Dysphania is a plant genus in the family Amaranthaceae, distributed worldwide from the tropics and subtropics to warm-temperate regions. The species of genus Dysphania are short-lived perennials, they are therefore with aromatic scent. Some species have uniseriate multicellular trichomes becoming glabrous; the stems are erect, decumbent, or prostrate and branched. The alternate leaves are petiolate; the leaf blade is linear, oblanceolate, ovate, or elliptic pinnately lobed, with cuneate or truncate base, dentate, or serrate margins. The Inflorescences are terminal, simple or compound cymes or dense axillary glomerules. Bracts are reduced. Flowers are bisexual, with 1-5 tepals connate only basally or fused to form sac, 1-5 stamens, a superior ovary with 1-3 filiform stigmas; the fruit is enclosed in perianth. The membranous pericarp is adherent or nonadherent to the horizontal or vertical, subglobose or lenticular seed; the seed coat is rugose. The annular or incompletely annular embryo is surrounding the copious farinose perisperm.
Chromosome numbers reported are 2n=16, 18, 32, 36 and 48. All species of genus Dysphania are C3-plants with normal leaf anatomy; the genus Dysphania is distributed worldwide from the tropics and subtropics to warm-temperate regions. In Europe, the species are native, archaeophytes, or naturalized, in the northern regions absent or adventive; the genus Dysphania belongs to the tribe Dysphanieae in the subfamily Chenopodioideae within the plant family Amaranthaceae. According to phylogenetic research, it is related to genera Cycloloma. Dysphania was first published in 1810 by Robert Brown in Prodromus Florae Novae Hollandiae, p. 411-412. Type species is Dysphania littoralis R. Br.. The genus name Dysphania derives from the Greek dysphanis, meaning obscure referring to the inconspicuous flowers; the genus Dysphania comprised 7-10 Australian species. Sometimes they were grouped as an own family, Dysphaniaceae Pax & Hoffmann, or regarded as members of families Illecebraceae and Caryophyllaceae. In 2002, Sergei L. Mosyakin & Steven E. Clemants extended the genus for the glandular species of Chenopodium subgenus Ambrosia A.
J. Scott. Synonyms for Dysphania R. Br. are Neobotrydium Moldenke, Roubieva Moq. and Teloxys Moq.. The genus Dysphania consists of 5 sections with about 43 species: Dysphania sect. Adenois Mosyakin & Clemants: 15 species, native in South and Middle America, now distributed worldwide from the tropics to warm-temperate regions: Dysphania ambrosioides Mosyakin & Clemants, Mexican-tea: native in North- and South America, naturalized in other continents. Dysphania andicola Mosyakin & Clemants Dysphania anthelmintica Mosyakin & Clemants, Syn.: Chenopodium anthelminticum L. Chenopodium ambrosioides var. anthelminticum A. Gray), American wormseed: native in North America and Caribic, cultivated or naturalized in other continents. Dysphania burkartii Mosyakin & Clemants Dysphania chilensis Mosyakin & Clemants: native in Argentina and Chile. Dysphania dunosa Mosyakin & Clemants Dysphania multifida Mosyakin & Clemants, Syn.: Chenopodium multifidum L. Roubieva multifida Moq. Teloxys multifida W. A. Weber), Cut-leaf goosefoot, small-leaved wormseed: native in South America, introduced from the tropics to warm-temperate regions.
Dysphania oblanceolata Mosyakin & Clemants Dysphania retusa Mosyakin & Clemants Dysphania sooana Mosyakin & Clemants Dysphania tomentosa Mosyakin & Clemants Dysphania venturii Mosyakin & Clemants Dysphania sect. Botryoides Mosyakin & Clemants: with 3 subsections: Dysphania sect. Botryoides subsect. Botrys Mosyakin & Clemants:with 9 species, native in southern North America, northern South America, southern Eurasia and Africa. Dysphania botrys Mosyakin & Clemants, Syn.: Chenopodium botrys L.), Jerusalem-oak, feather-geranium: native from Middle Europa to China, naturalized or cultivated in other temperate regions. Dysphania nepalensis Mosyakin & Clemants, in Central Asia Dysphania procera Mosyakin & Clemants Dysphania pseudomultiflora Verloove & Lambinon: In South Africa. Dysphania schraderiana Mosyakin & Clemants, Syn. Chenopodium schraderianum Schult.) Dysphania sect. Botryoides subsect. Incisa Mosyakin & Clemants: With 3 species in southwestern North America and in South America: Dysphania dissecta Mosyakin & Clemants Dysphania graveolens Mosyakin & Clemants, Syn.: Chenopodium graveolens Willd.
