Symphony No. 6 (Tchaikovsky)
The Symphony No. 6 in B minor, Op. 74 known as the Pathétique Symphony, is Pyotr Ilyich Tchaikovsky's final completed symphony, written between February and the end of August 1893. The composer entitled the work "The Passionate Symphony", employing a Russian word, Патетическая, meaning "passionate" or "emotional", translated into French as pathétique, meaning "solemn" or "emotive"; the composer led the first performance in Saint Petersburg on 16/28 October of that year, nine days before his death. The second performance, conducted by Eduard Nápravník, took place 21 days at a memorial concert on 6/18 November, it included some minor corrections that Tchaikovsky had made after the premiere, was thus the first performance of the work in the exact form in which it is known today. The first performance in Moscow was on 4/16 December, it was the last of Tchaikovsky's compositions. The Russian title of the symphony, Патетическая, means "passionate" or "emotional," not "arousing pity," but it is a word reflective of a touch of concurrent suffering.
Tchaikovsky considered calling it Программная but realized that would encourage curiosity about the program, which he did not want to reveal. His brother Modest claims to have suggested the Патетическая title, used in early editions of the symphony, its French translation Pathétique is used in French, English and other languages. It was published in reduction by Jurgenson of Moscow in 1893, by Robert Forberg of Leipzig in 1894. After completing his 5th Symphony in 1888, Tchaikovsky did not start thinking about his next symphony until April 1891, on his way to the United States; the first drafts of a new symphony were started in the spring of 1891. However, some or all of the symphony was not pleasing to Tchaikovsky, who tore up the manuscript "in one of his frequent moods of depression and doubt over his alleged inability to create." In 1892, Tchaikovsky wrote the following to his nephew Vladimir "Bob" Davydov: The symphony is only a work written by dint of sheer will on the part of the composer.
It should be forgotten. This determination on my part is irrevocable; this work was the Symphony in E♭, the first movement of which Tchaikovsky converted into the one-movement 3rd Piano Concerto, the latter two movements of which Sergei Taneyev reworked after Tchaikovsky's death as the Andante and Finale. In 1893, Tchaikovsky mentions an new symphonic work in a letter to his brother: I am now wholly occupied with the new work... and it is hard for me to tear myself away from it. I believe. I must finish it as soon as possible, for I have to wind up a lot of affairs and I must soon go to London. I told you that I had completed a Symphony which displeased me, I tore it up. Now I have composed a new symphony which I shall not tear up; the symphony was written in a small house in Klin and completed by August 1893. Tchaikovsky left Klin on 19 October for the first performance in St. Petersburg, arriving "in excellent spirits." However, the composer began to feel apprehension over his symphony, when, at rehearsals, the orchestra players did not exhibit any great admiration for the new work.
The premiere was met with great appreciation. Tchaikovsky's brother Modest wrote, "There was applause and the composer was recalled, but with more enthusiasm than on previous occasions. There was not the mighty, overpowering impression made by the work when it was conducted by Eduard Nápravník, on November 18, 1893, wherever it was played." The symphony is scored for an orchestra with the following instruments: Although not called for in the score, a bass clarinet is employed to replace the solo bassoon for the four notes preceding the Allegro Vivo section of the first movement as it is impossible for a bassoonist to execute the passage at the indicated dynamic of pppppp. The symphony is in four movements: The first movement, in sonata form alternates speed and key, with the main key being B minor, it opens with a low bassoon melody in E minor. Violas appear with the first theme of the Allegro in B minor, a faster variant of the slow opening melody; this leads to the lyrical secondary theme in D major.
The energetic development section begins abruptly, with an outburst from the orchestra, culminating in a refrain supported by brass and timpani. The movement concludes with the secondary theme in the recapitulation and a coda where both parts are in B major ending quietly; the second movement, a dance movement in ternary form, is in 54 time. It has been described as a "limping" waltz; the opening contrasts with the darker B section. A graceful coda leads to a quiet ending; the third movement is in sonatina form. It begins with strings in a exciting motif playing semiquavers against a woodwind 44 meter, it leads to the E major secondary theme in the exposition beginning with clarinet solo with string accompaniment. Between the exposition and the recapitulation there is no development section - o
Carl August Nielsen was a Danish musician and violinist recognized as his country's most prominent composer. Brought up by poor yet musically talented parents on the island of Funen, he demonstrated his musical abilities at an early age, he played in a military band before attending the Royal Danish Academy of Music in Copenhagen from 1884 until December 1886. He premiered his Op. 1, Suite for Strings, in 1888, at the age of 23. The following year, Nielsen began a 16-year stint as a second violinist in the Royal Danish Orchestra under the conductor Johan Svendsen, during which he played in Giuseppe Verdi's Falstaff and Otello at their Danish premieres. In 1916, he took a post teaching at the Royal Danish Academy and continued to work there until his death. Although his symphonies and choral music are now internationally acclaimed, Nielsen's career and personal life were marked by many difficulties reflected in his music; the works he composed between 1897 and 1904 are sometimes ascribed to his "psychological" period, resulting from a turbulent marriage with the sculptor Anne Marie Brodersen.
