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A dysphemism is an expression with connotations that are offensive either about the subject matter or to the audience, or both. Dysphemisms contrast with neutral or euphemistic expressions. Dysphemism is sometimes motivated by feelings such as fear, distaste and contempt. Worded a dysphemism is a derogatory or unpleasant term used instead of a pleasant or neutral one, such as "loony bin" for "mental hospital"; the word dysphemism comes from the Greek dys δύς "mis-" and pheme φήμη "speech, reputation". Related terms include malphemism, cacophemism. A dysphemism is a marked form which expresses a speaker's view or attitude towards the listener or group, as opposed to a form, typical of the speaker's speech, thus marked forms are relative to social context. Were a speaker to use intimate terms to address a person, that would be the speaker's norm. To show social distance or to express anger one would use a marked form, for example a more formal form of address, such as adding a title or using the listener's last name.

One kind of dysphemism is synecdochic, where a part is used to represent the whole, such as "What an asshole." Animal names are used as dysphemistic epithets. By using one, the speaker offends the listener by targeting her humanity. Examples include "pig", "chicken", "weasel", "sheep", "snake", "rat"; when a person uses another's name rather than an appropriate kinship title of address. The speaker uses a lower style than is appropriate given the social context. "Peter, what are you doing?" "How are you doing, Bill?" This use of language may not constitute dysphemism if the choice of words used by the speaker is welcomed by the listener, such as a father who prefers being called by his given name as opposed to "Dad"/"Father". In that case it would appeal to the listener's positive face rather than damage it, would thus not be a dysphemism. Being more formal with someone than expected may be a type of dysphemism. For example, if a child calls their father "dad" or "papa," calling him "father" may be a way of offending or antagonizing him, by implying that he is his role, not someone the child is close with.

If a child called "Billy" is addressed by a parent as "William". Dysphemism may be indicated by the disuse or substitution of someone's name or title. For instance, someone named Teresa who made overstated claims for a company-paid trip could be described as "the little witch who charmed the boss into approving that phony expense report". Anger or dissatisfaction with the listener may compel a speaker to use a name dysphemism or term of address dysphemism. Various slang terms that are dysphemistic in one culture may not be if they hold a different meaning in another culture. For instance, the word "fag" when used in American English is a slur against gay men. However, in British English, the word "fag" is an inoffensive term used to refer to a cigarette, or a junior boy who serves a senior boy in a British public school; the word "fanny" when used in American English is a euphemism for one's buttocks, so benign that children use it. However, in British English, the word "fanny" is slang for vulva, is considered to be vulgar.

Some phrases that are euphemisms in certain contexts can be considered dysphemistic in others. These are referred to as X-phemisms: whether the utterance is dysphemistic or not depending on the context of the utterance. For example, many X-phemisms regarding sexual intercourse could be considered euphemistic within peer groups yet dysphemistic in certain audiences. One might be more to say that they "got laid" to a friend than to one's grandparents. There may be instances in which conflicting definitions of the same word may lead to unintentional dysphemism; the pejorative use of the word terrorist is a salient example, as definitions of the word terrorist may vary across cultures and within individuals in the same culture. The word "terrorist" refers to one who uses violence and fear as a means to pursue political, religious or ideological aims; this definition is ambiguous, many groups that refer to themselves as "freedom fighters", "revolutionaries", "rebels" or "liberators" are referred to as "terrorists" by dissenting parties.

Labeling groups as terrorist draws associations with other groups labeled as such when no direct connection might be present. In 2003, the Philippine government's intention to label the Moro Islamic Liberation Front as a terrorist organization was indicated by the organization to be an escalation of hostilities, it was their belief that by calling their organization a terrorist organization they were being directly compared to Al-Qaeda, with whom they claim no connection. Naming groups in this way has been described, "A name will place emphasis on certain aspects and characteristics of an object, while neglecting or omitting other key areas"; the interpretation and the production of a text depends on the previous knowledge and experience of the interpreter or producer. The individual compares matching features with representations stored in their long term memory. Certain lexical items can be used to activate these representations, conjuring stereotypical images which become the prototype in the listener's mind.


Sam Kirk

Samantha "Sam" Kirk is an American artist. She worked in the advertising industry for ten years before pursuing an art career. Samantha Kirk was born in Chicago in 1981. In Kirk's sophomore year of high school, she discovered art was an outlet for her to communicate her queer identity which she integrated into her artwork. In life, Kirk worked in the advertising industry as an integrated marketing specialist for 10 years leaving the industry. Kirk felt the advertising industry was not paying enough. In 2010, the opportunity to pursue an art career presented itself when she was offered 2 huge art commissions. Kirk collaborated with Sandra Antongiorgi to create the Weaving Cultures mural; this brought awareness to the Chicago community about women growing up racially queer. The mural includes 5 women of different racial ethnicities and ages, including one transgender woman all on a teal abstract background. All women displaying a stoic expression; the mural can be found on Blue Island in Chicago, Illiones.