Chenopodium incisum Poiret, Teloxys graveolens
In the ancient Greek myths, ambrosia is sometimes the food or drink of the Greek gods depicted as conferring longevity or immortality upon whoever consumed it. It was brought to the gods in Olympus by doves and served by either Hebe or Ganymede at the heavenly feast. Ambrosia is sometimes depicted in ancient art as distributed by a nymph labeled with that name. In the myth of Lycurgus, an opponent to the wine god Dionysus, violence committed against Ambrosia turns her into a grapevine. Ambrosia is closely related to the gods' other form of sustenance, nectar; the two terms may not have been distinguished. On the other hand, in Alcman, nectar is the food, in Sappho and Anaxandrides, ambrosia is the drink. A character in Aristophanes' Knights says, "I dreamed the goddess poured ambrosia over your head—out of a ladle." Both descriptions could be correct. The consumption of ambrosia was reserved for divine beings. Upon his assumption into immortality on Olympus, Heracles is given ambrosia by Athena, while the hero Tydeus is denied the same thing when the goddess discovers him eating human brains.
In one version of the myth of Tantalus, part of Tantalus' crime is that after tasting ambrosia himself, he attempts to steal some away to give to other mortals. Those who consume ambrosia had not blood in their veins, but ichor the blood of immortals. Both nectar and ambrosia are fragrant, may be used as perfume: in the Odyssey Menelaus and his men are disguised as seals in untanned seal skins, "...and the deadly smell of the seal skins vexed us sore. Homer speaks of ambrosial raiment, ambrosial locks of hair the gods' ambrosial sandals. Among writers, ambrosia has been so used with generic meanings of "delightful liquid" that such late writers as Athenaeus and Dioscurides employ it as a technical terms in contexts of cookery and botany. Pliny used the term in connection with different plants. Additionally, some modern ethnomycologists, such as Danny Staples, identify ambrosia with the hallucinogenic mushroom Amanita muscaria: "...it was the food of the gods, their ambrosia, nectar was the pressed sap of its juices", Staples asserts.
W. H. Roscher thinks that both nectar and ambrosia were kinds of honey, in which case their power of conferring immortality would be due to the supposed healing and cleansing powers of honey, in fact anti-septic, because fermented honey preceded wine as an entheogen in the Aegean world; the concept of an immortality drink is attested in at least two Indo-European areas: Greek and Sanskrit. The Greek ἀμβροσία is semantically linked to the Sanskrit अमृत as both words denote a drink or food that gods use to achieve immortality; the two words appear to be derived from the same Indo-European form *ṇ-mṛ-tós, "un-dying". A semantically similar etymology exists for nectar, the beverage of the gods presumed to be a compound of the PIE roots *nek-, "death", -*tar, "overcoming". In one version of the story of the birth of Achilles, Thetis anoints the infant with ambrosia and passes the child through the fire to make him immortal but Peleus, stops her, leaving only his heel unimmortalised. In the Iliad xvi, Apollo washes the black blood from the corpse of Sarpedon and anoints it with ambrosia, readying it for its dreamlike return to Sarpedon's native Lycia.
Thetis anoints the corpse of Patroclus in order to preserve it. Additionally, both ambrosia and nectar are depicted as unguents. In the Odyssey, Calypso is described as having "spread a table with ambrosia and set it by Hermes, mixed the rosy-red nectar." It is ambiguous whether he means the ambrosia itself is rosy-red, or if he is describing a rosy-red nectar Hermes drinks along with the ambrosia. Circe mentions to Odysseus that a flock of doves are the bringers of ambrosia to Olympus. In the Odyssey, Polyphemus likens the wine given to him by Odysseus to nectar. One of the impieties of Tantalus, according to Pindar, was that he offered to his guests the ambrosia of the Deathless Ones, a theft akin to that of Prometheus, Karl Kerenyi noted. In the Homeric hymn to Aphrodite, the goddess uses "ambrosial bridal oil that she had ready perfumed." In the story of Cupid and Psyche as told by Apuleius, Psyche is given ambrosia upon her completion of the quests set by Venus and her acceptance on Olympus.
