Gabrielle (Xena: Warrior Princess)
Gabrielle is a fictional character played by Renee O'Connor in the American fantasy TV series Xena: Warrior Princess. She is referred to by fans as the Battling Bard of Potidaea, her trademark weapons are the Amazon fighting staff and the sais. She was an Amazon Princess and an Amazon Queen; the character's development and progression is a story that spans the entire show's run, with her first appearance in "Sins of the Past" seeing her as a naive farm girl, the final episode, "A Friend In Need" seeing her as a formed but rational warrior, set to follow in the deceased Xena's footsteps. The dwarf planet Eris and its moon Dysnomia had the interim names "Xena" and "Gabrielle" until they were named, she was listed in AfterEllen.com's Top 50 Favorite Female TV Characters. O'Connor was chosen to play the role after she impressed producers with her performance in the Hercules television movie The Lost Kingdom. In the two musical episodes, Gabrielle's singing voice was provided by Susan Wood. In the episode "Lyre, Hearts on Fire", O'Connor sang the chorus in "War" and the rap lead in "Gettin' Ready".
Gabrielle is the French feminine form of the given name Gabriel, the Archangel, from the Hebrew meaning "messenger of God". The Greek transliteration of "Gabrielle" would be Γαβριέλα. In Xena Italian dub, the character was renamed "Olimpia." When Gabrielle first meets Xena, she is a farm girl living in the village of Potidaea. She and her sister, along with several other village girls, have been kidnapped by the men of the warlord, Draco, to be sold as slaves. Xena rescues them. Awed by her fighting skills, Gabrielle decides, she wants to avoid the marriage that her parents and Hecuba, have arranged for her with her childhood friend Perdicas. Gabrielle insists on following an reluctant Xena on the road; the two women soon develop a strong bond of friendship. Over the six years of the series, Gabrielle evolves from a naive, idealistic young woman into a fledged, but conflicted, warrior fighting alongside Xena. Gabrielle starts the series as a young adult who more or less stands behind Xena, relies on Xena to protect her.
On in the series, she acquires a quarterstaff from the Greek Amazons and starts to use it as both a defensive and offensive weapon, displaying some skill in using the staff. As the series goes on, Gabrielle's skills with the staff continue to develop. In one episode, Gabrielle takes on numerous soldiers and single-handedly attempts to rescue Xena's presumed dead body. Two episodes she is seen blocking an arrow in flight with her staff. On, Gabrielle adds kicks and minor acrobatics to her fighting abilities. Under the tutelage of Xena, she becomes worthy of many foes. While in India, Gabrielle is thrown through time by a Darsham to save Xena's soul, it is said. In this next life Xena is the Mother of Peace and Gabrielle is Shakti, a Warrior Prince of India. At the end of season 4, Gabrielle shows a leap in her warrior abilities. After months of following her path of the Way of Love, Gabrielle picks up the sword of a paralyzed Xena and fights off a large group of Roman soldiers, killing several of them.
By season 5, Gabrielle starts to fight with her sai, incorporating more acrobatic abilities, such as performing a wall run and back flip. In addition to sai and sometimes a new casual staff, she can use a large array of weapons with proficiency. Gabrielle fights against warriors with notable skill, she fights in a sword duel with Brutus, Caesar's former right hand and one of the leaders of Rome killing him. Gabrielle's abilities throughout the series are noticed by the God of War who seeks her out as his new protégée, it is mentioned by Gabrielle that Xena trained her throughout the years, although there have only been a few episodes that show Xena giving her any sort of martial arts training. One of Gabrielle's biggest fights in the series is her fight against Varia, they fight in an enclosed arena in a match in which Eve's life is at stake, they appeared to be at a stand-off before she is beaten by Varia. Gabrielle continues to grow in skill over the remaining season. Gabrielle's bardic skills appear to be self-taught.
