Acculturation is a process of social and cultural change that stems from the balancing of two cultures while adapting to the prevailing culture of the society. Individuals of a differing culture try to incorporate themselves into the new more prevalent culture by participating in aspects of the more prevalent culture, such as their traditions, but still hold onto their original cultural values and traditions; the effects of acculturation can be seen at multiple levels in both the devotee of the prevailing culture and those who are assimilating into the culture. At this group level, acculturation results in changes to culture, religious practices, health care, other social institutions. There are significant ramifications on the food and language of those becoming introduced to the overarching culture. At the individual level, the process of acculturation refers to the socialization process by which foreign-born individuals blend the values, norms, cultural attitudes, behaviors of the overarching host culture.
This process has been linked to changes in daily behaviour, as well as numerous changes in psychological and physical well-being. As enculturation is used to describe the process of first-culture learning, acculturation can be thought of as second-culture learning. Under normal circumstances that are seen in today's society, the process of acculturation occurs over a large span of time throughout a few generations. Physical force can be seen in some instances of acculturation, which can cause it to occur more but it is not a main component of the process. More the process occurs through social pressure or constant exposure to the more prevalent host culture. Scholars in different disciplines have developed more than 100 different theories of acculturation, but the concept of acculturation has only been studied scientifically since 1918; as it has been approached at different times from the fields of psychology and sociology, numerous theories and definitions have emerged to describe elements of the acculturative process.
Despite definitions and evidence that acculturation entails a two-way process of change and theory have focused on the adjustments and adaptations made by minorities such as immigrants and indigenous peoples in response to their contact with the dominant majority. Contemporary research has focused on different strategies of acculturation, how variations in acculturation affect individuals, interventions to make this process easier; the history of Western civilization, in particular the histories of Europe and the United States, are defined by patterns of acculturation. One of the most notable forms of acculturation is imperialism, the most common progenitor of direct cultural change. Although these cultural changes may seem simple, the combined results are both robust and complex, impacting both groups and individuals from the original culture and the host culture; the first psychological theory of acculturation was proposed in W. I. Thomas and Florian Znaniecki's The Polish Peasant in Europe and America.
From studying Polish immigrants in Chicago, they illustrated three forms of acculturation corresponding to three personality types: Bohemian and creative-type. In 1936, Redfield and Herskovits provided the first used definition of acculturation as: Those phenomena which result when groups of individuals having different cultures come into continuous first-hand contact, with subsequent changes in the original cultural patterns of either or both groups...under this definition acculturation is to be distinguished from...assimilation, at times a phase of acculturation. Long before efforts toward racial and cultural integration in the United States arose, the common process was assimilation. In 1954, Milton Gordon's book Assimilation in American Life outlined seven stages of the assimilative process, setting the stage for literature on this topic. Young Yun Kim authored a reiteration of Gordon's work, but argued cross-cultural adaptation as a multi-staged process. Kim's theory focused on the unitary nature of psychological and social processes and the reciprocal functional personal environment interdependence.
Although this view was the earliest to fuse micro-psychological and macro-social factors into an integrated theory, it is focused on assimilation rather than racial or ethnic integration. In Kim's approach, assimilation is unilinear and the sojourner must conform to the majority group culture in order to be "communicatively competent." According to Gudykunst and Kim the "cross-cultural adaptation process involves a continuous interplay of deculturation and acculturation that brings about change in strangers in the direction of assimilation, the highest degree of adaptation theoretically conceivable." This view has been criticized, since the biological science definition of adaptation refers to the random mutation of new forms of life, not the convergence of a monoculture. In contradistinction from Gudykunst and Kim's version of adaptive evolution, Eric M. Kramer developed his theory of Cultural Fusion maintaining clear, conceptual distinctions between assimilation and integration. According to Kramer, assimilation involves conformity to a pre-existing form.
Kramer's theory of Cultural Fusion, based on systems theory and hermeneutics, argues that it is impossible for a person to unlea
A psychologist studies normal and abnormal mental states, cognitive and social processes and behavior by observing and recording how individuals relate to one another and to their environments. To become a psychologist, a person completes a graduate university degree in psychology, but in most jurisdictions, members of other behavioral professions can evaluate, diagnose and study mental processes. Psychologists can be seen as practicing within two general categories of psychology: applied psychology which includes "practitioners" or "professionals", research-orientated psychology which includes "scientists", or "scholars"; the training models endorsed by the American Psychological Association require that applied psychologists be trained as both researchers and practitioners, that they possess advanced degrees. Psychologists have one of two degrees; the PhD prepares a psychologist to conduct scientific research for a career in academia. Both PsyD and PhD programs can prepare students to be licensed psychologists, training in these types of programs prepares graduates to take state licensing exams.
