Gentofte is a district of Gentofte Municipality in the northern suburbs of Copenhagen, Denmark. Major landmarks include Gentofte Town Hall, Gentofte Hospital and Gentofte Church, Gentofte Lake with surrpunding parkland and nature reserves form the most important greenspace. Gentofte is roughly bounded by Lyngbyvej to the west, theS-train line to Hillerød to the northeast, Bernstorffsvej to the east, the southern border with Hellerup is, not clearly defined. Gentofte postal district has a different definition. Gentofte, as defined by Gentofte Municipality, covers circa 335 hectares or 13% of the municipalitys total, on 1 January 2012 the district had 8,289 residents, equaling 11% of the total population of Gentofte Municipality. Gentofte Lake is a dominant geographical feature, the most urban part of the district is centred on the central part of Gentoftegade, Gentofte Torv and part of Baunegårdsvej. Secondary centre are located in the periphery of the district at Bernstorffsvej, the area around Gentofte Lake has been inhabited since the Stone Age.
The name Gentofte is first seen in a letter from Absalon to the Bishop of Roskilde from 11186. The gift comprises extensive parts of what is now Copenhagen, including. mansionem de Gefnetofte cum omnibus pertenentiis suis, Gentofte is most likely considerably older since place names with the suffix -tofte have usually emerged during the 9th century. The area was confiscated by the crown during the Reformation and it was placed under Ibstrup Ladegård which was renamed Jægersborg by Christian V. Tax records show that Gentofte had approximately 450 residents in 1645, in 1685 the village consisted of 19 farms. One of them had given to Queen Charlotte Amalie as a wedding present. A cavalry school, the first of its kund in Denmark, the entire area was acquired by Foreign Minister Johann Hartwig Ernst von Bernstorff in 1752 and his new Bernstorff Palace was completed in 1765. Bernstorffsvej, a new road linking Lyngby Kongevej with the palace, Bernstorff was a driving force behind the agricultural reforms of the 1780s and the farmers were there the first in Denmark to get to own their own land.
Most of the farms were moved out of the village to be closer to their land, a parish counvil was established in 1842. The opening of the railway to Lyngby in 1863 resulted in increased growth in Gentofte. In the 1870s, the population increased from 4,158 to 5,106 In 1887 and his plan was to sell it off in lots to developers and private citizens. He purchased Smakkegård, Rygård, Lundegård and Stengård in Gentofte, in 1916, Ibsen placed his remaining land in a company, A/S De Ibsenske Grunde i Gjentofte Sogn, which existed until 1945
Klampenborg is a northern suburb to Copenhagen, Denmark. It is located in Gentofte Municipality, directly on Øresund, between Taarbæk and Skovshoved, like other neighbourhoods along the Øresund coast, Klampenborg is an affluent area with many large houses. Klampenborg is known for a cluster of building projects by the Functionalist Danish architect Arne Jacobsen and these include Bellevue Beach, the Bellavista housing estate and the Bellevue Theatre, all completed between 1932–36 as some of the earliest Danish examples of Modernism. The area includes a Jacobsen-designed restaurant, now called Jacobsen, Klampenborg is the main gateway to the extensive Deer Garden forest park, one of the most popular natural areas in the Copenhagen area, known for its large deer population and ancient oak trees. The entrance, one of many, is located next to Klampenborg Station and is marked by a red-painted wooden gate. In connection with the lies the oldest operating amusement park in the world, Dyrehavsbakken
Performing unmasked, with a whitened face, he wears a loose white blouse with large buttons and wide white pantaloons. Sometimes he appears with a frilled collaret and a hat, usually with a crown and wide round brim. But most frequently, since his reincarnation under Jean-Gaspard Deburau, he wears neither collar nor hat, the defining characteristic of Pierrot is his naïveté, he is seen as a fool, often the butt of pranks, yet nonetheless trusting. It was a generally buffoonish Pierrot that held the European stage for the first two centuries of his history. For Jules Janin and Théophile Gautier, Pierrot was not a fool but an avatar of the post-Revolutionary People, sometimes tragically, in short, Pierrot became an alter-ego of the artist, specifically of the famously alienated artist of the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. Much of that mythic quality still adheres to the sad clown of the postmodern era and he is sometimes said to be a French variant of the sixteenth-century Italian Pedrolino, but the two types have little but their names and social stations in common.