In the opening episode, she displays a remarkable ability to talk her way out of fearsome or difficult situations: she talks a cyclops out of eating her, makes an ally of him. Besides her persuasive ability, she reads and writes - rare skills for that time, loves to tell stories, has some musical ability; as she travels with Xena, she records their adventures on a series of scrolls, with an eye for flair and drama. Her tendency to exaggerate and glamorize the facts gets her into trouble, she is shown telling stories for money in an inn. In other episodes she wins a place in the Athens City Academy for Performing Bards, is a famous playwright, is a theatrical director, plays the pan pipes with considerable skill, is the only person able to recite a magical scroll with the correct accents. Despite Gabrielle's ascendancy as a warrior (in t
Pluto is a dwarf planet in the Kuiper belt, a ring of bodies beyond Neptune. It is the largest known plutoid. Pluto was discovered by Clyde Tombaugh in 1930 and was considered to be the ninth planet from the Sun. After 1992, its status as a planet was questioned following the discovery of several objects of similar size in the Kuiper belt. In 2005, Eris, a dwarf planet in the scattered disc, 27% more massive than Pluto, was discovered; this led the International Astronomical Union to define the term "planet" formally in 2006, during their 26th General Assembly. That definition excluded reclassified it as a dwarf planet. Pluto is the largest and second-most-massive known dwarf planet in the Solar System, the ninth-largest and tenth-most-massive known object directly orbiting the Sun, it is less massive than Eris. Like other Kuiper belt objects, Pluto is made of ice and rock and is small—about one-sixth the mass of the Moon and one-third its volume, it has a moderately eccentric and inclined orbit during which it ranges from 30 to 49 astronomical units or AU from the Sun.
This means that Pluto periodically comes closer to the Sun than Neptune, but a stable orbital resonance with Neptune prevents them from colliding. Light from the Sun takes about 5.5 hours to reach Pluto at its average distance. Pluto has five known moons: Charon, Nix and Hydra. Pluto and Charon are sometimes considered a binary system because the barycenter of their orbits does not lie within either body; the New Horizons spacecraft performed a flyby of Pluto on July 14, 2015, becoming the first spacecraft to do so. During its brief flyby, New Horizons made detailed measurements and observations of Pluto and its moons. In September 2016, astronomers announced that the reddish-brown cap of the north pole of Charon is composed of tholins, organic macromolecules that may be ingredients for the emergence of life, produced from methane and other gases released from the atmosphere of Pluto and transferred about 19,000 km to the orbiting moon. In the 1840s, Urbain Le Verrier used Newtonian mechanics to predict the position of the then-undiscovered planet Neptune after analyzing perturbations in the orbit of Uranus.
Subsequent observations of Neptune in the late 19th century led astronomers to speculate that Uranus's orbit was being disturbed by another planet besides Neptune. In 1906, Percival Lowell—a wealthy Bostonian who had founded Lowell Observatory in Flagstaff, Arizona, in 1894—started an extensive project in search of a possible ninth planet, which he termed "Planet X". By 1909, Lowell and William H. Pickering had suggested several possible celestial coordinates for such a planet. Lowell and his observatory conducted his search until his death to no avail. Unknown to Lowell, his surveys had captured two faint images of Pluto on March 19 and April 7, 1915, but they were not recognized for what they were. There are fourteen other known precovery observations, with the earliest made by the Yerkes Observatory on August 20, 1909. Percival's widow, Constance Lowell, entered into a ten-year legal battle with the Lowell Observatory over her husband's legacy, the search for Planet X did not resume until 1929.
Vesto Melvin Slipher, the observatory director, gave the job of locating Planet X to 23-year-old Clyde Tombaugh, who had just arrived at the observatory after Slipher had been impressed by a sample of his astronomical drawings. Tombaugh's task was to systematically image the night sky in pairs of photographs examine each pair and determine whether any objects had shifted position. Using a blink comparator, he shifted back and forth between views of each of the plates to create the illusion of movement of any objects that had changed position or appearance between photographs. On February 18, 1930, after nearly a year of searching, Tombaugh discovered a possible moving object on photographic plates taken on January 23 and 29. A lesser-quality photograph taken on January 21 helped confirm the movement. After the observatory obtained further confirmatory photographs, news of the discovery was telegraphed to the Harvard College Observatory on March 13, 1930. Pluto has yet to complete a full orbit of the Sun since its discovery because one Plutonian year is 247.68 years long.