Within the two main categories are many further types of psychologists as reflected by the 56 professional classifications recognized by the APA, including clinical and educational psychologists. Such professionals work with persons in a variety of therapeutic contexts. People think of the discipline as involving only such clinical or counseling psychologists. While counseling and psychotherapy are common activities for psychologists, these applied fields are just two branches in the larger domain of psychology. There are other classifications such as industrial and community psychologists, whose professionals apply psychological research and techniques to "real-world" problems of business, social benefit organizations and academia. Clinical and counseling psychologists can offer a range of professional services, including: Providing psychological treatment Administering and interpreting psychological assessment and testing Conducting psychological research Teaching Developing prevention programs Consulting Program administration Providing expert testimony In practice and counseling psychologists might work with individuals, families, or groups in a variety of settings, including private practices, mental health organizations, schools and non-profit agencies.
Most clinical and counseling who engage in research and teaching do so within a college or university setting. Clinical and counseling psychologists may choose to specialize in a particular field. Common areas of specialization, some of which can earn board certification, include: Specific disorders Neuropsychological disorders Child and adolescent psychology Family and relationship counseling Health psychology Sport psychology Forensic psychology Industrial and organizational psychology Educational psychologyClinical and counseling psychologists receive training in a number of psychological therapies, including behavioral, humanistic, existential and systemic approaches, as well as in-depth training in psychological testing, to some extent, neuropsychological testing. Although clinical and counseling psychologists and psychiatrists share the same fundamental aim—the alleviation of mental distress—their training and methodologies are different; the most significant difference is that psychiatrists are licensed physicians, and, as such, psychiatrists are apt to use the medical model to assess mental health problems and to employ psychotropic medications as a method of addressing mental health problems.
Psychologists do not prescribe medication, although in some jurisdictions they do have prescription privileges. In five US states, psychologists with post-doctoral clinical psychopharmacology training have been granted prescriptive authority for mental health disorders. Clinical and counseling psychologists receive extensive training in psychological test administration, scoring and reporting, while psychiatrists are not trained in psychological testing; such tests help to inform treatment planning. For example, in a medical center, a patient with a complicated clinical presentation, being seen by a psychiatrist might be referred to a clinical psychologist for psychological testing to help the psychiatrist determine the diagnosis and treatment. In addition, psychologists spend several years in graduate school being trained to conduct behavioral research. While this training is available for physicians via dual MD/Ph. D. programs, it is not included in standard medical education, although psychiatrists may develop research skills during their residency or a psychiatry fellowship.
Psychologists from Psy. D. Programs tend to have more training and experience in clinical practice than those from Ph. D. programs. Psychiatrists, as licensed physicians, have been trained more intensively in other areas, such as internal medicine and neurology, may bring this knowledge to bear in identifying and treating medical or neurological conditions that present with psychological symptoms such as depression, anxiety, or
Observational learning is learning that occurs through observing the behavior of others. It is a form of social learning. In humans, this form of learning seems to not need reinforcement to occur, but instead, requires a social model such as a parent, friend, or teacher with surroundings. In childhood, a model is someone of authority or higher status in an environment. In animals, observational learning is based on classical conditioning, in which an instinctive behavior is elicited by observing the behavior of another, but other processes may be involved as well. Many behaviors that a learner observes and imitates are actions that models display and display modeling though the model may not intentionally try to instill a particular behavior. A child may learn to swear, smack and deem other inappropriate behavior acceptable through poor modeling. Albert Bandura claims that children continually learn desirable and undesirable behavior through observational learning. Observational learning suggests that an individual's environment and behavior all incorporate and determine how the individual functions and models.
Through observational learning, individual behaviors can spread across a culture through a process called diffusion chain. This occurs when an individual first learns a behavior by observing another individual and that individual serves as a model through whom other individuals learn the behavior, so on. Culture plays a role in whether observational learning is the dominant learning style in a person or community; some cultures expect children to participate in their communities and are therefore exposed to different trades and roles on a daily basis. This exposure allows children to observe and learn the different skills and practices that are valued in their communities. Albert Bandura, known for the classic Bobo doll experiment, identified this basic form of learning in 1961; the importance of observational learning lies in helping individuals children, acquire new responses by observing others' behavior. Albert Bandura states. Observational learning occurs through observing positive behaviors.
