Dynasties in Chinese history
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|History of China|
|Neolithic c. 8500 – c. 2070 BC|
|Xia c. 2070 – c. 1600 BC|
|Shang c. 1600 – c. 1046 BC|
|Zhou c. 1046 – 256 BC|
|Spring and Autumn|
|Qin 221–207 BC|
|Han 202 BC – 220 AD|
|Three Kingdoms 220–280|
|Wei, Shu and Wu|
|Eastern Jin||Sixteen Kingdoms|
|Northern and Southern dynasties|
|(Wu Zhou 690–705)|
|Five Dynasties and
|Northern Song||Western Xia|
|Republic of China 1912–1949|
|People's Republic of China 1949–present|
Prior to the abdication of the Xuantong Emperor on 12 February 1912 in the wake of the Xinhai Revolution, China was ruled by a series of successive dynasties. Dividing the history of China into periods ruled by dynasties is a common method of periodization utilized by scholars; the following is a non-comprehensive list of the dynasties in Chinese history.
Transition between dynasties
One might incorrectly infer from viewing historical timelines that transitions between dynasties occurred abruptly and roughly. Rather, new dynasties were often established before the complete overthrow of an existing regime. For example, 1644 CE is frequently cited as the year in which the Qing dynasty succeeded the preceding Ming dynasty in possessing the Mandate of Heaven. However, the Qing dynasty was officially proclaimed in 1636 CE by the Emperor Taizong of Qing through renaming the Later Jin established by his father the Emperor Taizu of Qing in 1616 CE, while the Ming imperial family would rule the Southern Ming until 1662 CE; the Ming loyalist Kingdom of Tungning based in Taiwan continued to oppose the Qing until 1683 CE. Meanwhile, other factions also fought for control over China during the Ming–Qing transition, most notably the Shun and Xi dynasties proclaimed by Li Zicheng and Zhang Xianzhong respectively; this change of ruling houses was a convoluted and prolonged affair, and the Qing took almost two decades to extend their rule over the entirety of China proper.
According to Chinese historiographical tradition, each new dynasty would compose the history of the preceding dynasty, culminating in the Twenty-Four Histories; this cycle was disrupted, however, when the Xinhai Revolution overthrew the Qing dynasty in favor of a republic. Later on, an attempt by the Republicans to draft the history of the Qing was disrupted by the Chinese Civil War, which resulted in the political division of China into the People's Republic of China on mainland China and the Republic of China on Taiwan.
China during periods of political division
China was divided during multiple periods in its history, with different regions ruled by different dynasties. Examples of such division include the Three Kingdoms, Sixteen Kingdoms, Northern and Southern dynasties, and Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms periods, among others.
Relations between Chinese dynasties during periods of division often revolved around political legitimacy, which was derived from the doctrine of the Mandate of Heaven. Dynasties ruled by ethnic Han Chinese would proclaim rival dynasties founded by other ethnicities as illegitimate, usually justified based on the concept of Hua–Yi distinction. On the other hand, many dynasties of non-Han Chinese origin regarded themselves as the legitimate dynasty of China and saw themselves as the true inheritor of Chinese culture and history. Traditionally, only regimes deemed as "legitimate" or "orthodox" are termed cháo (朝; lit. "dynasty"); "illegitimate" regimes are referred to as guó (國; usually translated as either "state" or "kingdom"[a]), even if these regimes were dynastic in nature. The political legitimacy status of some of these dynasties remain contentious among modern scholars.