The discovery made headlines around the globe. Lowell Observatory, which had the right to name the new object, received more than 1,000 suggestions from all over the world, ranging from Atlas to Zymal. Tombaugh urged Slipher to suggest a name for the new object before someone else did. Constance Lowell proposed Zeus Percival and Constance; these suggestions were disregarded. The name Pluto, after the god of the underworld, was proposed by Venetia Burney, an eleven-year-old schoolgirl in Oxford, interested in classical mythology, she suggested it in a conversation with her grandfather Falconer Madan, a former librarian at the University of Oxford's Bodleian Library, who passed the name to astronomy professor Herbert Hall Turner, who cabled it to colleagues in the United States. Each member of the Lowell Observatory was allowed to vote on a short-list of three potential names: Minerva and Pluto. Pluto received every vote; the name was announced on May 1, 1930. Upon the announcement, Madan gave Venetia £5 as
Styx is a small natural satellite of Pluto whose discovery was announced on 11 July 2012. It was imaged along with Pluto and Pluto's other moons by the New Horizons spacecraft in July 2015. A single image was returned. Styx is the second satellite of the fifth discovered, it was discovered one year after Kerberos. Styx is 19 km across its longest dimension, its orbital period is 20.2 days. Styx was discovered by a team led by astronomer Mark R. Showalter, using fourteen sets of images taken between 26 June and 9 July 2012 by the Wide Field Camera 3 fitted to the Hubble Space Telescope; the discovery was announced on 11 July 2012. Styx is about half as bright as the dimmest known object in the system and about one hundred thousandth as bright as Pluto, it was designated S/2012 1, informally referred to as P5. The survey work leading to the discovery of Styx was in preparation for the mission of the unmanned New Horizons spacecraft, which flew by the Pluto system on 14 July 2015; the discovery of another small Plutonian moon heightened concerns that this region of space may harbor more bodies too small to be detected, that the spacecraft could be damaged by an uncharted body or ring as it traversed the system at a speed of over 13 km/s.
However, the New Horizons spacecraft did not detect any smaller moons or rings, passed through the Pluto system safely. The unexpectedly complex moon system around Pluto may be the result of a collision between Pluto and another sizable Kuiper belt object in the distant past. Pluto's moons may have coalesced from the debris from such an event, similar to the early giant impact thought to have created the Moon; the orbital resonances may have acted as "ruts" to gather material from the collision. Styx was estimated to have a diameter of between 10 and 25 km; these figures were inferred from the apparent magnitude of Styx and by using an estimated albedo of 0.35 and 0.04 for the lower and upper bounds, respectively. After measurements made by New Horizons, it turns out that Styx is irregularly shaped, measuring 16 km × 9 km × 8 km, it is thought to have formed from the debris lofted by a collision, which would have led to losses of the more volatile ices, such as those of nitrogen and methane, in the composition of the impactors.
This process is expected to have created a body consisting of water ice. Styx orbits the Pluto–Charon barycenter at a distance of 42,656 km, putting it between the orbits of Charon and Nix. All of Pluto's moons appear to travel in orbits that are nearly circular and coplanar, described by Styx's discoverer Mark Showalter as "neatly nested... a bit like Russian dolls". It is in an 11:6 orbital resonance with Hydra, an 11:9 resonance with Nix; as a result of this "Laplace-like" 3-body resonance, it has conjunctions with Nix and Hydra in a 2:5 ratio. Its orbital period of 20.16155 days is about 5.0% from a 1:3 mean-motion resonance with the Charon–Pluto orbital period of 6.387 days. With the other moons Nix and Hydra, it forms part of an unusual 1:3:4:5:6 sequence of near resonances. In contrast to its orbit, Styx's rotation is chaotic. Upon discovery, Styx received the minor planet designation S/2012 1 because it was the first satellite discovered orbiting minor planet in 2012, it is known informally as "P5".
The convention for naming Plutonian moons is to use names associated with the god Pluto in classical mythology. To decide on names for P4 and P5, Mark Showalter and the SETI Institute, on behalf of the discovery team, conducted a non-binding internet poll in 2013, in which the general public was invited to vote for their favorite names; the public could choose from a selection of Greek mythological names related to the god Pluto, or could propose their own names. After the initial announcement, William Shatner, the actor who plays Captain James T. Kirk in the Star Trek franchise, proposed the names Vulcan and Romulus, ostensibly referring to the fire god Vulcan, to Romulus the founder of Rome, but alluding to the fictional planets of Vulcan and Romulus in the Star Trek universe. The'Romulus' suggestion was discounted, as there is an asteroid moon of that name, but Vulcan won the poll after Shatner tweeted about it, with Cerberus coming second and Styx coming third; the winning names were submitted to the International Astronomical Union.