After she partakes and Cupid are wed as gods. Some ancient Egyptian statues of Anubis read,"... I am death... I eat ambrosia and drink blood..." which hints that ambrosia is a food of some sort. In the Aeneid, Aeneas encounters his mother in an alternate, or illusory form; when she became her godly form "Her hair's ambrosia breathed a holy fragrance." Lycurgus of Thrace, an antagonist of Dionysus, forbade the cult of Dionysus, whom he drove from Thrace, was driven mad by the god. In his fit of insanity he killed his son, wh
Carl Linnaeus known after his ennoblement as Carl von Linné, was a Swedish botanist and zoologist who formalised binomial nomenclature, the modern system of naming organisms. He is known as the "father of modern taxonomy". Many of his writings were in Latin, his name is rendered in Latin as Carolus Linnæus. Linnaeus was born in the countryside of Småland in southern Sweden, he received most of his higher education at Uppsala University and began giving lectures in botany there in 1730. He lived abroad between 1735 and 1738, where he studied and published the first edition of his Systema Naturae in the Netherlands, he returned to Sweden where he became professor of medicine and botany at Uppsala. In the 1740s, he was sent on several journeys through Sweden to find and classify plants and animals. In the 1750s and 1760s, he continued to collect and classify animals and minerals, while publishing several volumes, he was one of the most acclaimed scientists in Europe at the time of his death. Philosopher Jean-Jacques Rousseau sent him the message: "Tell him I know no greater man on earth."
Johann Wolfgang von Goethe wrote: "With the exception of Shakespeare and Spinoza, I know no one among the no longer living who has influenced me more strongly." Swedish author August Strindberg wrote: "Linnaeus was in reality a poet who happened to become a naturalist." Linnaeus has been called Princeps botanicorum and "The Pliny of the North". He is considered as one of the founders of modern ecology. In botany and zoology, the abbreviation L. is used to indicate Linnaeus as the authority for a species' name. In older publications, the abbreviation "Linn." is found. Linnaeus's remains comprise the type specimen for the species Homo sapiens following the International Code of Zoological Nomenclature, since the sole specimen that he is known to have examined was himself. Linnaeus was born in the village of Råshult in Småland, Sweden, on 23 May 1707, he was the first child of Christina Brodersonia. His siblings were Anna Maria Linnæa, Sofia Juliana Linnæa, Samuel Linnæus, Emerentia Linnæa, his father taught him Latin as a small child.
One of a long line of peasants and priests, Nils was an amateur botanist, a Lutheran minister, the curate of the small village of Stenbrohult in Småland. Christina was the daughter of the rector of Samuel Brodersonius. A year after Linnaeus's birth, his grandfather Samuel Brodersonius died, his father Nils became the rector of Stenbrohult; the family moved into the rectory from the curate's house. In his early years, Linnaeus seemed to have a liking for plants, flowers in particular. Whenever he was upset, he was given a flower, which calmed him. Nils spent much time in his garden and showed flowers to Linnaeus and told him their names. Soon Linnaeus was given his own patch of earth. Carl's father was the first in his ancestry to adopt a permanent surname. Before that, ancestors had used the patronymic naming system of Scandinavian countries: his father was named Ingemarsson after his father Ingemar Bengtsson; when Nils was admitted to the University of Lund, he had to take on a family name. He adopted the Latinate name Linnæus after a giant linden tree, lind in Swedish, that grew on the family homestead.
This name was spelled with the æ ligature. When Carl was born, he was named Carl Linnæus, with his father's family name; the son always spelled it with the æ ligature, both in handwritten documents and in publications. Carl's patronymic would have been Nilsson, as in Carl Nilsson Linnæus. Linnaeus's father began teaching him basic Latin and geography at an early age; when Linnaeus was seven, Nils decided to hire a tutor for him. The parents picked a son of a local yeoman. Linnaeus did not like him, writing in his autobiography that Telander "was better calculated to extinguish a child's talents than develop them". Two years after his tutoring had begun, he was sent to the Lower Grammar School at Växjö in 1717. Linnaeus studied going to the countryside to look for plants, he reached the last year of the Lower School when he was fifteen, taught by the headmaster, Daniel Lannerus, interested in botany. Lannerus gave him the run of his garden, he introduced him to Johan Rothman, the state doctor of Småland and a teacher at Katedralskolan in Växjö.