Nielsen is noted for his six symphonies, his Wind Quintet and his concertos for violin and clarinet. In Denmark, his opera Maskarade and many of his songs have become an integral part of the national heritage, his early music was inspired by composers such as Brahms and Grieg, but he soon developed his own style, first experimenting with progressive tonality and diverging more radically from the standards of composition still common at the time. Nielsen's sixth and final symphony, Sinfonia semplice, was written in 1924–25, he died from a heart attack six years and is buried in Vestre Cemetery, Copenhagen. Nielsen maintained the reputation of a musical outsider during his lifetime, both in his own country and internationally, it was only that his works entered the international repertoire, accelerating in popularity from the 1960s through Leonard Bernstein and others. In Denmark, Nielsen's reputation was sealed in 2006 when three of his compositions were listed by the Ministry of Culture amongst the twelve greatest pieces of Danish music.
For many years, he appeared on the Danish hundred-kroner banknote. The Carl Nielsen Museum in Odense documents that of his wife. Between 1994 and 2009 the Royal Danish Library, sponsored by the Danish government, completed the Carl Nielsen Edition available online, containing background information and sheet music for all of Nielsen's works, many of which had not been published. Nielsen was born the seventh of twelve children to a poor peasant family on 9 June 1865 at Sortelung near Nørre Lyndelse, south of Odense on the island of Funen, his father, Niels Jørgensen, was a house painter and traditional musician who, with his abilities as a fiddler and cornet player, was in strong demand for local celebrations. Nielsen described his childhood in his autobiography Min Fynske Barndom, his mother, whom he recalls singing folk songs during his childhood, came from a well-to-do family of sea captains while one of his half-uncles, Hans Andersen, was a talented musician. Nielsen gave an account of his introduction to music: "I had heard music before, heard father play the violin and cornet, heard mother singing, when in bed with the measles, I had tried myself out on the little violin".
He had received the instrument from his mother. He learned the violin and piano as a child and wrote his earliest compositions at the age of eight or nine: a lullaby, now lost, a polka which the composer mentioned in his autobiography; as his parents did not believe he had any future as a musician, they apprenticed him to a shopkeeper from a nearby village when he was fourteen. After learning to play brass instruments, on 1 November 1879 he became a bugler and alto trombonist in the band of the army's 16th Battalion at nearby Odense. Nielsen did not give up the violin during his time with the battalion, continuing to play it when he went home to perform at dances with his father; the army paid him three kroner and 45 øre and a loaf of bread every five days for two and a half years, after which his salary was raised enabling him to buy the civilian clothes he needed to perform at barn dances. In 1881, Nielsen began to take his violin playing more studying under Carl Larsen, the sexton at Odense Cathedral.
It is not known how much Nielsen composed during this period, but from his autobiography, it can be deduced that he wrote some trios and quartets for brass instruments, that he had difficulty in coming to terms with the fact that brass instruments were tuned in different keys. Following an introduction to Niels W. Gade, the director of the Royal Academy in Copenhagen, by whom he was well received, Nielsen obtained his release from the military band at short notice, studied at the Academy from the beginning of 1884. Though not an outstanding student and composing little, Nielsen progressed well in violin under Valdemar Tofte, received a solid grounding in music theory from Orla Rosenhoff, who would remain a valued adviser during his early years as a professional composer, he studied composition under Gade, whom he liked as a friend but not for his music. Contacts with fellow students and cultured families in Copenhagen, some of whom would become lifelong friends, became important; the patchy education resulting from his country background left Nielsen insatiably curious about the arts and aesthetics.