However, Vulcan was unacceptable to the IAU because it was not the name of an underworld figure and had been used for a hypothetical planet inside the orbit of Mercury, as well as having given its name to the vulcanoids. On 2 July 2013, the IAU announced that it had formally approved the names Styx for P5 and Kerberos for P4. Author Edmond Hamilton referred to three moons of Pluto in his 1940 novel Calling Captain Future, naming them Charon and Cerberus. Showalter, Mark. Hubble Press Release: Hubble Discovers a Fifth Moon Orbiting Pluto. 11 July 2012. ZME Science New moon discovered around Pluto – the fifth. 11 Jul
W. M. Keck Observatory
The W. M. Keck Observatory is a two-telescope astronomical observatory at an elevation of 4,145 meters near the summit of Mauna Kea in the U. S. state of Hawaii. Both telescopes feature 10 m primary mirrors among the largest astronomical telescopes in use. With a concept first proposed in 1977, telescope designers at the University of California and Lawrence Berkeley Labs had been developing the technology necessary to build a large, ground-based telescope. With a design in hand, a search for the funding began. In 1985, Howard B. Keck of the W. M. Keck Foundation gave $70 million to fund the construction of the Keck I telescope. Construction of Keck I began in September 1985, with first light occurring on 24 November 1990 using only nine of the eventual 36 segments. With construction of the first telescope well advanced, further donations allowed the construction of a second telescope starting in 1991; the Keck I telescope began science observations in May 1993, while first light for Keck II occurred on October 23, 1996.
The key advance that allowed the construction of the Keck Observatory's large telescopes was the ability to operate smaller mirror segments as a single, contiguous mirror. In the case of the Keck Observatory telescopes each of the primary mirrors is composed of 36 hexagonal segments that work together as a single unit; each segment is 1.8 meters wide, 7.5 centimeters thick, weighs half a ton. The mirrors were made from Zerodur glass-ceramic by the German company Schott AG. On the telescope, each segment is kept stable by a system of active optics, which uses rigid support structures in combination with three actuators under each segment. During observation, the computer-controlled system of sensors and actuators adjusts the position of each segment, relative to its neighbors, to an accuracy of four nanometers; this twice-per-second adjustment counters the effect of gravity as the telescope moves, in addition to other environmental and structural effects that can affect the mirror shape. Each Keck Observatory telescope sits on an altazimuth mount.
Most current 8–10 m class telescopes use altazimuth designs due to the reduced structural requirements compared to older equatorial designs. This mounting style provides the greatest strength and stiffness for the least amount of steel, for Keck Observatory, totals about 270 tons per telescope; the total weight of each telescope is more than 300 tons. Two of the proposed designs for the next generation 30 and 40 m telescopes use the same basic technology pioneered at Keck Observatory, a hexagonal mirror array coupled with an altazimuth mounting; the primary mirrors of each of the two telescopes are 10 meters in diameter smaller than the Gran Telescopio Canarias. However, all of the light collected by the Keck Observatory primary mirrors is sent to the secondary mirror and the instruments, compared to GTC's primary mirror, which has an effective light-collection area of 73.4 m2, or 2.36 m2 less than each of the Keck Observatory primary mirrors. Because of this fundamental difference in design, Keck Observatory's telescopes arguably remain the largest steerable, optical/infrared telescopes on Earth.
The telescopes are equipped with a suite of instruments, both cameras and spectrometers that allow observations across much of the visible and near infrared spectrum. The Keck Observatory is managed by the California Association for Research in Astronomy, a non-profit 501 organization whose board of directors includes representatives from Caltech and the University of California. Construction of the telescopes was made possible through private grants totaling more than $140 million provided by the W. M. Keck Foundation; the National Aeronautics and Space Administration joined the partnership in October 1996, at the time Keck II commenced observations. Telescope time is allocated by the partner institutions. Caltech, the University of Hawaii System, the University of California accept proposals from their own researchers. NASA accepts proposals from researchers based in the United States. Jerry Nelson was the project scientist for the Keck Telescope, he contributed to multi-mirror projects until he died in June 2017.
Nelson was behind one of the key innovations of the Keck telescope, the use of multiple thin segments acting as one mirror to provide the reflecting surface. MOSFIRE MOSFIRE is a third generation instrument for the W. M. Keck Observatory. MOSFIRE was delivered to Keck Observatory on February 8, 2012 and first light on the Keck I telescope was obtained on April 4, 2012. A Multi-Object Spectrograph For Infra-Red Exploration and wide-field camera for the near-infrared, MOSFIRE's special feature is the cryogenic Configurable Slit Unit, reconfigurable under remote control in less than 6 minutes without any thermal cycling. Bars move in from each side to form up to 46 short slits; when the bars are removed MOSFIRE becomes a wide-field imager. The instrument was developed by teams from the University of California, Los Angeles, the California Institute of Technology and the University of California, Santa Cruz; the Co- Principal Investigators are Ian S. McLean and Charles C. Steidel, the project was managed by WMKO Instrument Program Manager, Sean Adkins.