Kirk and Antongiorgi collaborated once again to create Logan Square Mural. This mural highlights the culture. Kirk & Antongiorgi wanted people to take a step back to understand the mural and attempt to understand each other's differences; the mural displays 3 oversized individuals surrounded by gray and brick red buildings and yellow metro tracks above. Below the 3 individuals, there are small people playing with a fire hydrant, selling ice cream and driving a car. Around all of them are palm trees and city signs that read "Wilsure Hotel" & "Furniture"; this mural was funded by Ramirez-Rosa by $20,000 in city money to celebrate “the diversity and history of Logan Square" Kirk collaborated with Andy Bellomo and Sandra Antongiorgi to create The Love I Vibrate. The purpose of the mural is to honor Chicago's LGBTQ community; the Love I Vibrate is on the side of the Howard Brown Health Clinic in Chicago. The mural displays swirls of pink, blue and gold with a non-binary individual in the center with a shaved head and lips painted gold and eyes hot pink.

This mural was funded by the City of Chicago Department of Cultural Affairs. Group Exhibition Dates: November 2, 2018 – January 6, 2019 Objective: Recognition of the past century influential political movements. Dates: May 11, 2018 - February 3, 2019 Objective: Breaking down the layers of gentrification in Pilsen. Artwork is meant to represent turmoil felt by the community of Pilsen. Solo Exhibitions Dates: July 21, 2016 - August 30, 2016 Objective: Displayed through illustrations and interactive artworks, Kirk shows her appreciation for Chicago & New York. Shows how Kirk jumped between both cities as she discovered her identity and love. Sam Kirk has a permanent collection at the National Museum of Mexican Art. 2017: 3Arts, Make a Wake Awardee 2014: Curators Choice Award Keenan Teddy Smith. "Challenging the Narrative of “Gentrification as Development” in Chicago", Hypoallergenic Ana Belaval. "El Paseo Boricua welcomes new addition to public art that celebrates Latin cultures", WGN9 News Vanessa Buneger.

"Pilsen Fest x Sam Kirk: How Art and Collaboration Can Make Change in Our City", Ideas Blog Casera Heining. "Sam Kirk | The importance of women of color in queer spaces, current residency at Chicago Art Department, more", WGN Radio Marissa N. Isang. "Public art display celebrates Hispanic Heritage with ABC 7 News Kim Janssen. "City-funded Logan Square mural a response to gentrification, alderman says", Chicago Tribune Alfonso Gutierrez. "Arte inspirado en Dolores Huerta en Chicago", Telemundo Chicago Columbia College Alumni. "Colum Alum Spotlight: Sam Kirk'05", Columbia College Alumni K. GUZMAN ⋅. "Lesbian Couple Releases Greeting Card Line for Queers of Color", TheLstop Sharyn Jackson, Gena Hymowech, Kat Long. "100 Women We GOMAG Claire Schubert. "Through Eyes of Culture", Dekit Magazine Danielle Evenski."CELEBRA LO RICO: JOIN MORENA CUADRA FOR A CUP OF COFFEE WITH SAM KIRK", QUE RICA VIDA Ross Forman. "Chicagoan Sam Kirk shines through art", Windy City Times Official website

Lillestrøm SK

Lillestrøm Sportsklubb is a Norwegian professional football club from the city of Lillestrøm, just outside of the capital Oslo. Starting with the 2020 season, they will compete in OBOS-ligaen, the second tier of Norwegian football, following their 2019 relegation; the club was founded after the merger of two local football clubs. Their home ground is Åråsen Stadion, which has a capacity of 12,250 people, while the principal training ground is Lillestrøm stadion, or the indoor arena, LSK-Hallen; the club holds the Norwegian record for the most consecutive years without being relegated, having played 45 seasons from 1975 until 2019. Over the years the club has had around 40 players. There has been a number of foreigners who have represented the national teams of Sweden, Senegal, Malta, South Africa, Tunisia, Canada and Nigeria; the club have teams in bandy and futsal. Lillestrøm SK was founded on 2 April 1917, it has been Norwegian League champions five times, most in 1989, in 1986, 1977, 1976, 1959.