Bandura believes in reciprocal determinism in which the environment can influence people’s behavior and vice versa. For instance, the Bobo doll experiment shows that model, in a determined environment, affects children’s behavior. In this experiment Bandura demonstrates that one group of children placed in an aggressive environment would act the same way, while the control group and the other group of children placed in a passive role model environment hardly shows any type of aggression. In communities where children's primary mode of learning is through observation, the children are separated from adult activities; this incorporation into the adult world at an early age allows children to use observational learning skills in multiple spheres of life. This learning through observation requires keen attentive abilities. Culturally, they learn; this teaches children that it is their duty, as members of the community, to observe others' contributions so they become involved and participate further in the community.
Bandura's social cognitive learning theory states that there are four stages involved in observational learning: Attention: Observers cannot learn unless they pay attention to what's happening around them. This process is influenced by characteristics of the model, such as how much one likes or identifies with the model, by characteristics of the observer, such as the observer's expectations or level of emotional arousal. Retention/Memory: Observers must not only recognize the observed behavior but remember it at some time; this process depends on the observer's ability to code or structure the information in an remembered form or to mentally or physically rehearse the model's actions. Initiation/Motor: Observers must be physically and/intellectually capable of producing the act. In many cases the observer possesses the necessary responses, but sometimes, reproducing the model's actions may involve skills the observer has not yet acquired. It is one thing to watch a circus juggler, but it is quite another to go home and repeat those acts.
Motivation: The observer must have motivation to recreate the observed behavior. Bandura distinguishes between learning and performance. Unless motivated, a person does not produce learned behavior; this motivation can come from external reinforcement, such as the experimenter's promise of reward in some of Bandura's studies, or the bribe of a parent. Or it can come from vicarious reinforcement, based on the observation. High-status models can affect performance through motivation. For example, girls aged 11 to 14 performed better on a motor performance task when they thought it was demonstrated by a high-status cheerleader than by a low-status model; some have added a step between attention and retention involving encoding a behavior. Observational learning leads to a change in an individual's behavior along three dimensions: An individual thinks about a situation in a different way and may have incentive to react to it; the change is a result of a person's direct experiences as opposed to being in-born.
For the most part, the change an individual has made is permanent. According to Bandura's social cognitive learning theory, observational learning can affect behavior in many ways, with both positive and negative consequences, it can teach new behaviors, for one. It can increase or decrease the frequen
Social behavior is behavior among two or more organisms within the same species, encompasses any behavior in which one member affects the other. This is due to an interaction among those members. Social behavior can be seen as similar to an exchange of goods, with the expectation that when you give, you will receive the same; this behavior can be effected by both the qualities of the environmental factors. Therefore, social behavior arises as a result of an interaction between the two—the organism and its environment; this means that, in regards to humans, social behavior can be determined by both the individual characteristics of the person, the situation they are in. A major aspect of social behavior is communication, the basis for survival and reproduction. Social behavior is said to be determined by two different processes, that can either work together or oppose one another; the dual-systems model of reflective and impulsive determinants of social behavior came out of the realization that behavior cannot just be determined by one single factor.
Instead, behavior can arise by pure impulse. These factors that determine behavior can work in different situations and moments, can oppose one another. While at times one can behave with a specific goal in mind, other times they can behave without rational control, driven by impulse instead. There are distinctions between different types of social behavior, such as mundane versus defensive social behavior. Mundane social behavior is a result of interactions in day-to-day life, are behaviors learned as one is exposed to those different situations. On the other hand, defensive behavior arises out of impulse, when one is faced with conflicting desires. Social behavior changes as one continues to grow and develop, reaching different stages of life; the development of behavior is tied with the biological and cognitive changes one is experiencing at any given time. This creates general patterns of social behavior development in humans. Just as social behavior is influenced by both the situation and an individual's characteristics, the development of behavior is due to the combination of the two as well—the temperament of the child along with the settings they are exposed to.
Culture play a large role in the development of a child's social behavior, as the parents or caregivers are those who decide the settings and situations that the child is exposed to. These various settings the child is placed in form habits of interaction and behavior insomuch as the child being exposed to certain settings more than others. What takes particular precedence in the influence of the setting are the people that the child must interact with—their age, at times culture. Emotions play a large role in the development of social behavior, as they are intertwined with the way an individual behaves. Through social interactions, emotion is understood through various verbal and nonverbal displays, thus plays a large role in communication. Many of the processes that occur in the brain and underly emotion greatly correlate with the processes that are needed for social behavior as well. A major aspect of interaction is understanding how the other person thinks and feels, being able to detect emotional states becomes necessary for individuals to interact with one another and behave socially.