Such legitimacy dispute existed during the following periods:
- Three Kingdoms
- Cao Wei, Shu Han, and Eastern Wu considered themselves as legitimate while simultaneously denouncing the rivaling claims of others
- The Emperor Xian of Han abdicated in favor of the Emperor Wen of Cao Wei, hence Cao Wei directly succeeded the Eastern Han in the timeline of Chinese history
- The Western Jin accepted Cao Wei as the legitimate dynasty of the Three Kingdoms period and claimed succession from it
- Eastern Jin and Sixteen Kingdoms
- Northern and Southern dynasties
- All dynasties during this period saw themselves as the legitimate representative of China
- Liao, Song, and Jin dynasties
- Both the Northern Song and Southern Song considered themselves as the legitimate Chinese dynasty
- The Jin dynasty challenged the Song's claim of legitimacy
- The succeeding Yuan dynasty recognized all three as legitimate Chinese dynasties, culminating in the composition of the History of Liao, the History of Song, and the History of Jin
- Ming and Northern Yuan dynasties
- The Ming dynasty recognized the preceding Yuan dynasty as a legitimate Chinese dynasty, but asserted that it had succeeded the Mandate of Heaven from the Yuan, thus considering the Northern Yuan as illegitimate
- Northern Yuan rulers continued to claim the "Great Yuan" dynastic title and used Chinese imperial titles until 1388 CE; Chinese titles were subsequently restored during several occasions for brief periods
- Qing and Southern Ming dynasties
- The Qing dynasty recognized the preceding Ming dynasty as legitimate, but asserted that it had succeeded the Mandate of Heaven from the Ming, thus refuting the claimed legitimacy of the Southern Ming
- The Southern Ming continued to claim legitimacy until its eventual defeat by the Qing
- The Ming loyalist Kingdom of Tungning in Taiwan denounced the Qing dynasty as illegitimate
In Chinese historiography, the names of dynasties were most commonly derived directly from their respective guóhào (國號; lit. "name of the state"). For instance, the Sui dynasty (隋朝) is known as such because its formal name was "Sui" (隋). Likewise, the Jin dynasty (金朝) was officially the "Great Jin" (大金), it was customary for Chinese monarchs to adopt a guóhào upon the founding of a dynasty, even though there were instances whereby the official name was changed during the reign of a dynasty. For example, the dynasty known retroactively as "Southern Han" (南漢) initially used the name "Great Yue" (大越), only to be renamed "Han" (漢) subsequently.
The formal name of Chinese dynasties were usually derived from the following sources:
- the name of the ruling tribe or tribal confederation
- e.g., the Xia dynasty took its name from its ruling class, the Xia tribal confederation
- the noble title held by the dynastic founder prior to the founding of the dynasty
- the name of a historical state that occupied the same geographical location as the new dynasty
- the name of a previous dynasty from which the new dynasty claimed descent or succession from, even if such familial links were questionable
- a term with auspicious or other significant meanings
When more than one dynasty shared the same Chinese character(s) as their official name, as was common in Chinese history, prefixes are retroactively applied to dynastic names by historians to distinguish between these similarly-named realms. Frequently used prefixes include:
- cardinal direction
- surname of the ruling family
- other types of prefixes
A dynasty could be referred to by more than one retroactive name in Chinese historiography, albeit some are more widely used than others. For instance, the Liu Song (劉宋) is also known as the "Former Song" (前宋), and the Yang Wu (楊吳) is also called the "Southern Wu" (南吳).
In Chinese sources, the term "dynasty" (朝; cháo) is usually omitted when referencing dynasties that have prefixes in their historiographical names; such a practice is sometimes adopted in English usage, even though the inclusion of the word "dynasty" is also widely seen in English scholarly writings. For example, the Northern Zhou is also sometimes referred to as the "Northern Zhou dynasty".
List of Chinese dynasties
This list includes only major dynasties of China. Due to the large number of dynastic polities in Chinese history, minor and short-lived realms (e.g., Nanyue, Zhai Wei, Shun dynasty) will not be listed.
