Dystonia is a neurological movement disorder syndrome in which sustained or repetitive muscle contractions result in twisting and repetitive movements or abnormal fixed postures. The movements may resemble a tremor. Dystonia is intensified or exacerbated by physical activity, symptoms may progress into adjacent muscles; the disorder may be hereditary or caused by other factors such as birth-related or other physical trauma, poisoning or reaction to pharmaceutical drugs neuroleptics, or stress. Treatment must be customized to the needs of the individual and may include oral medications, chemodenervation botulinum neurotoxin injections, physical therapy, or other supportive therapies, surgical procedures such as deep brain stimulation. There are multiple types of dystonia, many diseases and conditions may cause dystonia. Dystonia is classified by Clinical characteristics such as age of onset, body distribution, nature of the symptoms, associated features such as additional movement disorders or neurological symptoms, Cause.
Physicians use these classifications to guide treatment. Generalized Focal Segmental Psychogenic Acute dystonic reaction Vegetative-vascular For example, dystonia musculorum deformans: Normal birth history and milestones Autosomal dominant Childhood onset Starts in lower limbs and spreads upwardsAlso known as torsion dystonia or idiopathic torsion dystonia; these most common dystonias are classified as follows: The combination of blepharospasmodic contractions and oromandibular dystonia is called cranial dystonia or Meige's syndrome. Segmental dystonias affect two adjoining parts of the body: Hemidystonia affects an arm and foot on one side of the body. Multifocal dystonia affects many different parts of the body. Generalized dystonia affects most of the body involving the legs and back. There is a group called myoclonic dystonia where some cases are hereditary and have been associated with a missense mutation in the dopamine-D2 receptor; some of these cases have responded well to alcohol. Other genes that have been associated with dystonia include CIZ1, GNAL, ATP1A3, PRRT2.
Another report has linked SLC20A2 to dystonia. Symptoms vary according to the kind of dystonia involved. In most cases, dystonia tends to lead in particular on movement. Many sufferers have continuous pain and relentless muscle spasms due to involuntary muscle movements. Other motor symptoms are possible including lip smacking. Early symptoms may include loss of precision muscle coordination, cramping pain with sustained use, trembling. Significant muscle pain and cramping may result from minor exertions like holding a book and turning pages, it may become difficult to find a comfortable position for arms and legs with the minor exertions associated with holding arms crossed causing significant pain similar to restless leg syndrome. Affected persons may notice trembling in the diaphragm while breathing, or the need to place hands in pockets, under legs while sitting or under pillows while sleeping to keep them still and to reduce pain. Trembling in the jaw may be felt and heard while lying down, the constant movement to avoid pain may result in the grinding and wearing down of teeth, or symptoms similar to temporomandibular joint disorder.
The voice may crack or become harsh, triggering frequent throat clearing. Swallowing can become difficult and accompanied by painful cramping. Electrical sensors inserted into affected muscle groups, while painful, can provide a definitive diagnosis by showing pulsating nerve signals being transmitted to the muscles when they are at rest; the brain appears to signal portions of fibers within the affected muscle groups at a firing speed of about 10 Hz causing them to pulsate and contort. When called upon to perform an intentional activity, the muscles fatigue quickly and some portions of the muscle groups do not respond while other portions over-respond or become rigid; the symptoms worsen with use in the case of focal dystonia, a "mirror effect" is observed in other body parts: Use of the right hand may cause pain and cramping in that hand as well as in the other hand and legs that were not being used. Stress, lack of sleep, sustained use and cold temperatures can worsen symptoms. Direct symptoms may be accompanied by secondary effects of the continuous muscle and brain activity, including disturbed sleep patterns, mood swings, mental stress, difficulty concentrating, blurred vision, digestive problems, short temper.
People with dystonia may become depressed and find great difficulty adapting their activities and livelihood to a progressing disability. Side-effects from treatment and medications can present challenges in normal activities. In some cases, symptoms may progress and plateau for years, or stop progressing entirely; the progression may be delayed by treatment or adaptive lifestyle changes, while forced continued use may make symptoms progress more rapidly. In others, the symptoms may progress to total disability, making some of the more risky forms of treatment worth considering. In some cases with patients who have dystonia, a subsequent tramatic injury or the effects of general anethesia during an unrelated surgery can cause the symptoms to progress rapidly. An accurate diagnosis may be difficult because of the way the disorder manifests itsel
Cornerstone Christian School is an integrated co-educational Area School for Years 1–13 in the city of Palmerston North, New Zealand. The school is divided by an administrative block between the junior and senior areas, after the senior area the newly installed intermediate block is situated; the school is located on the intersection of Mihaere Drive, Roberts line in the suburb of Kelvin Grove, Palmerston North. In 1987, the school began as a private Year 1 – 8 primary school. In 1994, the school became a state-integrated school overseen by a charitable trust. Between 1997 and 2007, the school purchased land, built classrooms, moved to its current location on Mihaere Drive. In 2013, the school was given approval by the Ministry of Education to expand from its existing state as a Year 1–8 primary school, to being a full Year 1 – 13 composite school; this would progress in stages, with an additional year group added between 2014 and 2018. The first secondary class began in 2014. In 2016, the school along with several other schools in the Manawatu-Wanganui region was closed for a day after a confirmed case of the measles.