MOSFIRE was funded in part by the Telescope System Instrumentation Program, operated by AURA and funded by the National Science Foundation, by a private donation to WMKO by Gordon and Betty Moore. DEIMOS The Deep Extragalactic Imaging Multi-Object Spectrograph is capable of gathering spectra from 130 galaxies or more in a single exposure. In "Mega Mask" mode, DEIMOS
The orbital eccentricity of an astronomical object is a parameter that determines the amount by which its orbit around another body deviates from a perfect circle. A value of 0 is a circular orbit, values between 0 and 1 form an elliptic orbit, 1 is a parabolic escape orbit, greater than 1 is a hyperbola; the term derives its name from the parameters of conic sections, as every Kepler orbit is a conic section. It is used for the isolated two-body problem, but extensions exist for objects following a Klemperer rosette orbit through the galaxy. In a two-body problem with inverse-square-law force, every orbit is a Kepler orbit; the eccentricity of this Kepler orbit is a non-negative number. The eccentricity may take the following values: circular orbit: e = 0 elliptic orbit: 0 < e < 1 parabolic trajectory: e = 1 hyperbolic trajectory: e > 1 The eccentricity e is given by e = 1 + 2 E L 2 m red α 2 where E is the total orbital energy, L is the angular momentum, mred is the reduced mass, α the coefficient of the inverse-square law central force such as gravity or electrostatics in classical physics: F = α r 2 or in the case of a gravitational force: e = 1 + 2 ε h 2 μ 2 where ε is the specific orbital energy, μ the standard gravitational parameter based on the total mass, h the specific relative angular momentum.
For values of e from 0 to 1 the orbit's shape is an elongated ellipse. The limit case between an ellipse and a hyperbola, when e equals 1, is parabola. Radial trajectories are classified as elliptic, parabolic, or hyperbolic based on the energy of the orbit, not the eccentricity. Radial orbits hence eccentricity equal to one. Keeping the energy constant and reducing the angular momentum, elliptic and hyperbolic orbits each tend to the corresponding type of radial trajectory while e tends to 1. For a repulsive force only the hyperbolic trajectory, including the radial version, is applicable. For elliptical orbits, a simple proof shows that arcsin yields the projection angle of a perfect circle to an ellipse of eccentricity e. For example, to view the eccentricity of the planet Mercury, one must calculate the inverse sine to find the projection angle of 11.86 degrees. Next, tilt any circular object by that angle and the apparent ellipse projected to your eye will be of that same eccentricity; the word "eccentricity" comes from Medieval Latin eccentricus, derived from Greek ἔκκεντρος ekkentros "out of the center", from ἐκ- ek-, "out of" + κέντρον kentron "center".
"Eccentric" first appeared in English in 1551, with the definition "a circle in which the earth, sun. Etc. deviates from its center". By five years in 1556, an adjectival form of the word had developed; the eccentricity of an orbit can be calculated from the orbital state vectors as the magnitude of the eccentricity vector: e = | e | where: e is the eccentricity vector. For elliptical orbits it can be calculated from the periapsis and apoapsis since rp = a and ra = a, where a is the semimajor axis. E = r a − r p r a + r p = 1 − 2 r a r p + 1 where: ra is the radius at apoapsis. Rp is the radius at periapsis; the eccentricity of an elliptical orbit can be used to obtain the ratio of the periapsis to the apoapsis: r p r a = 1 − e 1 + e For Earth, orbital eccentricity ≈ 0.0167, apoapsis= aphelion and periapsis= perihelion relative to sun. For Earth's annual orbit path, ra/rp ratio = longest_radius / shortest_radius ≈ 1.034 relative to center point of path. The eccentricity of the Earth's orbit is about 0.0167.