As the child continues to gain social information, their behavior develops accordingly. One must learn how to behave according to the interactions and people relevant to a certain setting, therefore begin to intuitively know the appropriate form of social interaction depending on the situation. Therefore, behavior is changing as required, maturity brings this on. A child must learn to balance their own desires with those of the people they interact with, this ability to respond to contextual cues and understand the intentions and desires of another person improves with age; that being said, the individual characteristics of the child is important to understanding how the individual learns social behaviors and cues given to them, this learnability is not consistent across all children. When studying patterns of biological development across the human lifespan, there are certain patterns that are well-maintained across humans; these patterns can correspond with social development, biological changes lead to respective changes in interactions.
In pre and post-natal infancy, the behavior of the infant is correlated with that of the caregiver. In infancy, there is a development of the awareness of a stranger, in which case the individual is able to identify and distinguish between people. Come childhood, the individual begins to attend more to their peers, communication begins to take a verbal form. One begins to classify themselves on the basis of their gender and other qualities salient about themselves, like race and age; when the child reaches school age, one becomes more aware of the structure of society in regards to gender, how their own gender plays a role in this. They become more and more reliant on verbal forms of communication, more to form groups and become aware of their own role within the group. By puberty, general relations among same and opposite sex individuals are much more salient, individuals begin to behave according to the norms of these situations. With increasing awareness of their sex and stereotypes that go along with it, the individual begins to choose how much they align with these stereotypes, behaves either according to thos
Social rejection occurs when an individual is deliberately excluded from a social relationship or social interaction. The topic includes romantic rejection and familial estrangement. A person can be rejected by an entire group of people. Furthermore, rejection can be either active, by bullying, teasing, or ridiculing, or passive, by ignoring a person, or giving the "silent treatment"; the experience of being rejected is subjective for the recipient, it can be perceived when it is not present. The word ostracism is used for the process. Although humans are social beings, some level of rejection is an inevitable part of life. Rejection can become a problem when it is prolonged or consistent, when the relationship is important, or when the individual is sensitive to rejection. Rejection by an entire group of people can have negative effects when it results in social isolation; the experience of rejection can lead to a number of adverse psychological consequences such as loneliness, low self-esteem and depression.
It can lead to feelings of insecurity and a heightened sensitivity to future rejection. Rejection may be painful because of the social nature of human beings and the need of social interaction between other humans is essential. Abraham Maslow and other theorists have suggested that the need for love and belongingness is a fundamental human motivation. According to Maslow, all humans introverts, need to be able to give and receive affection to be psychologically healthy. Psychologists believe that simple contact or social interaction with others is not enough to fulfill this need. Instead, people have a strong motivational drive to form and maintain caring interpersonal relationships. People need both stable relationships and satisfying interactions with the people in those relationships. If either of these two ingredients is missing, people will begin to feel unhappy. Thus, rejection is a significant threat. In fact, the majority of human anxieties appear to reflect concerns over social exclusion.
Being a member of a group is important for social identity, a key component of the self-concept. Mark Leary of Duke University has suggested that the main purpose of self-esteem is to monitor social relations and detect social rejection. In this view, self-esteem is a sociometer which activates negative emotions when signs of exclusion appear. Social psychological research confirms the motivational basis of the need for acceptance. Fear of rejection leads to conformity to peer pressure, compliance to the demands of others. Our need for affiliation and social interaction appears to be strong when we are under stress. Peer rejection has been measured using sociometry and other rating methods. Studies show that some children are popular, receiving high ratings, many children are in the middle, with moderate ratings, a minority of children are rejected, showing low ratings. One measure of rejection asks children to list peers they dislike. Rejected children receive many "dislike" nominations. Children classified.
According to Karen Bierman of Pennsylvania State University, most children who are rejected by their peers display one or more of the following behavior patterns: Low rates of prosocial behavior, e.g. taking turns, sharing. High rates of aggressive or disruptive behavior. High rates of inattentive, immature, or impulsive behavior. High rates of social anxiety. Bierman states that well-liked children know when and how to join play groups. Children who are at risk for rejection are more to barge in disruptively, or hang back without joining at all. Aggressive children who are athletic or have good social skills are to be accepted by peers, they may become ringleaders in the harassment of less skilled children. Minority children, children with disabilities, or children who have unusual characteristics or behavior may face greater risks of rejection. Depending on the norms of the peer group, sometimes minor differences among children lead to rejection or neglect. Children who are less outgoing or prefer solitary play are less to be rejected than children who are inhibited and show signs of insecurity or anxiety.