Both are comic servants, but Pedrolino, as a so-called first zanni, often acts with cunning and daring and his origins among the Italian players in France are most unambiguously traced to Molières character, the lovelorn peasant Pierrot, in Don Juan, or The Stone Guest. In 1673, probably inspired by Molières success, the Comédie-Italienne made its own contribution to the Don Juan legend with an Addendum to The Stone Guest and he acquires there a very distinctive personality. He seems an anomaly among the busy social creatures that surround him, he is isolated, Columbine laughs at his advances, his masters who are in pursuit of pretty young wives brush off his warnings to act their age. His is a voice, and his estrangement, however comic. But the character seems to have regarded as unimportant by this company. His real life in the theater in the century is to be found on the lesser stages of the capital. Sometimes he spoke gibberish, sometimes the audience itself sang his lines and this holds true even when sophisticated playwrights, such as Alain-René Lesage and his collaborators and Fuzelier, began to contribute more regular plays to the Foires.
The broad satirical streak in Lesage often rendered him indifferent to Pierrots character, and sometimes the most opposed to his personality. Besides making him a valet, a roasting specialist, a chef, a hash-house cook, in not a few of the early Foire plays, Pierrots character is therefore quite badly defined. In the main, Pierrots inaugural years at the Foires were rather degenerate ones, an important factor that probably hastened his degeneration was the multiplicity of his fairground interpreters. Not only actors but acrobats and dancers were quick to seize on his role, but in the 1720s, Pierrot at last came into his own. It was in the 1720s that Alexis Piron loaned his talents to the Foires, the retirement of Hamoche in 1733, writes Barberet, was fatal to Pierrot
Carnival is a Western Christian festive season that occurs before the liturgical season of Lent. The main events occur during February or early March, during the period historically known as Shrovetide. Carnival typically involves a public celebration and/or parade combining some elements of a circus, people wear masks and costumes during many such celebrations, allowing them to lose their everyday individuality and experience a heightened sense of social unity. Excessive consumption of alcohol and other foods proscribed during Lent is extremely common, the term Carnival is traditionally used in areas with a large Catholic presence. However, the Philippines, a predominantly Roman Catholic country, does not celebrate Carnival anymore since the dissolution of the Manila Carnival after 1939, in Slavic Eastern Orthodox nations, Maslenitsa is celebrated during the last week before Great Lent. In German-speaking Europe and the Netherlands, the Carnival season traditionally opens on 11/11 and this dates back to celebrations before the Advent season or with harvest celebrations of St.
Martins Day. Rio de Janeiro in Brazil is the biggest in the world, followed jointly by Barranquilla, alternative names are used for regional and local celebrations. The origin may be from the Italian word carne or carrus, the former suggests an origin within Christianity, while the alternative links to earlier religions. Folk etymologies state that the word comes from the Late Latin expression carne vale, the word carne may be translated as flesh, producing a farewell to the flesh, a phrase embraced by certain carnival celebrants to embolden the festivals carefree spirit. However, this interpretation is not supported by philological evidence, the Italian carne levare is one possible origin, meaning to remove meat, since meat is prohibited during Lent. Other scholars argue for the origin from the Roman name for the festival of the Navigium Isidis, the festival consisted of a parade of masks following an adorned wooden boat, possibly source of the floats. From the anthropological point of view, carnival is a ritual, in which social roles are reversed.