The giant-impact hypothesis, sometimes called the Big Splash, or the Theia Impact suggests that the Moon formed out of the debris left over from a collision between Earth and an astronomical body the size of Mars 4.5 billion years ago, in the Hadean eon. The colliding body is sometimes called Theia, from the name of the mythical Greek Titan, the mother of Selene, the goddess of the Moon. Analysis of lunar rocks, published in a 2016 report, suggests that the impact may have been a direct hit, causing a thorough mixing of both parent bodies; the giant-impact hypothesis is the favored scientific hypothesis for the formation of the Moon. Supporting evidence includes: Earth's spin and the Moon's orbit have similar orientations. Moon samples indicate; the Moon has a small iron core. The Moon has a lower density than Earth. There is evidence in other star systems of similar collisions, resulting in debris disks. Giant collisions are consistent with the leading theories of the formation of the Solar System.
The stable-isotope ratios of lunar and terrestrial rock are identical. However, there remain several questions concerning the best current models of the giant-impact hypothesis; the energy of such a giant impact is predicted to have heated Earth to produce a global magma ocean, evidence of the resultant planetary differentiation of the heavier material sinking into Earth's mantle has been documented. However, as of 2015 there is no self-consistent model that starts with the giant-impact event and follows the evolution of the debris into a single moon. Other remaining questions include when the Moon lost its share of volatile elements and why Venus—which experienced giant impacts during its formation—does not host a similar moon. In 1898, George Darwin made the suggestion that the Moon were once a single body. Darwin's hypothesis was that a molten Moon had been spun from the Earth because of centrifugal forces, this became the dominant academic explanation. Using Newtonian mechanics, he calculated that the Moon had orbited much more in the past and was drifting away from the Earth.
This drifting was confirmed by American and Soviet experiments, using laser ranging targets placed on the Moon. Nonetheless, Darwin's calculations could not resolve the mechanics required to trace the Moon backward to the surface of the Earth. In 1946, Reginald Aldworth Daly of Harvard University challenged Darwin's explanation, adjusting it to postulate that the creation of the Moon was caused by an impact rather than centrifugal forces. Little attention was paid to Professor Daly's challenge until a conference on satellites in 1974, during which the idea was reintroduced and published and discussed in Icarus in 1975 by Drs. William K. Hartmann and Donald R. Davis, their models suggested that, at the end of the planet formation period, several satellite-sized bodies had formed that could collide with the planets or be captured. They proposed that one of these objects may have collided with the Earth, ejecting refractory, volatile-poor dust that could coalesce to form the Moon; this collision could explain the unique geological and geochemical properties of the Moon.
A similar approach was taken by Canadian astronomer Alastair G. W. Cameron and American astronomer William R. Ward, who suggested that the Moon was formed by the tangential impact upon Earth of a body the size of Mars, it is hypothesized that most of the outer silicates of the colliding body would be vaporized, whereas a metallic core would not. Hence, most of the collisional material sent into orbit would consist of silicates, leaving the coalescing Moon deficient in iron; the more volatile materials that were emitted during the collision would escape the Solar System, whereas silicates would tend to coalesce. The name of the hypothesized protoplanet is derived from the mythical Greek titan Theia, who gave birth to the Moon goddess Selene; this designation was proposed by the English geochemist Alex N. Halliday in 2000 and has become accepted in the scientific community. According to modern theories of planet formation, Theia was part of a population of Mars-sized bodies that existed in the Solar System 4.5 billion years ago.
One of the attractive features of the giant-impact hypothesis is that the formation of the Moon and Earth align. The Moon-forming collision would have been only one such "giant impact" but the last significant impactor event; the Late Heavy Bombardment by much smaller asteroids occurred - 3.9 billion years ago. Astronomers think the collision between Theia happened at about 4.4 to 4.45 bya. In astronomical terms, the impact would have been of moderate velocity. Theia is thought to have struck the Earth at an oblique angle when the Earth was nearly formed. Computer simulations of this "late-impact" scenario suggest an impact angle of about 45° and an initial impactor velocity below 4 km/s. However, oxygen isotope abundance in lunar rock suggests "vigorous mixing" of Theia and Earth, indicating a steep impact angle. Theia's iron core would have sunk into the young Earth's core, most of Theia's mantle accreted onto the Earth's mantle. However, a significant portion of the mantle material from both Theia and the Earth would have been ejected into orbit around the Earth or into individual orbits around the Sun.