In 2017, the school became a founding member of the Lower North Island Christian Schools Community of Learning, with principal Peter Ferrar appointed the COL's leadership role. In 2019, the school gained an additional building from Westmount school for the intermediate aged students. For primary classes, the school has three blocks of four to five classrooms each on the northern end of its property. Secondary classes take place in the double-story blocks towards the southern end of the property. In 2011, the school paid additional council fees to build a 493 square metres architecturally designed administration and multipurpose staff-room block. Specialised art and music classrooms were included in the double story'G-Block' in 2015, used for activities such as art expos. Work began in late 2017, on a multi-million dollar basketball court sized gymnasium, including weights room, offices. There were unsuccessful applications for council funding towards this facility, for it to be used as community centre.
It was opened in September 2018 by Palmerston North Mayor Grant Smith. By early 2019, the gymnasium had been used for the school's annual gala, an annual sports exchange with Hastings Christian School, national volleyball tournament games, hosted Manawatu Jets basketball games; as of 2019, work has begun on prefabricated intermediate blocks for years 7–8. School website
The 1975–76 Atlanta Flames season was the fourth season for the franchise. This season would mark a turning point for the franchise. After making the playoffs just once in their first three seasons, the Flames would miss the playoffs only once between 1976 and 1996. Atlanta qualified for the post-season for the second time in franchise history, would face the Los Angeles Kings in a best-of-three preliminary round series; the Kings finished with a 38 -- 33 -- second place in the Norris Division. They finished the season with three more points than the Flames; the series opened at The Forum in Inglewood and the Kings scored in the first minute of play, as Tom Williams beat goaltender Dan Bouchard to give Los Angeles a 1–0 lead. The Kings doubled their lead in the second period. In the third period, the Flames cut the Kings lead to 2–1 after a goal by Barry Gibbs, that's as close as Atlanta would get, as Los Angeles held on for the 2–1 victory; the second game was played at the Omni Coliseum, as the Flames needed a win to force a third and deciding game.
Both goaltenders played great games, the Kings Bob Berry scored with 1:44 remaining in the third period, as Los Angeles held on to beat the Flames 1–0. Kings goaltender Rogie Vachon made 27 saves for the shutout. Los Angeles Kings 2, Atlanta Flames 0 Note: GP = Games played. Stats reflect time with the Flames only. ‡Traded mid-season Note: GP = Games played. Flames on Hockey Database
The Flavivirus capsid hairpin cHP is a conserved RNA hairpin structure identified within the capsid coding region of several flavivirus genomes. These positive strand RNA genomes are translated as a single polypeptide and subsequently cleaved into constituent proteins, the first of, the capsid protein; the cHP hairpin is located within the capsid coding region between two AUG start codons. The cHP cis element has been shown to direct translation start from the suboptimal first start codon; the ability of cHP to direct initiation from the first start codon is proportional to its thermodynamic stability, is position dependent, is sequence independent. It has been demonstrated that both AUGs and the conserved cHP are necessary for efficient viral replication in human and mosquito cells. Page for flavivirus capsid hairpin cHP at Rfam
Franz Fehrenbach is a German engineer and manager who serves as the chairman of Robert Bosch GmbH. Fehrenbach studied industrial engineering at the University of Karlsruhe and joined Robert Bosch GmbH in 1975. In 1988, he was transferred to the United States, but he returned to Germany in 1989. In 1990, Fehrenbach became Vice-CEO of the corporation. In 2003, he became chairman of Robert Bosch GmbH, succeeding Hermann Scholl. In 2012, Fehrenbach caused a stir by expressing his political view to expel Greece not only out of the Euro zone but out of the European Union. Temasek Holdings, Member of the European Advisory Panel Linde, Deputy Chairman of the Supervisory Board Stihl, Member of the Supervisory Board BASF, Member of the Supervisory Board Baden-Badener Unternehmer-Gespräche, Member of the Board of Trustees European School of Management and Technology, Member of the Board of Trustees German Institute for International and Security Affairs, Member of the Council Stifterverband für die Deutsche Wissenschaft, Member of the Board Trilateral Commission, Member of the European Group 2009 – Prize for Understanding and Tolerance, awarded by the Jewish Museum Berlin - article about Greece opinions
The Torre di San Pancrazio is a medieval tower in Cagliari, southern Sardinia, Italy. It is located in the Castello historical quarter of the city; the tower was built in 1305, during the Pisan domination of the city, by the Sardinian architect Giovanni Capula, who designed the Torre dell'Elefante two years as well as the Torre dell'Aquila destroyed in the 18th century and now incorporated in Palazzo Boyl. The tower was part of the city's fortifications built against imminent Aragonese invasion of the island; the tower was built in white limestone from the nearby Colle di Bonaria, with walls up to 3 metres thick. It has a gate, together with that of the Torre dell'Elefante, is still the main entrance to Castello. During the Aragonese rule, the edifice was used as a jail, it was restored in 1906, with the reopening of some sections, covered by other buildings. AA. VV.. Cagliari - Monumenti aperti. Tipografia Doglio