Peer rejection, once established, tends to be stable over time, thus difficult for a child to overcome. Researchers have found that active rejection is more stable, more harmful, more to persist after a child transfers to another school, than simple neglect. One reason for this is that peer groups establish reputational biases that act as stereotypes and influence subsequent social interaction, thus when rejected and popular children show similar behavior and accomplishments, popular children are treated much more favorably. Rejected children are to have lower self-esteem, to be at greater risk for internalizing problems like depression; some rejected children display externalizing show aggression rather than depression. The research is correlational, but there is evidence of reciprocal effects; this means that children with problems are more to be rejected, this rejection leads to greater problems for them. Chronic peer rejection may lead to a negative developmental cycle. Rejected children are more to be bullied and to have fewer friends than popular children, but these conditions are not always present.
For example, some popular children do not have close friends, whereas some reject
Emotional intelligence, emotional leadership, emotional quotient and emotional intelligence quotient, is the capability of individuals to recognize their own emotions and those of others, discern between different feelings and label them appropriately, use emotional information to guide thinking and behavior, manage and/or adjust emotions to adapt to environments or achieve one's goal. Although the term first appeared in a 1964 paper by Michael Beldoch, it gained popularity in the 1995 book by that title, written by author and science journalist Daniel Goleman. Since this time, EI, Goleman's 1995 analysis, have been criticized within the scientific community, despite prolific reports of its usefulness in the popular press. Empathy is associated with EI, because it relates to an individual connecting their personal experiences with those of others. However, a number of models exist that aim to measure levels of EI. There are several models of EI. Goleman's original model may now be considered a mixed model that combines what has since been modeled separately as ability EI and trait EI.
Goleman defined EI as the array of characteristics that drive leadership performance. The trait model was developed by Konstantinos V. Petrides in 2001, it "encompasses behavioral dispositions and self perceived abilities and is measured through self report". The ability model, developed by Peter Salovey and John Mayer in 2004, focuses on the individual's ability to process emotional information and use it to navigate the social environment. Studies have shown that people with high EI have greater mental health, job performance, leadership skills although no causal relationships have been shown and such findings are to be attributable to general intelligence and specific personality traits rather than emotional intelligence as a construct. For example, Goleman indicated that EI accounted for 67% of the abilities deemed necessary for superior performance in leaders, mattered twice as much as technical expertise or IQ. Other research finds that the effect of EI on leadership and managerial performance is non-significant when ability and personality are controlled for, that general intelligence correlates closely with leadership.
Markers of EI and methods of developing it have become more coveted in the past decade. In addition, studies have begun to provide evidence to help characterize the neural mechanisms of emotional intelligence. Criticisms have centered on whether EI is a real intelligence and whether it has incremental validity over IQ and the Big Five personality traits; the term "emotional intelligence" seems first to have appeared in a 1964 paper by Michael Beldoch, in the 1966 paper by B. Leuner entitled Emotional intelligence and emancipation which appeared in the psychotherapeutic journal: Practice of child psychology and child psychiatry. In 1983, Howard Gardner's Frames of Mind: The Theory of Multiple Intelligences introduced the idea that traditional types of intelligence, such as IQ, fail to explain cognitive ability, he introduced the idea of multiple intelligences which included both interpersonal intelligence and intrapersonal intelligence. The term subsequently appeared in Wayne Payne's doctoral thesis, A Study of Emotion: Developing Emotional Intelligence in 1985.
The first published use of the term'EQ' is an article by Keith Beasley in 1987 in the British Mensa magazine. In 1989 Stanley Greenspan put forward a model to describe EI, followed by another by Peter Salovey and John Mayer published in the following year. However, the term became known with the publication of Goleman's book: Emotional Intelligence – Why it can matter more than IQ, it is to this book's best-selling status. Goleman has followed up with several further popular publications of a similar theme that reinforce use of the term. To date, tests measuring EI have not replaced IQ tests as a standard metric of intelligence. Emotional Intelligence has received criticism on its role in leadership and business success; the distinction between trait emotional intelligence and ability emotional intelligence was introduced in 2000. Emotional intelligence has been defined as "the ability to monitor one's own and other people's emotions, to discriminate between different emotions and label them appropriately, to use emotional information to guide thinking and behavior" by Peter Salovey and John Mayer.