Additionally, they have won the Norwegian Cup in 1985, 1981, 1978, 1977, 2007 and 2017. When Arne Erlandsen left for Sweden and IFK Göteborg after the 2004 season, former LSK player and German international Uwe Rösler took over as head coach of the team, his first season in charge became a successful one, with Lillestrøm finishing fourth in the league. This position secured LSK a place in the Royal League; the team made it to the 2005 Norwegian Cup final, but lost 4–2 to Molde in front of a crowd of 25,000 at Ullevaal Stadion. In the 2006 season Lillestrøm were among the top favourites to win the league. Following a disappointing 4th place, it was announced on 13 November 2006 that Uwe Rösler had been fired from his position as head coach of Lillestrøm. Only a few days Tom Nordlie signed a three-year contract. A key signing ahead of the 2007 season included Fredrikstad's Simen Brenne, an attacking midfielder with a knack for scoring important goals. LSK under Nordlie played a 4–3–3 system, which invites rapid transitional play between defence and attack, Lillestrøm finished fourth in the league and won the 2007 Norwegian cup, beating Haugesund 2–0 in the final at Ullevaal Stadion.

On 29 May 2008, Tom Nordlie resigned from his position as head coach after a disappointing start of the 2008 season. Statements from Nordlie suggested that fundamental disagreements with club director Jan Åge Fjørtoft contributed to his resignation, it emerged that the conflict between the controversial coach and the players was another big contributor behind Nordlie's departure, his punishing training regime in the run-up to the 2008 season being cited as the main complaint. Nordlie, no stranger to controversy during his career, had "lost the dressing room" as early as autumn 2007. Erland Johnsen and Frode Grodås stepped in as caretakers. On 19 August 2008, the club announced that Henning Berg would take over as head coach on 1 January 2009, after leaving his post at Lyn. Berg's first task would be to rescue the team from relegation, a feat he accomplished in his first match as head coach. LSK beat Rosenborg 4–2 in a classic encounter to secure their place in the Tippeligaen; the 2009 season was one of great upheaval.

In an tight economic position, LSK sold or released 11 players before and during the season, with Berg restructuring the squad and bringing in new talent. Enormous injury problems made the start to the season a difficult one for Berg's charges. After 9 games, LSK seemed destined for relegation. An impressive comeback saw Lillestrøm deliver a strong second half to the season finishing 11th. Newcomer Nosa Igiebor had an impressive first season in the Lillestrøm jersey; the team continued to impress over the course of the start of the 2010 season. LSK were in early June fifth in the Tippeligaen, undefeated in 14 league matches, they saw however a dramatic drop in form over the summer which saw them flirt with relegation, before a late surge of form late in the season salvaged 10th place. In 2011 LSK made an exciting start to the new season, scoring an incredible 18 goals from their first five league matches, including a 7–0 drubbing of Stabæk in their first league match of the season – away from home.

Early season form was good enough for the team to flirt with the top three until the end of July. Early in August, stars Anthony Ujah and Nosa Igiebor were sold to stave off the dire economic straits of the club. In-form Icelandic midfielder Stefán Gíslason was out of contract and left the club. In mid-August, prodigy striker Björn Bergmann Sigurðarson was injured for the rest of the season, the club failed to win any of their last 11 league games, a new record for Lillestrøm. Coach Henning Berg was sacked three matches before the end of the season as investor Per Berg promised fresh funds for acquiring quality players after the season; the club again flirted with the prospect of relegation. This despite an abject 34 points gathered over 30 league matches, which would mean relegation. Former Elfsborg coach Magnus Haglund was appointed coach after the season. Lillestrøm was quite active in the transfer window ahead of the 2012 season, bought 11 new players; the change of coach and flurry of transfers did the club no good however as they again flirted with relegation until just a few weeks before the end of the season, hovering between 12th and 14th place before a strong finish to the season propelled them into 9th.

On the whole the season was deemed a big disappointment however and


Argyroderma is a genus consisting of over 50 species of succulents in the iceplant family from South Africa. These distinctive plants are among those known as "living stones", because their succulent stemless, blue-green leaves occur at ground level and can resemble small stones, they form small clumps of a few or many paired cylindrical to egg-shaped leaves that are cleft in the center. Each stem may produce offsets over the years. In some species the old leaves form a short column on which new leaves develop. Solitary daisy-like flowers white, yellow, or purple, appear in the cleft; the entire genus is confined to a small region in the far west of South Africa, known locally as the "Knersvlakte" area. This is a arid region of winter-rainfall desert and rocky quartzite sands. Like most succulents, they require well-drained soil, are damaged by repeated frosts, their preferred mode of cultivation is a sunny position with gritty free-draining soil. They may be propagated from careful division of established clumps.