Winter was thought of as the reign of the winter spirits, Carnival can thus be regarded as a rite of passage from darkness to light, from winter to summer, a fertility celebration, the first spring festival of the new year. Traditionally, a carnival feast was the last opportunity for people to eat well. Until spring produce was available, people were limited to the necessary meals during this period. On what nowadays is called vastenavond, all the winter stores of lard, butter. The selected livestock had already been slaughtered in November and the meat would be no longer preservable, all the food that had survived the winter had to be eaten to assure that everyone was fed enough to survive until the coming spring would provide new food sources. Several Germanic tribes celebrated the returning of the daylight, the winter would be driven out, to make sure that fertility could return in spring
Cabaret is a form of entertainment featuring music, dance, recitation, or drama. It is mainly distinguished by the venue, which might be a pub. The audience, often dining or drinking, does not typically dance, performances are usually introduced by a master of ceremonies or MC. The entertainment, as done by an ensemble of actors and according to its European origins, is oriented towards adult audiences. In the United States striptease, drag shows, or a solo vocalist with a pianist, the word cabaret was first used in 1655. It is derived from tavern probably from Middle Dutch cambret, the word cabaret came to mean a restaurant or night club by 1912. Cabaret can be divided in 10 different types. However, these are artificial dividing lines, cabaret shows are most of the time a compound of elements from the different types, the cabaret performer plays with language, sometimes poetic, but often is he or she rock hard and hateful. The cabaret performer analyses in his/her stubborn manner actual and political topics, the cabaret performer tells an often slightly absurd story with a moral packed in it.
The cabaret performer plays with music, for example by twisting or combining familiar melodies, the cabaret performer tells nonsensical and absurd stories and plays idiotic types. The emphasis is less on text in the show of cabaret performer. Here the cabaret performer eludes on his liberating through laughter role, an iteration of storytelling cabaret The cabaret performer quickly switches between the different styles/types of cabaret, types, or songs. In this the cabaret performer is a guest at a government, institution or a company, cabarets existed in Paris in the 16th century, they were ancestors of the modern restaurant. Unlike taverns they sold wine not by itself but only with a meal, customers might sing if they had drunk enough wine, but early cabarets did not have formal programs of entertainment. Cabarets were frequently used as meeting places for writers and artists, in 1773 French poets, painters and writers began to meet in a cabaret called Le Caveau on rue de Buci, where they composed and sang songs.
The Caveau continued until 1816, when it was forced to close because its clients wrote songs mocking the royal government, in the 18th century the café-concert or café-chantant appeared, which offered food along with music, singers, or magicians. The most famous was the Cafe des Aveugles in the cellars of the Palais-Royal, in the early 19th century many cafés-chantants appeared around the city, the most famous were the Café des Ambassadeurs on the Champs-Élysées and the Eldorado on boulevard Strasbourg. By 1900 there were more than 150 cafés-chantants in Paris, the first cabaret in the modern sense was Le Chat Noir in the Bohemian neighborhood of Montmartre, created in 1881 by Rodolphe Salis, a theatrical agent and entrepreneur
A roller coaster is an amusement ride developed for amusement parks and modern theme parks. LaMarcus Adna Thompson obtained a patent regarding roller coasters on January 20,1885, which were out of wood. In essence a specialized railroad system, a roller coaster consists of a track that rises in designed patterns, the track does not necessarily have to be a complete circuit, as shuttle roller coasters demonstrate. Most roller coasters have multiple cars in which passengers sit and are restrained, two or more cars hooked together are called a train. Some roller coasters, notably wild mouse coasters, run with single cars. Built in the 17th century, the slides were built to a height of between 21 and 24 m, consisted of a 50-degree drop, and were reinforced by wooden supports. Some historians say the first roller coaster was built under the orders of Russias Catherine the Great in the Gardens of Oranienbaum in St. Petersburg in the year 1784, other historians believe that the first modern roller coaster was built by the French.