The material in orbits around the Earth coa
Hawaii is the 50th and most recent state to have joined the United States, having received statehood on August 21, 1959. Hawaii is the only U. S. state located in Oceania, the only U. S. state located outside North America, the only one composed of islands. It is the northernmost island group in Polynesia, occupying most of an archipelago in the central Pacific Ocean; the state encompasses nearly the entire volcanic Hawaiian archipelago, which comprises hundreds of islands spread over 1,500 miles. At the southeastern end of the archipelago, the eight main islands are—in order from northwest to southeast: Niʻihau, Kauaʻi, Oʻahu, Molokaʻi, Lānaʻi, Kahoʻolawe and the Island of Hawaiʻi; the last is the largest island in the group. The archipelago is ethnologically part of the Polynesian subregion of Oceania. Hawaii's diverse natural scenery, warm tropical climate, abundance of public beaches, oceanic surroundings, active volcanoes make it a popular destination for tourists, surfers and volcanologists.
Because of its central location in the Pacific and 19th-century labor migration, Hawaii's culture is influenced by North American and East Asian cultures, in addition to its indigenous Hawaiian culture. Hawaii has over a million permanent residents, along with many visitors and U. S. military personnel. Its capital is Honolulu on the island of Oʻahu. Hawaii is the 8th-smallest and the 11th-least populous, but the 13th-most densely populated of the 50 U. S. states. It is the only state with an Asian plurality; the state's oceanic coastline is about 750 miles long, the fourth longest in the U. S. after the coastlines of Alaska and California. The state of Hawaii derives its name from the name of Hawaiʻi. A common Hawaiian explanation of the name of Hawaiʻi is that it was named for Hawaiʻiloa, a legendary figure from Hawaiian myth, he is said to have discovered the islands. The Hawaiian language word Hawaiʻi is similar to Proto-Polynesian *Sawaiki, with the reconstructed meaning "homeland". Cognates of Hawaiʻi are found in other Polynesian languages, including Māori and Samoan.
According to linguists Pukui and Elbert, "lsewhere in Polynesia, Hawaiʻi or a cognate is the name of the underworld or of the ancestral home, but in Hawaii, the name has no meaning". A somewhat divisive political issue arose in 1978 when the Constitution of the State of Hawaii added Hawaiian as a second official state language; the title of the state constitution is The Constitution of the State of Hawaii. Article XV, Section 1 of the Constitution uses The State of Hawaii. Diacritics were not used because the document, drafted in 1949, predates the use of the ʻokina and the kahakō in modern Hawaiian orthography; the exact spelling of the state's name in the Hawaiian language is Hawaiʻi. In the Hawaii Admission Act that granted Hawaiian statehood, the federal government recognized Hawaii as the official state name. Official government publications and office titles, the Seal of Hawaii use the traditional spelling with no symbols for glottal stops or vowel length. In contrast, the National and State Parks Services, the University of Hawaiʻi and some private enterprises implement these symbols.
No precedent for changes to U. S. state names exists since the adoption of the United States Constitution in 1789. However, the Constitution of Massachusetts formally changed the Province of Massachusetts Bay to the Commonwealth of Massachusetts in 1780, in 1819, the Territory of Arkansaw was created but was admitted to statehood as the State of Arkansas. There are eight main Hawaiian islands; the island of Niʻihau is managed by brothers Bruce and Keith Robinson. Access to uninhabited Kahoʻolawe island is restricted; the Hawaiian archipelago is located 2,000 mi southwest of the contiguous United States. Hawaii is the southernmost U. S. the second westernmost after Alaska. Hawaii, like Alaska, does not border any other U. S. state. It is the only U. S. state, not geographically located in North America, the only state surrounded by water and, an archipelago, the only state in which coffee is commercially cultivable. In addition to the eight main islands, the state has many smaller islets. Kaʻula is a small island near Niʻihau.
The Northwest Hawaiian Islands is a group of nine small, older islands to the northwest of Kauaʻi that extend from Nihoa to Kure Atoll. Across the archipelago are around 130 small rocks and islets, such as Molokini, which are either volcanic, marine sedimentary or erosional in origin. Hawaii's tallest mountain Mauna Kea is 13,796 ft above mean sea level; the Hawaiian islands were formed by volcanic activity initiated at an undersea magma source called the Hawaii hotspot. The process is continuing to build islands; because of the hotspot's location, all active land volcanoes are located on the southern half of Hawaii Island. The newest volcano, Lōʻihi Seamount, is located south of the coast of Hawaii Island; the last volcanic eruption outside Hawaii Island occurred