But, in the opinion of the musicologist David Fanning, it left him "with a pe
The piccolo is a half-size flute, a member of the woodwind family of musical instruments. The modern piccolo has most of the same fingerings as its larger sibling, the standard transverse flute, but the sound it produces is an octave higher than written; this gave rise to the name ottavino, which the instrument is called in the scores of Italian composers. It is called flauto piccolo or flautino. Piccolos are now manufactured in the key of C. In the early 20th century, piccolos were manufactured in D♭ as they were an earlier model of the modern piccolo, it was for this D♭ piccolo that John Philip Sousa wrote the famous solo in the final repeat of the closing section of his march "The Stars and Stripes Forever". In the orchestral setting, the piccolo player is designated as "piccolo/flute III", or "assistant principal"; the larger orchestras have designated this position as a solo position due to the demands of the literature. Piccolos are orchestrated to double the violins or the flutes, adding sparkle and brilliance to the overall sound because of the aforementioned one-octave transposition upwards.
In concert band settings, the piccolo is always used and a piccolo part is always available. The piccolo had no keys, should not be confused with the fife, which traditionally was one-piece, had a smaller bore and produced a more strident sound; the Swiss piccolo is used in conjunction with marching drums in traditional formations at the Carnival of Basel, Switzerland. It is a myth that one of the earliest pieces to use the piccolo was Ludwig van Beethoven's Symphony No. 5 in C Minor, premiered in December 1808. Although neither Joseph Haydn nor Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart used it in their symphonies, some of their contemporaries did, including Franz Anton Hoffmeister, Franz Xaver Süssmayr and Michael Haydn. Mozart used the piccolo in his opera Idomeneo. Opera orchestras in Paris sometimes included small transverse flutes at the octave as early as 1735 as existing scores by Jean-Philippe Rameau show. Although once made of wood, glass or ivory, piccolos today are made from plastic, brass, nickel silver, a variety of hardwoods, most grenadilla.
Finely made piccolos are available with a variety of options similar to the flute, such as the split-E mechanism. Most piccolos have a conical body with a cylindrical head, like the Baroque flute and flutes before the popularization of the Boehm bore used in modern flutes. Unlike other woodwind instruments, in most wooden piccolos, the tenon joint that connects the head to the body has two interference fit points that surround both the cork and metal side of the piccolo body joint. There are a number of pieces for piccolo alone, by such composers as Samuel Adler, Miguel del Aguila, Robert Dick, Michael Isaacson, David Loeb, Polly Moller, Vincent Persichetti, Karlheinz Stockhausen. Repertoire for piccolo and piano, many of which are sonatas have been composed by Miguel del Águila, Robert Baksa, Robert Beaser, Rob du Bois, Howard J. Buss, Eugene Damare, Pierre Max Dubois, Raymond Guiot, Lowell Liebermann, Peter Schickele, Michael Daugherty, Gary Schocker. Concertos have been composed for piccolo, including those by Lowell Liebermann, Sir Peter Maxwell Davies, Todd Goodman, Martin Amlin, Will Gay Bottje, Bruce Broughton, Valentino Bucchi, Avner Dorman, Jean Doué, Michael Easton, Egil Hovland, Guus Janssen, Daniel Pinkham and Jeff Manookian.
Additionally, there is now a selection of chamber music. One example is Stockhausen's Zungenspitzentanz, for piccolo and two euphoniums, with optional percussionist and dancer. Another is George Crumb's Madrigals, Book II for soprano and percussion. Other examples include the Quintet for Piccolo and String Quartet by Graham Waterhouse and Malambo for piccolo, double bass, piano by Miguel del Aguila. Published trios for three piccolos include Quelque Chose canadienne by Nancy Nourse and Bird Tango by Crt Sojar Voglar for three piccolos with piano. Petrushka's Ghost for eight piccolos by Melvin Lauf, Jr. and Una piccolo sinfonia for nine piccolos by Matthew King are two more examples. Gippo, Jan; the Complete Piccolo: A Comprehensive Guide to Fingerings and History, second edition, foreword by Laurie Sokoloff. Bryn Mawr: Theodore Presser Company, 2008. ISBN 978-1-59806-111-6 The Woodwind Fingering Guide, with piccolo fingerings
Symphonie fantastique: Épisode de la vie d'un artiste... en cinq parties Op. 14, is a program symphony written by the French composer Hector Berlioz in 1830. It is an important piece of the early Romantic period; the first performance was at the Paris Conservatoire on 5 December 1830. Franz Liszt made a piano transcription of the symphony in 1833. Leonard Bernstein described the symphony as the first musical expedition into psychedelia because of its hallucinatory and dream-like nature, because history suggests Berlioz composed at least a portion of it under the influence of opium. According to Bernstein, "Berlioz tells. You take a trip, you wind up screaming at your own funeral."In 1831, Berlioz wrote a lesser-known sequel to the work, Lélio, for actor and chorus. Symphonie fantastique is a piece of program music that tells the story of an artist gifted with a lively imagination who has poisoned himself with opium in the depths of despair because of hopeless, unrequited love. Berlioz provided his own program notes for each movement of the work.