List source: Botanica Sistematica

Tim Smits

Tim Smits is an Australian footballer who plays for Grange Thistle. Smits began his career with North Pine SC, he moved to Albany Creek and to the QAS. At the Queensland Academy of Sport he spent three years, after this, he joined Pine Rivers United where he played two years. In January 2006, Smits was scouted by Netherlands club Helmond Sport, where he played for the reserve team, after one year in the Netherlands, he moved back to Australia and signed with Rochedale Rovers. In January 2008, after playing nine games in one year for Rochedale, he joined A-League club Brisbane Roar. 1 - includes A-League final series statistics 2 - includes FIFA Club World Cup statistics.

Mitch Talbot

Mitchell R. Talbot is an American professional baseball pitcher, a free agent, he has played in Major League Baseball for the Tampa Bay Rays and Cleveland Indians and in KBO League for the Samsung Lions and Hanwha Eagles and in the CPBL for the Lamigo Monkeys. The youngest of six siblings, Talbot graduated from Canyon View High School in Cedar City and was a member of the Salt Lake Tribune's All-State second team during his senior season, he was drafted by the Houston Astros in the 2nd round in the 2002 Major League Baseball draft out of high school. He did not sign and as a result did not begin his professional career until 2003. In 2005, he was rated to have the best changeup in the Astros's organization by Baseball America, he pitched for Single-A Salem and went 8-11 with a 4.34 ERA. He was the Carolina League Pitcher of the Week for the week of July 25 to July 31. On July 12, 2006, during the All-Star break, along with shortstop Ben Zobrist were traded to the Tampa Bay Devil Rays for outfielder Aubrey Huff.

Pitching for two Double-A teams, he went a combined 10-7 with a 2.76 ERA. He earned the Devil Rays Minor League pitcher of August after he went 2-1 with a 1.96 ERA and led all of Double-A baseball with 47 strikeouts. Talbot was a member of the Montgomery Biscuits during their 2006 league championship season and was named's best Double-A playoff performer. In 2007 he began the year for the Durham Bulls. Talbot was called up to the majors on July 1, 2008. Talbot made his Major League debut on 9/15 in relief of Scott Kazmir and pitched 3.0 innings and giving up 4 ER and striking out 2 and walking 3 against the Boston Red Sox. Talbot made his first Major League start against the Baltimore Orioles on September 23, 2008 during the second game of a double header and did not figure in the decision, he allowed 3 earned runs on 6 hits while striking out 2 over 4 1⁄3 innings. On December 21, 2009, he was traded to the Cleveland Indians as a player to be named in the Kelly Shoppach trade.

Talbot was designated for assignment on July 31, 2011, to make room on the 40-man roster for Ubaldo Jiménez. He accepted his assignment and was sent to the Triple-A Columbus Clippers on August 5, 2011. Talbot was placed on the Indians' roster again on September 24, 2011, he was outrighted to Triple-A Columbus again on October 18. He elected free agency on October 20. On December 1, 2011, he signed with the Samsung Lions in South Korea. After spending part of the 2013 season with the Marlins he was released during a rehab assignment, he signed with the Mets and was assigned to AAA Las Vegas on August 20, 2013. After spending part of the season with the Long Island Ducks, on August 25, 2014, he signed with the Lamigo Monkeys in Taiwan. On December 5, 2014, Talbot signed with the Hanwa Eagles in South Korea of the Korean Baseball Organization for the 2015 season. On April 8, 2016, Talbot signed with the Rieleros de Aguascalientes of the Mexican Baseball League. On June 10, 2016, Talbot announced. On May 20, 2017, Talbot signed with the Sugar Land Skeeters of the Atlantic League of Professional Baseball.

He re-signed with the team in early 2018. On May 23, 2018, Talbot's contract was purchased by the Cleveland Indians, he elected free agency on November 2, 2018. On March 6, 2019, Talbot signed with the Sugar Land Skeeters of the Atlantic League of Professional Baseball. On June 5, 2019, Talbot's contract was purchased from the Skeeters by the Cleveland Indians, he was assigned to the Indians' Triple-A affiliate. Talbot elected free agency on November 4, 2019. Media related to Mitch Talbot at Wikimedia Commons Career statistics and player information from MLB, or ESPN, or Baseball-Reference, or Fangraphs, or Baseball-Reference Career statistics and player information from Korea Baseball Organization