|Dynasty||Rulers||Ruling house||Rule||Founder||Last monarch|
|English name[b]||Chinese name[b]||Pinyin||Origin of name||Surname||Ethnicity||From||To||Term|
|Xia dynasty||夏朝||Xià Cháo||Tribe name||(list)||Si (姒)||Huaxia||2070 BCE||1600 BCE||470 years||Yu of Xia||Jie of Xia|
|Shang dynasty||商朝||Shāng Cháo||Toponym||(list)||Zi (子)||Huaxia||1600 BCE||1046 BCE||554 years||Tang of Shang||Zhou of Shang|
|Western Zhou[c]||西周||Xī Zhōu||Toponym||(list)||Ji (姬)||Huaxia||1046 BCE[d]||771 BCE||275 years||Wu of Zhou||You of Zhou|
|Eastern Zhou[c]||東周||Dōng Zhōu||From Zhou dynasty||(list)||Ji (姬)||Huaxia||770 BCE||256 BCE||514 years||Ping of Zhou||Nan of Zhou|
|Early Imperial China|
|Qin dynasty||秦朝||Qín Cháo||Toponym||(list)||Ying (嬴)||Huaxia||221 BCE||207 BCE||14 years||Qin Shi Huang||Qin San Shi|
|Western Han[e]||西漢||Xī Hàn||Toponym & Noble title||(list)||Liu (劉)||Han||202 BCE||CE 9||210 years||Gao of Han||Liu Ying|
|Xin dynasty||新朝||Xīn Cháo||"New"||(list)||Wang (王)||Han||CE 9||CE 23||14 years||Wang Mang||Wang Mang|
|Eastern Han[e]||東漢||Dōng Hàn||From Han dynasty||(list)||Liu (劉)||Han||CE 25||CE 220||195 years||Guangwu of Han||Xian of Han|
|Three Kingdoms||三國||Sān Guó||(list)||CE 220||CE 280||60 years|
|Cao Wei||曹魏||Cáo Wèi||Noble title||Cao (曹)||Han||CE 220||CE 266||46 years||Wen of Cao Wei||Yuan of Cao Wei|
|Shu Han||蜀漢||Shǔ Hàn||Han dynasty||Liu (劉)||Han||CE 221||CE 263||42 years||Zhaolie of Shu Han||Liu Shan|
|Eastern Wu||東吳||Dōng Wú||Noble title||Sun (孫)||Han||CE 222||CE 280||58 years||Da of Eastern Wu||Sun Hao|
|Western Jin[f][g]||西晉||Xī Jìn||Noble title||(list)||Sima (司馬)||Han||CE 266||CE 316||50 years||Wu of Jin||Min of Jin|
|Eastern Jin[f][g]||東晉||Dōng Jìn||From Jin dynasty||(list)||Sima (司馬)||Han||CE 317||CE 420||103 years||Yuan of Jin||Gong of Jin|
|Sixteen Kingdoms||十六國||Shí Liù Guó||(list)||CE 304||CE 439||135 years|
|Han Zhao||漢趙||Hàn Zhào||Toponym & Han dynasty||Liu (劉)||Xiongnu||CE 304||CE 329||25 years||Guangwen of Han Zhao||Liu Yao|
|Cheng Han||成漢||Chéng Hàn||Toponym & Han dynasty||Li (李)||Di||CE 304||CE 347||43 years||Wu of Cheng Han||Li Shi|
|Former Liang||前涼||Qián Liáng||Toponym||Zhang (張)||Han||CE 314||CE 376||62 years||Ming of Former Liang||Zhang Tianxi|
|Later Zhao||後趙||Hòu Zhào||Noble title||Shi (石)||Jie||CE 319||CE 351||32 years||Ming of Later Zhao||Shi Zhi|
|Former Yan||前燕||Qián Yān||Toponym||Murong (慕容)||Xianbei||CE 337||CE 370||33 years||Wenming of Former Yan||You of Former Yan|
|Former Qin||前秦||Qián Qín||Toponym||Fu (苻)||Di||CE 351||CE 394||43 years||Jingming of Former Qin||Fu Chong|
|Later Qin||後秦||Hòu Qín||Toponym||Yao (姚)||Qiang||CE 384||CE 417||33 years||Wuzhao of Later Qin||Yao Hong|
|Later Yan||後燕||Hòu Yān||From Former Yan||Murong (慕容)||Xianbei||CE 384||CE 407||23 years||Chengwu of Later Yan||Zhaowen of Later Yan|
Huiyi of Yan[h]
|Western Qin||西秦||Xī Qín||Toponym||Qifu (乞伏)||Xianbei||CE 385||CE 431||37 years[i]||Wuyuan of Western Qin||Qifu Mumo|
|Later Liang[j]||後涼||Hòu Liáng||Toponym||Lü (呂)||Di||CE 386||CE 403||17 years||Yiwu of Later Liang||Lü Long|