They exist in two principal versions – one from 1845 in the first score of the work and the second from 1855. From the revised preface and notes, it can be seen how Berlioz in his life, downplayed the programmatic aspect of the work. In the first score from 1845, he writes: In the 1855 preface, a different outlook towards the work's programmatic undertones is established by Berlioz: After attending a performance of Shakespeare's Hamlet on 11 September 1827, Berlioz fell in love with the Irish actress Harriet Smithson who had played the role of Ophelia, he sent her numerous love letters. When she left Paris, they had still not met. Berlioz wrote Symphonie fantastique as a way to express his unrequited love. Harriet did not attend the premiere in 1830, but she heard the work in 1832 and realized Berlioz's genius; the two met and were married on 3 October 1833. However, their marriage became bitter, they separated after several years of unhappiness; the score calls for a total of over 90 instruments: Berlioz specified at least 15 1st violins, 15 2nd violins, 10 violas, 11 celli and 9 basses on the score.
The symphony has five movements, instead of four as was conventional for symphonies of the time: Each movement depicts an episode in the protagonist's life, described by Berlioz in the program notes to the 1845 score. These program notes are quoted in each section below; the first movement is radical in its harmonic outline. It is here that the listener is introduced to the theme of the idée fixe; the idée fixe begins: Throughout the movement there is a simplicity in the way melodies and themes are presented, which Robert Schumann likened to Beethoven's epigrams' ideas that could be extended had the composer chosen to. In part, it is because Berlioz rejected writing the more symmetrical melodies in academic fashion, instead looked for melodies that were "so intense in every note as to defy normal harmonization", as Schumann put it; the theme itself was taken from Berlioz's scène lyrique "Herminie", composed in 1828. The second movement is a waltz in 38, it begins with a mysterious introduction that creates an atmosphere of impending excitement, followed by a passage dominated by two harps.
More formal statements of the idée fixe twice interrupt the waltz. The movement is the only one to feature the two harps, providing the glamour and sensual richness of the ball, may symbolize the object of the young man's affection. Berlioz wrote extensively in his memoirs of his trials and tribulations in having this symphony performed, due to a lack of capable harpists and harps in Germany. Another feature of this movement is that Berlioz added a part for solo cornet to his autograph score, although it was not included in the score published in his lifetime; the work has most been played and recorded without the solo cornet part. However, conductors Jean Martinon, Colin Davis, Otto Klemperer, Gustavo Dudamel, John Eliot Gardiner, Charles Mackerras, Jos van Immerseel and Leonard Slatkin have employed this part for cornet in performances of the symphony; the third movement is a slow movement, marked Adagio, in 68. The two shepherds mentioned in the program notes are depicted by a cor anglais and an offstage oboe tossing an evocative melody back and forth.
After the cor anglais–oboe conversation, the principal theme of the movement appears on solo flute and violins. It begins with: Berlioz salvaged this theme from his abandoned Messe solennelle; the idée fixe returns in the middle of the movement, played by flute. The sound of distant thunder at the end of the movement is a striking passage for four timpani. Berlioz claimed to have written the fourth movement in a single night, reconstructing music from an unfinished project, the opera Les francs-juges; the movement begins with timpani sextuplets in thirds, for which he directs: "he first quaver of each half-bar is to be played with two drumsticks, the other five with the right hand drumsticks". The movement proceeds as a march filled with blaring horns and rushing passages, scurrying figures that show up in the last movement. Before the musical depiction of his execution, there is a brief, nostalgic recollection of the idée fixe in a solo clarinet, as though representing the last conscious thought of the soon-to-be-executed man.