A botanist, Rothman broadened Linnaeus's interest in botany and helped him develop an interest in medicine. By the age of 17, Linnaeus had become well acquainted with the existing botanical literature, he remarks in his journal that he "read day and night, knowing like the back of my hand, Arvidh Månsson's Rydaholm Book of Herbs, Tillandz's Flora Åboensis, Palmberg's Serta Florea Suecana, Bromelii Chloros Gothica and Rudbeckii Hortus Upsaliensis...."Linnaeus entered the Växjö Katedralskola in 1724, where he studied Greek, Hebrew and mathematics, a curriculum designed for boys preparing for the priesthood. In the last year at the gymnasium, Linnaeus's father visited to ask the professors how his son's studies were progressing. Rothman believed otherwise; the doctor offered to have Linnaeus live with his family in Växjö and to teach him physiology and botany. Nils accepted this offer. Rothman showed Linnaeus that botany was a serious sub
Amaranthaceae is a family of flowering plants known as the amaranth family, in reference to its type genus Amaranthus. It includes the former goosefoot family Chenopodiaceae and contains about 165 genera and 2,040 species, making it the most species-rich lineage within its parent order, Caryophyllales. Most species subshrubs; some species are succulent. Many species have stems with thickened nodes; the wood of the perennial stem has a typical "anomalous" secondary growth. The leaves are simple and alternate, sometimes opposite, they never possess stipules. They are flat or terete, their shape is variable, with entire or toothed margins. In some species, the leaves are reduced to minute scales. In most cases, neither basal nor terminal aggregations of leaves occur; the flowers are solitary or aggregated in cymes, spikes, or panicles and perfect and actinomorphic. Some species have unisexual flowers. Bracts and bracteoles scarious. Flowers are regular with an herbaceous or scarious perianth of five tepals joined.
One to five stamens are opposite to tepals or alternating, inserting from a hypogynous disc, which may have appendages in some species. The anthers have four pollen sacs. In tribe Caroxyloneae, anthers have vesicular appendages; the pollen grains are spherical with many pores, with pore numbers from a few to 250. One to three carpels are fused to a superior ovary with one basal ovule. Idioblasts are found in the tissues; the diaspores are seeds or fruits, more the perianth persists and is modified in fruit for means of dispersal. Sometimes bracts and bracteoles may belong to the diaspore. More the fruit is a circumscissile capsule or a berry; the horizontal or vertical seed has a thickened or woody seed coat. The green or white embryo is either annular; the basic chromosome number is 8–9. Widespread in the Amaranthaceae is the occurrence of betalain pigments; the former Chenopodiaceae contain isoflavonoids. In phytochemical research, several methylenedioxyflavonols, triterpenoids and specific root-located carbohydrates have been found in these plants.
Although most of the family use the more common C3 photosynthesis pathway, around 800 species are C4 plants. Within the family, several types of C4 photosynthesis occur, about 17 different types of leaf anatomy are realized. Therefore, this photosynthesis pathway seems to have developed about 15 times independently during the evolution of the family. About two-thirds of the C4 species belong to the former Chenopodiaceae; the first occurrence of C4 photosynthesis dates from the early Miocene, about 24 million years ago, but in some groups, this pathway evolved much about 6 million years ago. The multiple origin of C4 photosynthesis in the Amaranthaceae is regarded as an evolutionary response to inexorably decreasing atmospheric CO2 levels, coupled with a more recent permanent shortage in water supply as well as high temperatures. Species with higher water-use efficiency had a selective advantage and were able to spread out into arid habitats. Amaranthaceae is a cosmopolitan family from the tropics to cool temperate regions.
The Amaranthaceae are predominantly tropical, whereas the former Chenopodiaceae have their centers of diversity in dry temperate and warm temperate areas. Many of the species are halophytes, grow in dry steppes or semi-deserts; some species, such as spinach or forms of beet, are used as vegetables. Forms of Beta vulgaris include sugar beet; the seeds of Amaranthus, lamb's quarters, quinoa and kañiwa are edible and are used as pseudocereals. Dysphania ambrosioides and Dysphania anthelmintica are used as medicinal herbs. Several amaranth species are used indirectly as a source of soda ash, such as members of the genus Salicornia. A number of species are popular garden ornamental plants species from the genera Alternanthera, Amaranthus and Iresine. Other species are considered weeds, e.g. redroot pigweed and alligatorweed, several are problematic invasive species in North America, including Kali tragus and Bassia scoparia. Many species are known to cause pollen allergies. In the APG IV system of 2016, as in the previous Angiosperm Phylogeny Group classifications, the family is placed in the order Caryophyllales and includes the plants treated as the family Chenopodiaceae.
