of police forces in England and Wales North Wales Police is only one out of three forces that issue its PCSOs hand cuffs The only other forces that do this are Dyfed-Powys Police and British Transport Police; the issuing of handcuffs to PCSOs has been controversial. Sir Philip Myers, 1974 to 1982 David Owen, 1982 to 1994 Michael Argent, 1994 to 2001 Richard Brunstrom, 2001 to 2009 Mark Polin, 2010 to 2018 Gareth Pritchard, Temporary Chief Constable, 2018 to Present List of police forces in Wales sorted by region Policing in the United Kingdom North Wales Fire and Rescue Service North Wales Police North Wales Police and Crime Commissioner North Wales YouTube channel
South Wales Police
South Wales Police is one of the four territorial police forces in Wales. Its headquarters is in Bridgend, it covers most of the historic county of Glamorgan, including Wales' capital city, Cardiff, as well as Bridgend, Merthyr Tydfil and the western South Wales Valleys, it is the largest police force in Wales in terms of population, the seventh largest in the UK. In February 2014, SWP introduced a requirement that anyone wishing to become a police constable first studies for the certificate in knowledge of policing before applying for the role. SWP is the first force in Wales, only a handful in the UK to introduce this. South Wales Police employ 2,862 sworn officers. South Wales Police's Special Constabulary recruits every 6 months. South Wales Police employ 400 unsworn PCSOs, they are funded by the Welsh government. 1,631 support staff are employed by the force. Their roles vary from call handlers to crime scene investigators. Police Support Volunteers are used to support police officers. South Wales Police have 285 Police Support Volunteers, their maximum capacity.
The force was formed as South Wales Constabulary on 1 June 1969 by the amalgamation of the former Glamorgan Constabulary, Cardiff City Police, Swansea Borough Police and Merthyr Tydfil Borough Police. In 1974, with the re-organisation of local government, the force's area was expanded to cover the newly created Mid Glamorgan, South Glamorgan and West Glamorgan. In further local government re-organisation in 1996 the force area lost the Rhymney Valley area to Gwent Police. Today it covers the principal areas of Bridgend, Merthyr Tydfil, Neath Port Talbot, Rhondda Cynon Taf and the Vale of Glamorgan – most of the ancient county of Glamorgan. Under proposals made by the Home Secretary on 6 February 2006, the force would have merged with North Wales Police, Gwent Police and Dyfed-Powys Police, to form a single strategic force for all of Wales; this issue caused sharp divisions amongst some members of the police force. The South Wales Police has participated in the World Police and Fire Games since 1995, except for the 1999 Stockholm Games.
The current Chief Constable is Matt Jukes. South Wales Constabulary 1969–1979: T G Morris 1979–1983: John Woodcock 1983–??: David East 1989–1996: Robert LawrenceSouth Wales Police c.2002: Anthony Burden 2004–2009: Barbara Wilding 2010–2017: Peter Vaughan 2018–: Matt Jukes The following police stations are operational as of 2018. Barry police station Bridgend police station Cardiff Bay police station Cardiff Central police station Merthyr Tydfil police station Neath police station Pontypridd police station Swansea police station The Cardiff Newsagent Three were three men wrongly convicted of the 1987 murder of Cardiff newsagent Phillip Saunders, attacked with a shovel in the back yard of his Cardiff home and died in hospital. Michael O'Brien, Darren Hall and Ellis Sherwood were arrested and spent 11 years in prison before being released. In 1989 the body of Karen Price was discovered in Wales. Two construction workers unearthed a rolled carpet while installing a garden behind a house, it was disclosed that a number of officers from the South Wales Police who were involved in the investigation of Price's murder had worked on the Lynette White and Philip Saunders murder inquiries, in which six men were wrongfully convicted.