The name Russian Mountains to designate a roller coaster is preserved in many Romance languages, the Russian term for roller coasters is американские горки, which means American mountains in Russian. In 1827, a company in Summit Hill, Pennsylvania constructed the Mauch Chunk gravity railroad. By the 1850s, the Gravity Road was providing rides to thrill-seekers for 50 cents a ride, Railway companies used similar tracks to provide amusement on days when ridership was low. Using this idea as a basis, LaMarcus Adna Thompson began work on a gravity Switchback Railway that opened at Coney Island in Brooklyn and this track design was soon replaced with an oval complete circuit. In 1885, Phillip Hinkle introduced the first full-circuit coaster with a hill, the Gravity Pleasure Road. Not to be outdone, in 1886 Thompson patented his design of roller coaster that included dark tunnels with painted scenery. Scenic Railways were to be found in amusement parks across the county, by 1919, the first underfriction roller coaster had been developed by John Miller.
Soon, roller coasters spread to amusement parks all around the world, perhaps the best known historical roller coaster, was opened at Coney Island in 1927. The Great Depression marked the end of the first golden age of roller coasters and this lasted until 1972, when the Racer was built at Kings Island in Mason, Ohio. Designed by John Allen, the instant success of the Racer began a golden age. In 1959, Disneyland introduced a breakthrough with Matterhorn Bobsleds
The term Danish Realm refers to the relationship between Denmark proper, the Faroe Islands and Greenland—three countries constituting the Kingdom of Denmark. The legal nature of the Kingdom of Denmark is fundamentally one of a sovereign state. The Faroe Islands and Greenland have been part of the Crown of Denmark since 1397 when the Kalmar Union was ratified, legal matters in The Danish Realm are subject to the Danish Constitution. Beginning in 1953, state law issues within The Danish Realm has been governed by The Unity of the Realm, a less formal name for The Unity of the Realm is the Commonwealth of the Realm. In 1978, The Unity of The Realm was for the first time referred to as rigsfællesskabet. The name caught on and since the 1990s, both The Unity of The Realm and The Danish Realm itself has increasingly been referred to as simply rigsfællesskabet in daily parlance. The Danish Constitution stipulates that the foreign and security interests for all parts of the Danish Realm are the responsibility of the Danish government, the Faroes received home rule in 1948 and Greenland did so in 1979.
In 2005, the Faroes received a self-government arrangement, and in 2009 Greenland received self rule, the Danish Realms unique state of internal affairs is acted out in the principle of The Unity of the Realm. This principle is derived from Article 1 of the Danish Constitution which specifies that constitutional law applies equally to all areas of the Danish Realm, the Constitutional Act specifies that sovereignty is to continue to be exclusively with the authorities of the Realm. The language of Denmark is Danish, and the Danish state authorities are based in Denmark, the Kingdom of Denmarks parliament, with its 179 members, is located in the capital, Copenhagen. Two of the members are elected in each of Greenland and the Faroe Islands. The Government ministries are located in Copenhagen, as is the highest court, in principle, the Danish Realm constitutes a unified sovereign state, with equal status between its constituent parts. Devolution differs from federalism in that the powers of the subnational authority ultimately reside in central government.