The monophyly of this broadly defined Amaranthaceae has been supported by both morphological and phylogenetic analyses. The family Amaranthaceae was first published in 1789 by Antoine Laurent de Jussieu in Genera Plantarum, p. 87–88. The first publication of family Chenopodiaceae was in 1799 by Étienne Pierre Ventenat in Tableau du Regne Vegetal, 2, p. 253. The older name is now the valid scientific name of the extended Amaranthaceae; some publications still continued to use the family name Chenopodiaceae. Phylogenetic research revealed the important impact of the subfamil
The flowering plants known as angiosperms, Angiospermae or Magnoliophyta, are the most diverse group of land plants, with 64 orders, 416 families 13,164 known genera and c. 369,000 known species. Like gymnosperms, angiosperms are seed-producing plants. However, they are distinguished from gymnosperms by characteristics including flowers, endosperm within the seeds, the production of fruits that contain the seeds. Etymologically, angiosperm means a plant; the term comes from the Greek words sperma. The ancestors of flowering plants diverged from gymnosperms in the Triassic Period, 245 to 202 million years ago, the first flowering plants are known from 160 mya, they diversified extensively during the Early Cretaceous, became widespread by 120 mya, replaced conifers as the dominant trees from 100 to 60 mya. Angiosperms differ from other seed plants in several ways, described in the table below; these distinguishing characteristics taken together have made the angiosperms the most diverse and numerous land plants and the most commercially important group to humans.
Angiosperm stems are made up of seven layers. The amount and complexity of tissue-formation in flowering plants exceeds that of gymnosperms; the vascular bundles of the stem are arranged such that the phloem form concentric rings. In the dicotyledons, the bundles in the young stem are arranged in an open ring, separating a central pith from an outer cortex. In each bundle, separating the xylem and phloem, is a layer of meristem or active formative tissue known as cambium. By the formation of a layer of cambium between the bundles, a complete ring is formed, a regular periodical increase in thickness results from the development of xylem on the inside and phloem on the outside; the soft phloem becomes crushed, but the hard wood persists and forms the bulk of the stem and branches of the woody perennial. Owing to differences in the character of the elements produced at the beginning and end of the season, the wood is marked out in transverse section into concentric rings, one for each season of growth, called annual rings.
Among the monocotyledons, the bundles are more numerous in the young stem and are scattered through the ground tissue. They once formed the stem increases in diameter only in exceptional cases; the characteristic feature of angiosperms is the flower. Flowers show remarkable variation in form and elaboration, provide the most trustworthy external characteristics for establishing relationships among angiosperm species; the function of the flower is to ensure fertilization of the ovule and development of fruit containing seeds. The floral apparatus may arise terminally from the axil of a leaf; as in violets, a flower arises singly in the axil of an ordinary foliage-leaf. More the flower-bearing portion of the plant is distinguished from the foliage-bearing or vegetative portion, forms a more or less elaborate branch-system called an inflorescence. There are two kinds of reproductive cells produced by flowers. Microspores, which will divide to become pollen grains, are the "male" cells and are borne in the stamens.
The "female" cells called megaspores, which will divide to become the egg cell, are contained in the ovule and enclosed in the carpel. The flower may consist only of these parts, as in willow, where each flower comprises only a few stamens or two carpels. Other structures are present and serve to protect the sporophylls and to form an envelope attractive to pollinators; the individual members of these surrounding structures are known as petals. The outer series is green and leaf-like, functions to protect the rest of the flower the bud; the inner series is, in general, white or brightly colored, is more delicate in structure. It functions to attract bird pollinators. Attraction is effected by color and nectar, which may be secreted in some part of the flower; the characteristics that attract pollinators account for the popularity of flowers and flowering plants among humans. While the majority of flowers are perfect or hermaphrodite, flowering plants have developed numerous morphological and physiological mechanisms to reduce or prevent self-fertilization.