|Southern Liang||南涼||Nán Liáng||Toponym||Tufa (禿髮)||Xianbei||CE 397||CE 414||17 years||Wu of Southern Liang||Jing of Southern Liang|
|Northern Liang||北涼||Běi Liáng||Toponym||Juqu (沮渠)||Xiongnu||CE 397||CE 439||42 years||Duan Ye
Wuxuan of Northern Liang
|Ai of Northern Liang|
|Southern Yan||南燕||Nán Yān||From Former Yan||Murong (慕容)||Xianbei||CE 398||CE 410||12 years||Xianwu of Southern Yan||Murong Chao|
|Western Liang||西涼||Xī Liáng||Toponym||Li (李)||Han||CE 400||CE 421||21 years||Wuzhao of Western Liang||Li Xun|
|Hu Xia||胡夏||Hú Xià||Xia dynasty||Helian (赫連)[k]||Xiongnu||CE 407||CE 431||24 years||Wulie of Hu Xia||Helian Ding|
|Northern Yan||北燕||Běi Yān||From Former Yan||Feng (馮)||Han||CE 407||CE 436||29 years||Huiyi of Yan[h]
Wencheng of Northern Yan
|Zhaocheng of Northern Yan|
|Northern dynasties||北朝||Běi Cháo||(list)||CE 386||CE 581||195 years|
|Northern Wei||北魏||Běi Wèi||Toponym||Tuoba (拓跋)[l]||Xianbei||CE 386||CE 534||148 years||Daowu of Northern Wei||Xiaowu of Northern Wei|
|Eastern Wei||東魏||Dōng Wèi||From Northern Wei||Yuan (元)||Xianbei||CE 534||CE 550||16 years||Xiaojing of Eastern Wei||Xiaojing of Eastern Wei|
|Western Wei||西魏||Xī Wèi||From Northern Wei||Yuan (元)[m]||Xianbei||CE 535||CE 557||22 years||Wen of Western Wei||Gong of Western Wei|
|Northern Qi||北齊||Běi Qí||Noble title||Gao (高)||Han||CE 550||CE 577||27 years||Wenxuan of Northern Qi||Gao Heng|
|Northern Zhou||北周||Běi Zhōu||Noble title||Yuwen (宇文)||Xianbei||CE 557||CE 581||24 years||Xiaomin of Northern Zhou||Jing of Northern Zhou|
|Southern dynasties||南朝||Nán Cháo||(list)||CE 420||CE 589||169 years|
|Liu Song||劉宋||Liú Sòng||Noble title||Liu (劉)||Han||CE 420||CE 479||59 years||Wu of Liu Song||Shun of Liu Song|
|Southern Qi||南齊||Nán Qí||A prophecy on defeating the Liu clan||Xiao (蕭)||Han||CE 479||CE 502||23 years||Gao of Southern Qi||He of Southern Qi|
|Liang dynasty||梁朝||Liáng Cháo||Toponym||Xiao (蕭)||Han||CE 502||CE 557||55 years||Wu of Liang||Jing of Liang|
|Chen dynasty||陳朝||Chén Cháo||Noble title||Chen (陳)||Han||CE 557||CE 589||32 years||Wu of Chen||Chen Shubao|
|Middle Imperial China|
|Sui dynasty||隋朝||Suí Cháo||Noble title
|(list)||Yang (楊)[n]||Han||CE 581||CE 618||37 years||Wen of Sui||Gong of Sui|
|Tang dynasty||唐朝||Táng Cháo||Noble title||(list)||Li (李)||Han||CE 618||CE 907||274 years[o]||Gaozu of Tang||Ai of Tang|
|Wu Zhou||武周||Wǔ Zhōu||Zhou dynasty||(list)||Wu (武)||Han||CE 690||CE 705||15 years||Wu Zhao||Wu Zhao|
|Five Dynasties||五代||Wǔ Dài||(list)||CE 907||CE 960||53 years|
|Later Liang[j]||後梁||Hòu Liáng||Noble title||Zhu (朱)||Han||CE 907||CE 923||16 years||Taizu of Later Liang||Zhu Youzhen|
|Later Tang||後唐||Hòu Táng||Tang dynasty||Li (李)[p]||Shatuo||CE 923||CE 937||14 years||Zhuangzong of Later Tang||Li Congke|
|Later Jin[q]||後晉||Hòu Jìn||Toponym||Shi (石)||Shatuo||CE 936||CE 947||11 years||Gaozu of Later Jin||Chu of Later Jin|
|Later Han||後漢||Hòu Hàn||Han dynasty||Liu (劉)||Shatuo||CE 947||CE 951||4 years||Gaozu of Later Han||Yin of Later Han|