This movement can be divided into sections accordin
Orchestration is the study or practice of writing music for an orchestra or of adapting music composed for another medium for an orchestra. Called "instrumentation", orchestration is the selection of different instruments to play the different parts of a musical work. For example, a work for solo piano could be adapted and orchestrated so that an orchestra could perform the piece, or a concert band piece could be orchestrated for a symphony orchestra. Only over the course of music history did orchestration come to be regarded as a separate compositional art and profession in itself. In classical music, most composers write the melodies, chord progression and musical form for a piece and if they want the piece to be played by an orchestra, they orchestrate the piece themselves. In musical theatre, the composer writes the melodies and hires a professional arranger or orchestrator to devise the parts for the pit orchestra to play; when a film company is making a film score, a composer thinks up the main melodies and themes for the score, one or more orchestrators are hired to "flesh out" these basic melodies by adding accompaniment parts, backing chords, so on.
In jazz big bands, the composer or songwriter writes the lead sheet, which contains the melody and the chords, one or more orchestrators or arrangers "flesh out" these basic musical ideas by creating parts for the saxophones, trumpets and the rhythm section. An orchestrator is a trained musical professional who assigns instruments from an orchestra or other musical ensemble to a piece of music written by a composer, or who adapts music composed for another medium for an orchestra. Orchestrators may work for musical theatre productions, film production companies or recording studios; some orchestrators teach at conservatories or universities. The training done by orchestrators varies. Most have completed formal postsecondary education in music, such as a Bachelor of Music, Master of Music or an artist's diploma. Orchestrators who teach at universities and conservatories may be required to hold a master's degree or a Doctorate. Orchestrators who work for film companies, musical theatre companies and other organizations may be hired based on their orchestration experience if they do not hold academic credentials.
In the 2010s, as the percentage of faculty holding terminal degrees and/or Doctoral degrees is part of how an institution is rated, this is causing an increasing number of postsecondary institutions to require terminal and/or Doctoral degrees. The term orchestration in its specific sense refers to the way instruments are used to portray any musical aspect such as melody, harmony or rhythm. For example, a C major chord is made up of the notes C, E, G. If the notes are held out the entire duration of a measure, the composer or orchestrator will have to decide what instrument play this chord and in what register; some instruments, including woodwinds and brass are monophonic and can only play one note of the chord at a time. However, in a full orchestra there are more than one of these instruments, so the composer may choose to outline the chord in its basic form with a group of clarinets or trumpets. Other instruments, including the strings, piano and pitched percussion are polyphonic and may play more than one note at a time.
As such, if the composer/orchestrator wishes to have the strings play the C major chord, she could assign the low C to the cellos and basses, the G to the violas, a high E to the second violins and an E an octave higher to the first violins. If the composer/orchestrator wishes the chord to be played only by the first and second violins, she could give the second violins a low C and give the first violins a double stop of the notes G and E. Additionally in orchestration, notes may be placed into another register and altered with various levels of dynamics; the choice of instruments and dynamics affect the overall tone color. If the C major chord was orchestrated for the trumpets and trombones playing fortissimo in their upper registers, it would sound bright. Note that although the above example discussed orchestrating a chord, a melody or a single note may be orchestrated in this fashion. Note that in this specific sense of the word, orchestration is not limited to an orchestra, as a composer may orchestrate this same C major chord for, say, a woodwind quintet, a string quartet or a concert band.
Each different ensemble would enable the orchestrator/composer to create different tone "colours" and timbres. A melody is orchestrated; the composer or orchestrator may think of a melody in their head, or while playing the piano or organ. Once they have thought of a melody, they have to decide. One used approach for a melody is to assign it to the first violins; when the first violins play a melody, the composer can have the second violins double the melody an octave below, or have the second violins play a harmony part. Sometimes, for a forceful effect, a composer will indicate in the score that all of the strings will play the melo
Music notation or musical notation is any system used to visually represent aurally perceived music played with instruments or sung by the human voice through the use of written, printed, or otherwise-produced symbols. Types and methods of notation have varied between cultures and throughout history, much information about ancient music notation is fragmentary. In the same time period, such as in the 2010s, different styles of music and different cultures use different music notation methods; the symbols used include ancient symbols and modern symbols made upon any media such as symbols cut into stone, made in clay tablets, made using a pen on papyrus or parchment or manuscript paper. Although many ancient cultures used symbols to represent melodies and rhythms, none of them were comprehensive, this has limited today's understanding of their music; the seeds of what would become modern western notation were sown in medieval Europe, starting with the Catholic Church's goal for ecclesiastical uniformity.