Other sources of concern in the Price case, according to the commission, included breaches of the Police and Criminal Evidence Act 1984 and the PACE Code of Practice, which govern the detention and questioning of persons by police officers. In November 1988, South Wales Police charged five mixed-race men with the murder of Lynette White, although none of the scientific evidence discovered at the crime scene could be linked to them, a white male was seen in the vicinity at the time of the murder. On conclusion of the longest murder trial in British history, in November 1990 three of the men were found guilty and sentenced to life imprisonment. In December 1992 the convictions were ruled unsafe and quashed by the Court of Appeal after it was decided that the police investigating the murder had acted improperly; the wrongful conviction of the three men has been called one of the most egregious miscarriages of justice in recent times. The police claimed that they had done nothing wrong, that the men had been released purely on a technicality of law, resisted all calls for the case to be reopened.
In 2004 the Independent Police Complaints Commission began a review of the conduct of the police during the original inquiry. Over the next 12 months around 30 people were arrested in connection with the investigation, 19 of whom were serving or retired police officers. In 2007 three of the prosecution witnesses at the original murder trial were convicted of perjury and each jailed for 18 months. In 2009 two further witnesses from the original trial were charged with perjury. Along with eight former police officers charged with conspiring to pervert the course of justice, they stood trial in 2011; the trial was the largest police corruption trial in British criminal history and commenced in July 2011. A further four police officers were due to be tried on the same charges in 2012. In November 2011 the case collapsed when the defence submitted that copies of files which they said they should have seen had instead been destroyed; as a result, the judge ruled that the defendants could not receive a fair trial and all 14 were acquitted.
In January 2012 the "destroyed" documents
Ceredigion is a county in Wales, known prior to 1974 as Cardiganshire. During the second half of the first millennium Ceredigion was a minor kingdom, it has been administered as a county since 1282. Welsh is spoken by more than half the population. Ceredigion is considered to be a centre of Welsh culture; the county is rural with over 50 miles of coastline and a mountainous hinterland. The numerous sandy beaches, together with the long-distance Ceredigion Coast Path provide excellent views of Cardigan Bay. In the 18th and early 19th century, Ceredigion had more industry; the economy became dependent on dairy farming and the rearing of livestock for the English market. During the 20th century, livestock farming became less profitable, the county's population declined as people moved to the more prosperous parts of Wales or emigrated. However, there has been a population increase caused by elderly people moving to the county for retirement, various government initiatives have encouraged tourism and other alternative sources of income.
Ceredigion's population at the 2011 UK census was 75,900. Its largest town, Aberystwyth, is one of the other being Aberaeron. Aberystwyth houses Bronglais Hospital and the National Library of Wales. Lampeter is home to part of the University of Wales Trinity Saint David. Ceredigion has been inhabited since prehistoric times. A total of 170 hill forts and enclosures have been identified across the county and there are many standing stones dating back to the Bronze Age. Around the time of the Roman invasion of Britain, the area was between the realms of the Demetae and Ordovices; the Sarn Helen road ran through the territory, with forts at Bremia and Loventium protecting gold mines near present-day Llelio. Following the Roman withdrawal, Irish raids and invasions were repulsed by the forces under a northerner named Cunedda; the 9th-century History of the Britons attributed to Nennius records that Cunedda's son Ceredig settled the area around the Teifi in the 5th century. The territory remained a minor kingdom under his dynasty until its extinction upon the drowning of Gwgon ap Meurig c.
871, after which it was administered by Rhodri Mawr of Gwynedd before passing to his son Cadell, whose son Hywel Dda inherited its neighbouring kingdom Dyfed and established the realm of Deheubarth. Records are obscure. Many pilgrims passed through Cardiganshire on their way to St Davids; some came by sea and made use of the churches at Mwnt and Penbryn, while others came by land seeking hospitality at such places as Strata Florida Abbey. Both the abbey and Llanbadarn Fawr were important monastic sites of education. Place names including ysbyty denote their association with pilgrims. In 1282, Edward I of England divided the area into counties. One of thirteen traditional counties in Wales, Cardiganshire was a vice-county. Cardiganshire was split into the five hundreds of Genau'r-Glyn, Moyddyn and Troedyraur. Pen-y-wenallt was home to seventeenth Theophilus Evans. In the 18th century there was an evangelical revival of Christianity, non-conformism became established in the county as charismatic preachers like Daniel Rowland of Llangeitho attracted large congregations.