This definition was broken down and refined into four proposed abilities: perceiving, using and managing emotions. These abilities are related. Emotional intelligence reflects abilities to join intelligence and emotions to enhance thought and understanding of interpersonal dynamics. However, substantial disagreement exists regarding the definition of EI, with respect to both terminology and operationalizations. There are three main models of EI: Ability model Mixed model Trait modelDifferent models of EI have led to the development of various instruments for the assessment of the construct. While some of these measures may overlap, most researchers agree. Specific ability models address the ways in which emotions facilitate understanding. For example, emotions may allow people to be better decision makers. A person, more responsive to crucial issues will attend to the more crucial aspects of his or her life. Aspects of emotional facilitation factor is
Friendship is a relationship of mutual affection between people. Friendship is a stronger form of interpersonal bond than an association. Friendship has been studied in academic fields such as communication, social psychology and philosophy. Various academic theories of friendship have been proposed, including social exchange theory, equity theory, relational dialectics, attachment styles. Although there are many forms of friendship, some of which may vary from place to place, certain characteristics are present in many types of such bonds; such characteristics include affection. Friendship is an essential aspect of relationship building skills; the understanding of friendship in children tends to be more focused on areas such as common activities, physical proximity, shared expectations. These friendships provide opportunity for practicing self-regulation. Most children tend to describe friendship in terms of things like sharing, children are more to share with someone they consider to be a friend.
As children mature, they are more aware of others. They gain the ability to empathize with their friends, enjoy playing in groups, they experience peer rejection as they move through the middle childhood years. Establishing good friendships at a young age helps a child to be better acclimated in society on in their life. Based upon the reports of teachers and mothers, 75% of preschool children had at least one friend; this figure rose to 78% through the fifth grade, as measured by co-nomination as friends, 55% had a mutual best friend. About 15% of children were found to be chronically friendless, reporting periods without mutual friends at least six months. Potential benefits of friendship include the opportunity to learn about problem solving. Coaching from parents can be useful in helping children to make friends. Eileen Kennedy-Moore describes three key ingredients of children's friendship formation: openness and shared fun. Parents can help children understand social guidelines they haven't learned on their own.
Drawing from research by Robert Selman and others, Kennedy-Moore outlines developmental stages in children's friendship, reflecting an increasing capacity to understand others' perspectives: "I Want It My Way", "What's In It For Me?", "By the Rules", "Caring and Sharing", "Friends Through Thick and Thin." In adolescence, friendships become "more giving, frank and spontaneous." Adolescents tend to seek out peers who can provide such qualities in a reciprocal relationship, to avoid peers whose problematic behavior suggest they may not be able to satisfy these needs. Relationships begin to maintain a focus on shared values and common interests, rather than physical concerns like proximity and access to play things that more characterize childhood. A study performed at the University of Texas at Austin examined over 9,000 American adolescents to determine how their engagement in problematic behavior was related to their friendships. Findings indicated that adolescents were less to engage in problem behavior when their friends did well in school, participated in school activities, avoided drinking, had good mental health.
The opposite was found regarding adolescents. Whether adolescents were influenced by their friends to engage in problem behavior depended on how much they were exposed to those friends, whether they and their friendship groups "fit in" at school. A study by researchers from Purdue University found that friendships formed during post-secondary education last longer than friendships formed earlier. Friendship in adulthood provides companionship, affection, as well as emotional support, contributes positively to mental well-being and improved physical health. Adults may find it difficult to maintain meaningful friendships in the workplace. "The workplace can crackle with competition, so people learn to hide vulnerabilities and quirks from colleagues. Work friendships take on a transactional feel. Most adults value the financial security of their jobs more than friendship with coworkers; the majority of adults have an average of two close friends. Numerous studies with adults suggest that friendships and other supportive relationships do enhance self-esteem.
Older adults continue to report high levels of personal satisfaction in their friendships as they age, as the overall number of friends tends to decline. This satisfaction is associated with an increased ability to accomplish activities of daily living, as well as a reduced decline in cognitive abilities, decreased instances of hospitalization, better outcomes related to rehabilitation; the overall number of reported friends in life may be mediated by increased lucidity, better speech and vision, marital status. As on review phrased it: Research within the past four decades has now found that older adults reporting the highest levels of happiness and general well being report strong, close ties to numerous friends; as family responsibilities and vocational pressures lessen, friendships become more important. Among the elderly, friendships can provide links to the larger community, serve as a protective factor against depression and loneliness, compensate for potential losses in social support previously