|Later Zhou||後周||Hòu Zhōu||Zhou dynasty||Guo (郭)||Han||CE 951||CE 960||9 years||Taizu of Later Zhou||Gong of Later Zhou|
|Ten Kingdoms||十國||Shí Guó||(list)||CE 907||CE 979||62 years|
|Wuyue||吳越||Wúyuè||Toponym||Qian (錢)||Han||CE 907||CE 978||71 years||Taizu of Wuyue||Zhongyi of Wuyue|
|Ma Chu||馬楚||Mǎ Chǔ||Toponym||Ma (馬)||Han||CE 907||CE 951||44 years||Wumu of Ma Chu||Ma Xichong|
|Yang Wu||楊吳||Yáng Wú||Toponym||Yang (楊)||Han||CE 907||CE 937||30 years||Taizu of Yang Wu
Liezu of Yang Wu
|Rui of Yang Wu|
|Former Shu||前蜀||Qián Shǔ||Toponym / Noble title||Wang (王)||Han||CE 907||CE 925||18 years||Gaozu of Former Shu||Wang Yan|
|Min||閩||Mǐn||Toponym||Wang (王)||Han||CE 909||CE 945||36 years||Taizu of Min||Tiande of Min|
|Southern Han||南漢||Nán Hàn||Han dynasty||Liu (劉)||Han||CE 917||CE 971||54 years||Gaozu of Southern Han||Liu Chang|
|Jingnan||荊南||Jīngnán||Toponym||Gao (高)||Han||CE 924||CE 963||39 years||Wuxin of Chu||Gao Jichong|
|Later Shu||後蜀||Hòu Shǔ||Toponym||Meng (孟)||Han||CE 934||CE 965||31 years||Gaozu of Later Shu||Meng Chang|
|Southern Tang||南唐||Nán Táng||Tang dynasty||Li (李)||Han||CE 937||CE 975||36 years||Liezu of Southern Tang||Li Yu|
|Northern Han||北漢||Běi Hàn||From Later Han||Liu (劉)||Shatuo||CE 951||CE 979||28 years||Shizu of Northern Han||Yingwu of Northern Han|
|Northern Song[r]||北宋||Běi Sòng||Toponym||(list)||Zhao (趙)||Han||CE 960||CE 1127||167 years||Taizu of Song||Qinzong of Song|
|Southern Song[r]||南宋||Nán Sòng||From Song dynasty||(list)||Zhao (趙)||Han||CE 1127||CE 1279||152 years||Gaozong of Song||Zhao Bing|
|Liao dynasty||遼朝||Liáo Cháo||"Vast" or "Iron"
|(list)||Yelü (; 耶律)||Khitan||CE 916||CE 1125||209 years||Taizu of Liao||Tianzuo of Liao|
|Western Liao||西遼||Xī Liáo||From Liao dynasty||(list)||Yelü (; 耶律)||Khitan||CE 1124||CE 1218||94 years||Dezong of Western Liao||Tianxi of Western Liao|
|Western Xia||西夏||Xī Xià||Toponym||(list)||Weiming (𗼨𗆟; 嵬名)[s]||Tangut||CE 1038||CE 1227||189 years||Jingzong of Western Xia||Li Xian|
|Jin dynasty[g]||金朝||Jīn Cháo||"Gold"||(list)||Wanyan
|Jurchen||CE 1115||CE 1234||119 years||Taizu of Jin||Wanyan Chenglin|
|Late Imperial China|
|Yuan dynasty||元朝||Yuán Cháo||"Great" or "Primacy"||(list)||Borjigin
|Mongol||CE 1271||CE 1368||97 years||Shizu of Yuan||Huizong of Yuan|
|Northern Yuan||北元||Běi Yuán||From Yuan dynasty||(list)||Borjigin
|Mongol||CE 1368||CE 1388[t]||20 years||Huizong of Yuan||Tianyuan of Northern Yuan|
|Ming dynasty||明朝||Míng Cháo||"Bright"||(list)||Zhu (朱)||Han||CE 1368||CE 1644||276 years||Hongwu||Chongzhen|
|Southern Ming||南明||Nán Míng||From Ming dynasty||(list)||Zhu (朱)||Han||CE 1644||CE 1662||18 years||Hongguang||Yongli|
|Later Jin[q]||後金||Hòu Jīn||Jin dynasty||(list)||Aisin Gioro
(ᠠᡳᠰᡳᠨ ᡤᡳᠣᡵᠣ; 愛新覺羅)
|Jurchen[u]||CE 1616||CE 1636||20 years||Tianming||Taizong of Qing|
|Qing dynasty||清朝||Qīng Cháo||"Pure"||(list)||Aisin Gioro
(ᠠᡳᠰᡳᠨ ᡤᡳᠣᡵᠣ; 愛新覺羅)
|Manchu||CE 1636||CE 1912||276 years||Taizong of Qing||Xuantong|
- Note: Major dynasties and time periods are highlighted.