Every community built its own chapel or meeting house, Cardiganshire became one of the centres of Methodism in Wales with the Aeron Valley being at the centre of the revival. Cardigan was one of the major ports of southern Wales until its harbour silted in the mid-19th century; the Industrial Revolution passed by, not much affecting the area. In the uplands, wheeled vehicles were rare in the 18th century, horses and sleds were still being used for transport. On the coast, trade in herrings and corn took place across the Irish Sea. In the 19th century, many of the rural poor emigrated to the New World from Cardigan, between five and six thousand leaving the town between 1790 and 1860. Aberystwyth became the main centre for the export of lead and Aberaeron and Newquay did brisk coastal trade; the building of the railway from Shrewsbury in the 1860s encouraged visitors and hotels sprang up in the town to accommodate them. This area of the county of Dyfed became a district of Wales under the name Ceredigion in 1974 under the Local Government Act 1972, since 1996, has formed the county of Ceredigion.
According to the 2001 census, Ceredigion has the fourth highest proportion of Welsh speakers in the population at 61%. Ceredigion is a coastal county, bordered by Cardigan Bay to the west, Gwynedd to the north, Powys to the east, Carmarthenshire to the south and Pembrokeshire to the south-west, its area is 1,795 square kilometres. In 2010 the population was 76,938; the main settlements are Aberaeron, Aberystwyth, Cardigan, Llanarth, Llanddewi Brefi, Llanilar, Llanon, New Quay, Tregaron. The largest of these are Cardigan; the Cambrian Mountains cover much of the east of the county. In the south and west, the surface is less elevated; the highest point is Pumlumon at 2,467 feet, other Marilyns include Llan Ddu Fawr. On the slopes
Hertfordshire Constabulary is the territorial police force responsible for policing the county of Hertfordshire in England. Its headquarters is in Welwyn Garden City. From 2011-2016 the force was headed by Chief Constable Andy Bliss, the current Chief Constable is Charlie Hall QPM; the forces manpower consists of over 3,900 police officers and staff, supported by more than 410 special constables. The Constabulary was founded in 1841, under the County Police Act, five years after the Hertford Borough Police and St Albans Borough Police had been formed. In 1889, the Hertford Borough Police force was merged into Hertfordshire; the first Constables were paid at the level of an agricultural labourer. In Victorian times, officers were entitled to only one rest day in every four to six weeks and were entitled to only one week's unpaid annual leave a year. A ten-hour working day was the norm and no meal breaks were allowed. There were strict constraints on an officer's private life too. For example, officers could not leave their homes without permission and could only go out with their wives so long as they were not absent for more than two hours and someone was home to take messages.
St Albans Constabulary remained independent until 1947 being absorbed into the Hertfordshire Constabulary. It was in 2000 that the current force boundaries came into place with the addition of Hertsmere and Broxbourne, transferred from the Metropolitan Police. In 2006 proposals were made by Charles Clarke, the Home Secretary, that would see the force merge with neighbour forces Bedfordshire Police and Essex Police to form a new strategic police force. However, in July 2006, the Prime Minister Tony Blair signalled that police force mergers would not be forced through by the central government. However, with the economic recession beginning in 2008 the force began working on collaboration with neighbouring forces. First joining with Bedfordshire Police and Cambridgeshire Constabulary in a Strategic Alliance, the three forces formed joint units in Counter Terrorism, Major Crime, Firearms, SOCO, Roads Policing, Operation Planning, Civil Contingencies, ICT and Professional Standards. Working collaboratively in this way protected local policing by local officers, but enabled specialist units to work across, be paid for by, all three forces.