Heteromorphic flowers have short carpels and long stamens, or vice versa, so animal pollinators cannot transfer pollen to the pistil. Homomorphic flowers may employ a biochemical mechanism called self-incompatibility to discriminate between self and non-self pollen grains. In other species, the male and female parts are morphologically separated, developing on different flowers; the botanical term "Angiosperm", from the Ancient Greek αγγείον, angeíon and σπέρμα, was coined in the form Angiospermae by Paul Hermann in 1690, as the name of one of his primary divisions of the plant kingdom. This included flowering plants possessing seeds enclosed in capsules, distinguished from his Gymnospermae, or flowering plants with achenial or schizo-carpic fruits, the whole fruit or each of its pieces being here regarded as a seed and naked; the term and its antonym were maintained by Carl Linnaeus with the same sense, but with restricted application, in the names of the orders of his class Didynamia. Its use with any
Plants are multicellular, predominantly photosynthetic eukaryotes of the kingdom Plantae. Plants were treated as one of two kingdoms including all living things that were not animals, all algae and fungi were treated as plants. However, all current definitions of Plantae exclude the fungi and some algae, as well as the prokaryotes. By one definition, plants form the clade Viridiplantae, a group that includes the flowering plants and other gymnosperms and their allies, liverworts and the green algae, but excludes the red and brown algae. Green plants obtain most of their energy from sunlight via photosynthesis by primary chloroplasts that are derived from endosymbiosis with cyanobacteria, their chloroplasts contain b, which gives them their green color. Some plants are parasitic or mycotrophic and have lost the ability to produce normal amounts of chlorophyll or to photosynthesize. Plants are characterized by sexual reproduction and alternation of generations, although asexual reproduction is common.
There are about 320 thousand species of plants, of which the great majority, some 260–290 thousand, are seed plants. Green plants provide a substantial proportion of the world's molecular oxygen and are the basis of most of Earth's ecosystems on land. Plants that produce grain and vegetables form humankind's basic foods, have been domesticated for millennia. Plants have many cultural and other uses, as ornaments, building materials, writing material and, in great variety, they have been the source of medicines and psychoactive drugs; the scientific study of plants is known as a branch of biology. All living things were traditionally placed into one of two groups and animals; this classification may date from Aristotle, who made the distincton between plants, which do not move, animals, which are mobile to catch their food. Much when Linnaeus created the basis of the modern system of scientific classification, these two groups became the kingdoms Vegetabilia and Animalia. Since it has become clear that the plant kingdom as defined included several unrelated groups, the fungi and several groups of algae were removed to new kingdoms.
However, these organisms are still considered plants in popular contexts. The term "plant" implies the possession of the following traits multicellularity, possession of cell walls containing cellulose and the ability to carry out photosynthesis with primary chloroplasts; when the name Plantae or plant is applied to a specific group of organisms or taxon, it refers to one of four concepts. From least to most inclusive, these four groupings are: Another way of looking at the relationships between the different groups that have been called "plants" is through a cladogram, which shows their evolutionary relationships; these are not yet settled, but one accepted relationship between the three groups described above is shown below. Those which have been called "plants" are in bold; the way in which the groups of green algae are combined and named varies between authors. Algae comprise several different groups of organisms which produce food by photosynthesis and thus have traditionally been included in the plant kingdom.
The seaweeds range from large multicellular algae to single-celled organisms and are classified into three groups, the green algae, red algae and brown algae. There is good evidence that the brown algae evolved independently from the others, from non-photosynthetic ancestors that formed endosymbiotic relationships with red algae rather than from cyanobacteria, they are no longer classified as plants as defined here; the Viridiplantae, the green plants – green algae and land plants – form a clade, a group consisting of all the descendants of a common ancestor. With a few exceptions, the green plants have the following features in common, they undergo closed mitosis without centrioles, have mitochondria with flat cristae. The chloroplasts of green plants are surrounded by two membranes, suggesting they originated directly from endosymbiotic cyanobacteria. Two additional groups, the Rhodophyta and Glaucophyta have primary chloroplasts that appear to be derived directly from endosymbiotic cyanobacteria, although they differ from Viridiplantae in the pigments which are used in photosynthesis and so are different in colour.