The church began notating plainchant melodies so that the same chants could be used throughout the church. Music notation developed further in the Baroque music eras. In the classical period and the Romantic music era, notation continued to develop as new musical instrument technologies were developed. In the contemporary classical music of the 20th and 21st century, music notation has continued to develop, with the introduction of graphical notation by some modern composers and the use, since the 1980s, of computer-based score writer programs for notating music. Music notation has been adapted to many kinds of music, including classical music, popular music, traditional music; the earliest form of musical notation can be found in a cuneiform tablet, created at Nippur, in Babylonia, in about 1400 BC. The tablet represents fragmentary instructions for performing music, that the music was composed in harmonies of thirds, that it was written using a diatonic scale. A tablet from about 1250 BC shows a more developed form of notation.
Although the interpretation of the notation system is still controversial, it is clear that the notation indicates the names of strings on a lyre, the tuning of, described in other tablets. Although they are fragmentary, these tablets represent the earliest notated melodies found anywhere in the world. Ancient Greek musical notation was in use from at least the 6th century BC until the 4th century AD; the notation consists of symbols placed above text syllables. An example of a complete composition is the Seikilos epitaph, variously dated between the 2nd century BC to the 1st century AD. Three hymns by Mesomedes of Crete exist in manuscript; the Delphic Hymns, dated to the 2nd century BC use this notation, but they are not preserved. Ancient Greek notation appears to have fallen out of use around the time of the Decline of the Western Roman Empire. Byzantine music has survived as music for court ceremonies, including vocal religious music, it is not known if it is based on the monodic modal singing and instrumental music of Ancient Greece.
Greek theoretical categories played a key role to understand and transmit Byzantine music the tradition of Damascus had a strong impact on the pre-Islamic Near East comparable to Persian music. Unlike Western notation Byzantine neumes always indicate modal steps in relation to a clef or modal key; this key or the incipit of a common melody was enough to indicate a certain melodic model given within the echos. Despite ekphonetic notation further early melodic notation developed not earlier than between the 9th and the 10th century. Like the Greek alphabet notational signs are ordered left to right; the question of rhythm was based on cheironomia, well-known melodical phrases given by gestures of the choirleaders, which existed once as part of an oral tradition. Today the main difference between Western and Eastern neumes is that Eastern notation symbols are differential rather than absolute, i.e. they indicate pitch steps, the musicians know to deduce from the score and the note they are singing presently, which correct interval is meant.
These step symbols themselves, or better "phonic neumes", resemble brush strokes and are colloquially called gántzoi in Modern Greek. Notes as pitch classes or modal keys are represented in written form only between these neumes. In modern notation they serve as an optional reminder and modal and tempo directions have been added, if necessary. In Papadic notation medial signatures meant a temporary change into another echos; the so-called "great signs" were once related to cheironomic signs. Since Chrysanthos of Madytos there are seven standard note names used for "solfège" pá, vú, ghá, dhē, ké, zō, nē, while the older practice still used t
Glossary of musical terminology
This is a list of musical terms that are to be encountered in printed scores, music reviews, program notes. Most of the terms are Italian, in accordance with the Italian origins of many European musical conventions. Sometimes, the special musical meanings of these phrases differ from the original or current Italian meanings. Most of the other terms are taken from French and German, indicated by "Fr." and "Ger.", respectively. Unless specified, the terms are English; the list can never be complete: some terms are common, others are used only and new ones are coined from time to time. Some composers prefer terms from their own language rather than the standard terms listed here. I in violin family instrument music, used to indicate that the player should play the passage on the highest-pitched, thinnest string 1′ "Sifflet" or one foot organ stop 1 3⁄5′ Tierce organ stop 2′ Two feet – pipe organ indication. Not recommended in string parts, due to possible confusion with battuto. A bene placito Up to the performer a cappella a capriccio A free and capricious approach to tempo a due intended as a duet.
Sight-reading a tempo In time. Acciaccatura Crushing accompagnato Accompanied accuratezza Precision. Con accuratezza: with precision acoustic Relating to music produced by instruments, as opposed to electric or electronic means ad libitum At liberty adagietto Fairly slow adagio At ease adagissimo Very slow affannato, affannoso Anguished affetto or con affetto with affect affettuoso, affettuosamente, or affectueusement With affect. Alto High.