Further collaborative work is underway with call handling and dispatch, human resources and some'back-office' functions being examined for merging. For the foreseeable future, the Constabularly looks to remain an independent force; the decision for any full merger of the three forces will be in the hands of the Police and Crime Commissioners, thereby in turn, the public themselves. Local policing is overseen by the Local Policing Command, headed by a Chief Superintendent; the county is sub-divided into 10 Community Safety Partnerships, which broadly correspond to the local Borough and Council areas. The 10 CSPs, each headed by a Chief Inspector are: Watford, Three Rivers, Dacorum and Hatfield, St Albans, East Herts, Broxbourne and North Herts; each CSP has: 5x Intervention and Response Teams: Each team is headed by a sergeant and aligned to a shift pattern, there is always at least one team on duty at any time during the year. Intervention teams non emergency calls and perform general patrol duties.
Safer Neighbourhood Teams: Combined teams of PCs and PCSOs covering local and quality of life issues. Each Ward/Neighbourhood has at least one PC and PCSO to maintain an up-to-date knowledge of local issues and to address them; each town is headed with an Inspector supervising on a CSP level. Local Crime Unit: Team of Detectives with a remit covering burglaries to assaults. Local policing is supplemented by an array of specialist units, some of which are collaborated with Bedfordshire and Cambridgeshire; these include: Armed Policing Unit: Collaborated unit working across the three counties providing Armed Response Vehicles, crewed with Authorised Firearms Officers to assist in the response to dangerous incidents such as those involving firearms and knives. The unit provides a Specialist Firearms Officer capability for hostage rescue and close protection. Dog Unit: Collaborated unit providing a 24/7 Police dog service for tracking and public order duties; the unit provides pre-planned capabilities for explosive and drugs search.
Road Policing Unit: Collaborated unit patrol and respond to serious incidents on the motorway and other road networks. Other duties include responsibilities for taking over pursuits, traffic management and road death investigation. Major Crime Unit: Collaborated unit, responsible for the investigation of murder, stranger rape and kidnap, amongst others. Force Communications Room: Responsible for taking emergency and non-emergency calls and recording crime through Call Handling and the deployment and management of resources through Despatch and Control; the FCR receives an average of deals with over 1,000 incidents every day. Notable major incidents and investigations in which Hertfordshire Constabulary have directed or been involved include: October 2000: Hatfield rail crash: A railway accident that caused 4 deaths and over 70 injuries; the accident exposed major stewardship shortcomings and regulatory oversight failings of Railtrack and triggered its partial re-nationalisation. May 2002: Potters Bar Railway Crash: A railway accident that occurred when a train derailed at high speed, killing 7 and injuring 76.
Part of the train ended up wedged between the station platforms and building structures. December 2005: The Buncefield fire: A major fire caused by a series of explosions at the Buncefield oil storage facility causing
Essex Police is a territorial police force responsible for policing the county of Essex, in the east of England, consisting of over 1.7 million people and around 1,400 square miles. It is one of the largest non-metropolitan police forces in the United Kingdom, employing over 2,900 police officers; the Chief Constable is Ben-Julian Harrington, who took up the appointment in October 2018. Assistant Chief Constable for Media Relations Steve Worron is simultaneously ACC for Area Operations for Kent Police due to the two forces forming a joint Serious Crime Directorate; as of 2017, Assistant Chief Constable Nick Downing became the head of the Serious Crime Directorate for Kent and Essex Police. In November 2012, the first Essex Police and Crime Commissioner election took place, in which Conservative candidate Nick Alston achieved 30.5% of the first round votes, 51.5% of the second round votes against Independent candidate Mick Thwaites. Alston set his 4 priorities in his election statement as 1) policing that meets local needs, 2) policing, prompt and professional, 3) effective cooperation and partnership between Police and the Voluntary Sector, 4) to be an influential voice in leading public engagement about crime reduction and policing, to listen to and speak for the victims of crime.