These groups differ from green plants in that the storage polysaccharide is floridean starch and is stored in the cytoplasm rather than in the plastids. They appear to have had a common origin with Viridiplantae and the three groups form the clade Archaeplastida, whose name implies that their chloroplasts were derived from a single ancient endosymbiotic event; this is the broadest modern definition of the term'plant'. In contrast, most other algae not only have different pigments but have chloroplasts with three or four surrounding membranes, they are not close relatives of the Archaeplastida having acquired chloroplasts separately from ingested or symbiotic green and red algae. They are thus not included in the broadest modern definition of the plant kingdom, although they were in the past; the green plants or Viridiplantae were traditionally divided into the green algae (including
Gardening is the practice of growing and cultivating plants as part of horticulture. In gardens, ornamental plants are grown for their flowers, foliage, or overall appearance. Gardening is considered by many people to be a relaxing activity. Gardening ranges in scale from fruit orchards, to long boulevard plantings with one or more different types of shrubs and herbaceous plants, to residential yards including lawns and foundation plantings, to plants in large or small containers grown inside or outside. Gardening may be specialized, with only one type of plant grown, or involve a large number of different plants in mixed plantings, it involves an active participation in the growing of plants, tends to be labor-intensive, which differentiates it from farming or forestry. Forest gardening, a forest-based food production system, is the world's oldest form of gardening. Forest gardens originated in prehistoric times along jungle-clad river banks and in the wet foothills of monsoon regions. In the gradual process of families improving their immediate environment, useful tree and vine species were identified and improved while undesirable species were eliminated.
Foreign species were selected and incorporated into the gardens. After the emergence of the first civilizations, wealthy individuals began to create gardens for aesthetic purposes. Ancient Egyptian tomb paintings from the New Kingdom provide some of the earliest physical evidence of ornamental horticulture and landscape design. A notable example of ancient ornamental gardens were the Hanging Gardens of Babylon—one of the Seven Wonders of the Ancient World —while ancient Rome had dozens of gardens. Wealthy ancient Egyptians used gardens for providing shade. Egyptians associated trees and gardens with gods, believing that their deities were pleased by gardens. Gardens in ancient Egypt were surrounded by walls with trees planted in rows. Among the most popular species planted were date palms, fir trees, nut trees, willows; these gardens were a sign of higher socioeconomic status. In addition, wealthy ancient Egyptians grew vineyards, as wine was a sign of the higher social classes. Roses, poppies and irises could all be found in the gardens of the Egyptians.
Assyria was renowned for its beautiful gardens. These tended to be wide and large, some of them used for hunting game—rather like a game reserve today—and others as leisure gardens. Cypresses and palms were some of the most planted types of trees. Ancient Roman gardens were laid out with hedges and vines and contained a wide variety of flowers—acanthus, crocus, hyacinth, ivy, lilies, narcissus, poppy and violets—as well as statues and sculptures. Flower beds were popular in the courtyards of rich Romans; the Middle Age represented a period of decline in gardens for aesthetic purposes, with regard to gardening. After the fall of Rome, gardening was done for the purpose of growing medicinal herbs and/or decorating church altars. Monasteries carried on a tradition of garden design and intense horticultural techniques during the medieval period in Europe. Monastic garden types consisted of kitchen gardens, infirmary gardens, cemetery orchards, cloister garths and vineyards. Individual monasteries might have had a "green court", a plot of grass and trees where horses could graze, as well as a cellarer's garden or private gardens for obedientiaries, monks who held specific posts within the monastery.
Islamic gardens were built after the model of Persian gardens and they were enclosed by walls and divided in 4 by watercourses. The center of the garden would have a pool or pavilion. Specific to the Islamic gardens are the mosaics and glazed tiles used to decorate the rills and fountains that were built in these gardens. By the late 13th century, rich Europeans began to grow gardens for leisure and for medicinal herbs and vegetables, they surrounded the gardens by walls to provide seclusion. During the next two centuries, Europeans started planting lawns and raising flowerbeds and trellises of roses. Fruit trees were common in these gardens and in some, there were turf seats. At the same time, the gardens in the monasteries were a place to grow flowers and medicinal herbs but they were a space where the monks could enjoy nature and relax; the gardens in the 16th and 17th century were symmetric and balanced with a more classical appearance. Most of these gardens were built around a central axis and they were divided into different parts by hedges.
Gardens had flowerbeds laid out in squares and separated by gravel paths. Gardens in Renaissance were adorned with sculptures and fountains. In the 17th century, knot gardens became popular along with the hedge mazes. By this time, Europeans started planting new flowers such as tulips and sunflowers. Cottage gardens, which emerged in Elizabethan times, appear to have originated as a local source for herbs and fruits. One theory is that they arose out of the Black Death of the 1340s, when the death of so many laborers made land available for small cottages with personal gardens. According to the late 19th-century legend of origin, these gardens were created by the workers that lived in the cottages of the villages, to provide them with food and herbs, with flowers planted among them for decoration. Farm workers were provided with cottages that had architectural quality set in a small garden—about 1 acre —where the