The Self-Government Arrangements devolves political competence and responsibility from the Danish political authorities to the Faroese, the Faroese and Greenlandic authorities administer the tasks taken over from the state, enact legislation in these specific fields and have the economic responsibility for solving these tasks. The Danish government provides a grant to the Faroese and the Greenlandic authorities to cover the costs of these devolved areas. The 1948 Home Rule Act of the Faroe Islands sets out the terms of Faroese home rule, the Act states. the Faroe Islands shall constitute a self-governing community within the State of Denmark. It establishes the government of the Faroe Islands and the Faroese parliament. The Faroe Islands were previously administered as a Danish county, the Home Rule Act abolished the post of Amtmand and these powers were expanded in a 2005 Act, which named the Faroese home government as an equal partner with the Danish government
Frederiksdal is a country house on the Furesø Lake north of Copenhagen, Denmark. Frederiksdal takes its name after King Frederick III who in 1668 acquired the land which had been the site of a mill, Hjortholm Mill. The king had plans to build a large maison de plaisance in the grounds but died in 1780, on 30 December 1743, Schulin was granted the property from the king as a New Year present. He charged royal architect Niels Eigtved with the design of a summer risidence which was completed in 1747, Schulin was created Count in 1750 but died that same year. His wife Catarine Marie Schlin carried out alterations on the house in 1752 and 1753 with the assistance of the architect Johann Gottfried Rosenberg, the property has remained in the Schulin family to the present day. Frederiksdal is credited with being the earliest example of a maison de plaisance in Denmark and it stands in white-dressed masonry with sandstone decorations above the windows and two corner risalits on the main facade. The house originally had a roof while the mansard roof is the result of alterations carried out by Johann Gottfried Rosenberg between 1752 and 1753.
The interior features a combination of large and small rooms arranged around the main axis vestibule. There are rich Rococo-style stucco decorations, particularly in the Garden Hall, executed by Carlo Enrico Brenno, the property is currently owned by the seventh generation of the Schulin family. The main building plays host to a series of classical concerts. The estate covers 328 hectares of land of which circa 200 hectares are forest
The term circus describes the performance which has followed various formats through its 250-year modern history. Philip Astley is credited with being the father of the circus when he opened the first circus in 1768 in England. Early circuses were almost exclusively demonstrations of equestrian skills with a few types of acts to link the horsemanship performances. Performances developed significantly through the next fifty years, with large scale theatrical battle reenactments becoming a significant feature, as styles of performance have changed since the time of Astley, so too have the types of venues where these circuses have performed. The earliest modern circuses were performed in open air structures with limited covered seating, from the late 18th to late 19th century custom-made circus buildings were built with various types of seating, a centre ring, and sometimes a stage. The traditional large tents, commonly known as Big Tops were introduced in the mid 19th century as touring circuses superseded static venues and these tents eventually became the most common venue and remain so to the present day.
Contemporary circuses perform in a variety of venues including tents, many circus performances are still held in a ring usually 13 m in diameter. This dimension was adopted by Philip Astley in the late 18th century as the minimum diameter that enabled a horse rider to stand upright on a cantering horse to perform their tricks. In the book De Spectaculis early Christian writer Tertullian claimed that the first circus games were staged by the goddess Circe in honour of her father Helios, the modern and commonly held idea of a circus is of a Big Top with various acts providing entertainment therein. For many, circus history begins with Englishman Philip Astley, while for others its origins go back much further—to Roman times. In Ancient Rome, the circus was a building for the exhibition of horse and chariot races, equestrian shows, staged battles, gladiatorial combat, the Roman circus buildings were, not circular but rectangular with semi circular ends. The lower seats were reserved for persons of rank, There were various state boxes for the giver of the games, the circus was the only public spectacle at which men and women were not separated.
It was constructed during the monarchy and, at first, built completely from wood, after being rebuilt several times, the final version of the Circus Maximus could seat 250,000 people, it was built of stone and measured 400m in length and 90m in width. Next in importance were the Circus Flaminius and the Circus Neronis, a fourth circus was constructed by Maxentius, its ruins have helped archaeologists reconstruct the Roman circus. For some time after the fall of Rome, large buildings fell out of use as centres of mass entertainment. Instead, itinerant performers, animal trainers and showmen travelled between towns throughout Europe, performing at local fairs, Astley performed stunts in a 42 ft diameter ring, which is the standard size used by circuses ever since. Astley referred to the arena as a Circle and the building as an amphitheatre. Joseph Grimaldi, the first mainstream clown, had his first major role as Little Clown in the pantomime The Triumph of Mirth, or, the Royal Circus opened in London on 4 November 1782 by Charles Dibdin and his partner Charles Hughes