Nick Alston was elected with a 12.8% turnout. Essex police were featured in 3 of Channel 5's Police Interceptors. Essex Constabulary was formed in 1840. In 1965, the force had an establishment of 1,862 officers. Southend-on-Sea Borough Police was established by the county borough of Southend-on-Sea, England, in 1914. In 1969 Southend-on-Sea Borough Police amalgamated with Essex Constabulary to become the Essex and Southend-on-Sea Joint Constabulary; this merger was campaigned against by the local MPs. Colchester at one time had its own police force; the title was shortened to Essex Police in 1974. In April 2000, it took over parts of the county in the south-west in the Metropolitan Police Area. Epping Forest Keepers act as Epping Forest constables in the Forest parishes in the south-west of the Essex Police area. Essex Police is one of the United Kingdom's largest non-metropolitan police forces with a strength of over 2,900 police officers, its headquarters, the Force Control Room and Essex Police College, are all located in Chelmsford.
Strategically, Essex is an important force. Bordering London, the force area consists of affluent city suburbs, large urban areas, industrial centres, rural villages, London Stansted Airport and two of the UK's major ports; the force polices one of the largest expanses of coastline of any force in the UK. The police area covers 1,400 square miles and has a population of around 1,700,000; the Chief Constable is Ben-Julian Harrington who replaced Stephen Kavanagh after he retired in October 2018. The force has been a regular innovator and is used by the Home Office to trial new procedures and equipment, including automatic number plate recognition and the X26 Taser. Essex Police was the subject of the television series Police Interceptors, which followed the work of the specialist Mobile Support Division's ANPR intercept unit that utilise high-performance pursuit vehicles, including the Mitsubishi Evo X and Subaru Impreza, to pursue and intercept mobile criminals. In late 2016, Essex Police was the subject of a television series The Force: Essex, which followed the duties and responsibilities of Essex Police in the modern day, covering the front-line aspect of the police officers on duty, across Essex.
A number of specialist teams within Essex were grouped into the Mobile Support Division. In 2012 Essex Police moved away from the divisional structure to a patrol based structure and the former components of the Mobile Support Division were moved to new command structures. Roads Policing and Dog Section became part of the Patrol function. Crime Division works across the territorial divisions of Essex and with forces nationwide, providing resources and expertise; as a division within Essex Police, it deals with the specialist aspects of crime investigation, tending to focus on serious crime, but not and provides support to territorial divisions' efforts in investigating crime. Crime Division has a command team structure of a divisional commander, supported by a director of intelligence, lead senior investigating officer, support manager and divisional administrative manager, based at the Chelmsford headquarters; this team is supported by section heads. The work of the various departments of Crime Division are both reactive.
The way in which major crimes are investigated has changed over time. 30 years ago, the head of Crime Division would have carried out every part of the investigation in a murder case himself, including interviewing key witnesses. However, this has now been transformed with the advent of computerised Major Investigation Rooms and concerns over handling complex, high-profile enquiries like the Stephen Lawrence case. In April 2000, the Major Investigation Team was set up to investigate homicides, abductions and extortion; each major investigation has a senior investigation officer, like the conductor of an orchestra, overseeing all the different parts of the investigations. The SIO works with a MIT and they are supported by the resources of Major Investigation Centralised Administrative Support. There are four MIT offices, at Harlow, Brentwood and Rayleigh; the sc
City of London Police
The City of London Police is the territorial police force responsible for law enforcement within the City of London, including the Middle and Inner temples. The force responsible for law enforcement within the remainder of the London region, outside the City, is the much larger Metropolitan Police Service, a separate organisation; the City of London, now a financial business district with a small resident population but a large commuting workforce, is the historic core of London, has an administrative history distinct from that of the rest of the metropolis, of which its separate police force is one manifestation. The City of London area has a resident population of around 9,000. However, there is a daily influx of 400,000 commuters into the City, along with thousands of tourists; the police authority is the Common Council of the City, unlike other territorial forces in England and Wales there is not a police and crime commissioner replacing that police authority by way of the Police Reform and Social Responsibility Act 2011, but like a police and crime commissioner, the Common Council is elected.