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- The term "kingdom" is potentially misleading as not all rulers held the title of king. For example, sovereigns of the Eastern Wu used the title huángdì (皇帝; lit. "emperor") despite the realm being considered as one of the "Three Kingdoms". Similarly, monarchs of the Western Qin, one of the "Sixteen Kingdoms", bore the title wáng (王; usually translated as "prince").
- The English and Chinese names stated are historiographical nomenclature. These should not be confused with the guóhào officially proclaimed by each dynasty.
- The Western Zhou (西周) and Eastern Zhou (東周) are collectively known as the Zhou dynasty (周朝).
- All preceding dates are derived from the Xia–Shang–Zhou Chronology Project.
- The Western Han (西漢) and Eastern Han (東漢) are collectively known as the Han dynasty (漢朝).
- The Western Jin (西晉) and Eastern Jin (東晉) are collectively known as the Jin dynasty (晉朝).
- The names of the Jin dynasty (晉朝) of the Sima clan and the Jin dynasty (金朝) of the Wanyan clan are rendered similarly using the Hanyu Pinyin system, even though they do not share the same Chinese character for "Jin".
- The Emperor Huiyi of Yan could either be the last Later Yan monarch or the founder of the Northern Yan depending on the historian's characterization.
- The Western Qin was interrupted by the Later Qin between 400 CE and 409 CE. Chinese historiography does not make a distinction between the realm that existed before 400 CE and the restored realm.
- The names of the Later Liang (後涼) of the Lü clan and the Later Liang (後梁) of the Zhu clan are rendered similarly using the Hanyu Pinyin system, even though they do not share the same Chinese character for "Liang".
- The ruling house of the Hu Xia initially bore the surname Liu (劉). The Emperor Wulie of Hu Xia subsequently adopted Helian (赫連) as the surname.
- The ruling house of the Northern Wei initially bore the surname Tuoba (拓跋). The Emperor Xiaowen of Northern Wei subsequently adopted Yuan (元) as the surname.
- The ruling house of the Western Wei initially bore the surname Yuan (元). The Emperor Gong of Western Wei subsequently adopted Tuoba (拓跋) as the surname.
- The ruling house of the Sui dynasty initially bore the surname Puliuru (普六茹). The Emperor Wen of Sui subsequently adopted Yang (楊) as the surname.
- The Tang dynasty was interrupted by the Wu Zhou between 690 CE and 705 CE. Chinese historiography does not make a distinction between the realm that existed before 690 CE and the restored realm; the duration of the Wu Zhou is not included within the count for the Tang dynasty.
- The ruling house of the Later Tang initially bore the surname Zhuye (朱邪). The Emperor Xianzu of Later Tang subsequently adopted Li (李) as the surname.
- The names of the Later Jin (後晉) of the Shi clan and the Later Jin (後金) of the Aisin Gioro clan are rendered similarly using the Hanyu Pinyin system, even though they do not share the same Chinese character for "Jin".
- The Northern Song (北宋) and Southern Song (南宋) are collectively known as the Song dynasty (宋朝).
- The ruling house of the Western Xia initially bore the surname Tuoba (拓跋). The Tang dynasty and Song dynasty later bestowed the family the surname Li (李) and Zhao (趙) respectively; the Emperor Jingzong of Western Xia subsequently adopted Weiming (嵬名) as the surname.
- The Northern Yuan is considered to have ended in 1388 CE by traditional Chinese historiography, even though some historians regard the Mongol regime that existed between 1388 CE and 1635 CE as a continuation of the Northern Yuan.
- The name of the Jurchen ethnic group was changed to "Manchu" in 1635 CE by the Emperor Taizong of Qing.
- "Chiang Kai-shek and retrocession". Taiwan: China Post. November 5, 2012. p. 2. Retrieved December 2, 2012.
- China Handbook Editorial Committee, China Handbook Series: History (trans., Dun J. Li), Beijing, 1982, 188–89; and Shao Chang Lee, "China Cultural Development" (wall chart), East Lansing, 1984.
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