As of September 2017 the force had a workforce of 1,178, including 676 full-time police officers, 75 special constables, 9 police community support officers, 10 designated officers and 408 support staff. The headquarters is located at Wood Street and there are two additional stations at Snow Hill, Bishopsgate; the City of London Police is the smallest territorial police force in England and Wales, both in terms of geographic area and head-count. The Commissioner since January 2016 is Ian Dyson, QPM, the force's Assistant Commissioner. Policing in the City of London has existed since Roman times. Wood Street police station headquarters of the City Police, is built on part of the site of a Roman fortress. Prior to 1839, the responsibility for policing in the City was divided, from the medieval period, between day and night City Watch under the two sheriffs. Responsibilities were shared with the aldermen's officers – the ward beadles – who are now purely ceremonial, it was these officers' responsibility for ensuring.
Policing during the day came under the City Patrol, which evolved into the City Day Police, modelled on the Metropolitan Police. In 1838, the Day Police and Night Watch were merged into a single organisation; the passing of the City of London Police Act 1839 gave statutory approval to the force as an independent police body, heading off attempts made to merge it with the Metropolitan Police. During 1842, the City Police moved its headquarters from Corporation's Guildhall to 26 Old Jewry, where it remained until it was relocated to Wood Street in 2002. A main challenge of policing in London prior to the 18th century was both gathering and transferring accurate information. Data accumulated each time an offender appeared in court, sometimes as a new suspect, but they were repeat offenders labelled as "ancient", "common", "known", "notorious", or "old" offenders. Records were brought to court and transferred between authorities, with one example being from the Guildhall bookhouse to Bridewell; the records were screened and had to otherwise remain in buildings like Guildhall bookhouse, to ensure the accuracy of the information being held.
Aside from these formal records, information travelled between officials through word of mouth. This type of circulation of knowledge occurred between marshals, beadles and other officers, many Londoners could be identified by these individuals through local knowledge of their crimes – "a lewd thief" or "daungerous person" are some common descriptions. Constables were an important part of police knowledge. Within courtrooms, constables provided valuable information on specific neighbourhoods. So, many cases counted on the reliability of individuals with knowledge in London. Development of sophisticated investigative techniques would come later. Tracking the total number of Londoners fell under pre-Victorian London policing duties. Beadles kept the surnames of householders in an effort to track this total; this allowed police to understand more about which areas of London were growing, the number of aliens in particular areas, other valuable demographic information. The City Police is organised into five Basic Command Units: Economic Crime Directorate Crime Directorate Uniformed Policing Directorate Information and Intelligence Directorate Corporate Services DirectorateBecause of the City's role as a world financial centre, the City of London Police has developed a great deal of expertise in dealing with fraud and "is the acknowledged lead force within the UK for economic crime investigation."
The Economic Crime Directorate includes: Dedicated Cheque and Plastic Crime Unit Overseas anti-corruption Unit However, the OACU was planned to dissolve in 2015 as its responsibilities passed to the NCA. Insurance Fraud Department National Fraud Intelligence Bureau and Action Fraud Police Intellectual Property Crime Unit Economic Crime Academy responsible for delivering counter fraud and economic crime training both nationally and internationally http://academy.cityoflondon.police.uk/ Commissioner Ian Dyson, QPM Assistant Commissioner Alistair Sutherland Temporary Commander Jayne Gyford Temporary Commander David Clark Chief Superintendent David Lawes Temporary Detective Chief Superintendent David Evans Temporary Detective Chief Superintendent Glenn Maleary Temporary Detective Chief Superintendent Peter O'Doherty (Crime Investigation Di
Greater Manchester Police
Greater Manchester Police is the police force responsible for law enforcement within the metropolitan county of Greater Manchester in North West England. GMP is the fifth largest police service in the United Kingdom after the Metropolitan Police Service, Police Scotland, Police Service of Northern Ireland and West Midlands Police; as of September 2017, Greater Manchester Police employed. The GMP headquarters are at Central Park, on Northampton Road, in the Newton Heath area of Manchester. Greater Manchester Police was directly created from two amalgamated city police forces and Salford Police and parts of what were Lancashire Constabulary, Cheshire Constabulary and West Yorkshire Constabulary on 1st April 1974; the city forces were Manchester Borough Police which formed in the late 1830s and Salford Borough Police which began in 1844. Upon Manchester gaining city status in 1853, its police force changed its name to Manchester City Police to reflect its status. In 1926, Salford became a city, resulting in Salford Borough Police becoming Salford City Police.
These two city forces operated until 1968 when, as a result of compulsory amalgamation, as per the Police Act 1964, Salford City Police merged with Manchester City Police, resulting in the new force of Manchester and Salford Police. This new force lasted only 6 years, when in 1974 the Local Government Act 1972 created the Metropolitan County of Greater Manchester and with it, Greater Manchester Police. An increase of 284,241 acres in terms of policing area and 2,267,090 people over the abolished Manchester and Salford Police. Indirectly GMP can trace its heritage to a number of other borough forces, each with their own significant history, abolished in the late 1960s and, amalgamated into the county forces of Lancashire and Cheshire; these two county forces only policed these boroughs for around 6 years before Greater Manchester was created and GMP took over responsibility for providing police services. In the historic Lancashire county area these borough police forces were Bolton Borough Police, Oldham Borough Police, Rochdale Borough Police and Wigan Borough Police.
In the historic Cheshire county area this included Stockport Borough Police. The first Chief Constable of GMP was William James Richards. Richards had been the chief constable of the short lived Manchester and Salford Police and before that chief constable of Manchester City Police. Following his retirement on 30 June 1976, James Anderton became the new chief constable on 1 July 1976. James Anderton was a controversial figure during his 15 years in office due to his outspoken style of leadership and hardline views on crime and morality. In 1991 David Wilmot succeeded James Anderton. In 2002 Michael Todd was appointed to Chief Constable until his death, by suicide, in 2008. There was much press coverage of the death of the Chief Constable Michael J. Todd in March 2008. Todd was seen as a man of action and got more "bobbies on the beat", with himself doing so. GMP's Assistant Chief Constable became the Acting Chief Constable until the appointment of Peter Fahy head of Cheshire Police, as Chief Constable in September 2008.
Police Constable Ian Rodgers was the first GMP officer to be killed in the line of duty in 1975. His death occurred in a railway incident at Stockport. Since the formation of GMP 20 officers have been died in the line of duty. GMP assisted with the reconstruction of Manchester following the 1996 Manchester bombing, with Garry Shewan. In the 1990s, Manchester had gained the deriding tag of'Gunchester', in reference to the city's high gun crime rate at the time. Greater Manchester Police faced the problem of gun crime in Manchester in the deprived districts in south Manchester. Key gang leaders were jailed for life in 2009 and by 2011, the city had shaken off the tag. On 14 October 2010, Greater Manchester Police posted details of all calls made to them in a 24-hour period on Twitter; the service posted details of every incident reported to its officers in 24 hours to demonstrate how much of their time is spent on what the Chief Constable called "social work" instead of fighting crime. They repeated this exercise on 14 October 2014.
GMP have used social media as a helpful force rather than a hindrance. In the 2011 England riots, with criticism of the role social media such as Twitter and Facebook had in instigating the riots, GMP stated that support on social media had resulted in many responses from members of the public in trying to catch suspects. GMP naming and shamed any convicted individuals over the riots. From November 2012 to May 2017 the Greater Manchester Police and Crime Commissioner was Tony Lloyd; the police and crime commissioner was scrutinised by the Greater Manchester Police and Crime Panel, made up of elected councillors from the local authorities in the police area. Before November 2012 the Greater Manchester Police Authority was the police governance. However, under new plans for an elected Mayor of Greater Manchester announced by George Osborne in November 2014, the position of Police and Crime Commissioner was removed and its responsibilities subsumed into the mayoral office; the first Mayoral election took place in 2017, in which Andy Burnham was elected Mayor of Greater Manchester.
The area GMP polices is split into geographical divisions, with each Metropolitan borough of Greater Manchester being assigned one. As of 2016, the two divisions covering the City of Manchester were merged, form