The Maya civilization developed in an area that encompasses southeastern Mexico, all of Guatemala and Belize, and the western portions of Honduras and El Salvador. The Archaic period, prior to 2000 BC, saw the first developments in agriculture, the first Maya cities developed around 750 BC, and by 500 BC these cities possessed monumental architecture, including large temples with elaborate stucco façades. Hieroglyphic writing was being used in the Maya region by the 3rd century BC, in the Late Preclassic a number of large cities developed in the Petén Basin, and Kaminaljuyu rose to prominence in the Guatemalan Highlands. Beginning around 250 AD, the Classic period is defined as when the Maya were raising sculpted monuments with Long Count dates. This period saw the Maya civilization develop a number of city-states linked by a complex trade network. In the Maya Lowlands two great rivals and Calakmul, became powerful, the Classic period saw the intrusive intervention of the central Mexican city of Teotihuacan in Maya dynastic politics.
In the 9th century, there was a political collapse in the central Maya region, resulting in internecine warfare, the abandonment of cities. The Postclassic period saw the rise of Chichen Itza in the north, in the 16th century, the Spanish Empire colonized the Mesoamerican region, and a lengthy series of campaigns saw the fall of Nojpetén, the last Maya city in 1697. Classic period rule was centred on the concept of the divine king, kingship was patrilineal, and power would normally pass to the eldest son. A prospective king was expected to be a successful war leader. Maya politics was dominated by a system of patronage, although the exact political make-up of a kingdom varied from city-state to city-state. By the Late Classic, the aristocracy had greatly increased, resulting in the reduction in the exclusive power of the divine king. Maya cities tended to expand haphazardly, and the city centre would be occupied by ceremonial and administrative complexes, different parts of a city would often be linked by causeways.
The principal architecture of the city consisted of palaces, pyramid-temples, ceremonial ballcourts, the Maya elite were literate, and developed a complex system of hieroglyphic writing that was the most advanced in the pre-Columbian Americas. The Maya recorded their history and ritual knowledge in screenfold books, there are a great many examples of Maya text found on stelae and ceramics. The Maya developed a complex series of interlocking ritual calendars. As a part of their religion, the Maya practised human sacrifice, the Maya civilization developed within the Mesoamerican cultural area, which covers a region that spreads from northern Mexico southwards into Central America. Mesoamerica was one of six cradles of civilization worldwide, the Mesoamerican area gave rise to a series of cultural developments that included complex societies, cities, monumental architecture and calendrical systems
Robert Forrest Burgess
Robert Forrest Burgess is an American author of non-fiction adventure books, as well as sport fishing and scuba diving magazine articles. Robert F. Burgess was born in Grand Rapids, Michigan and he built his first diving gear out of a World War II gas mask,50 feet of air hose, and an air compressor to explore a Michigan shipwreck in 1944. During this time he skied the Alps as part of the Universitys athletic program, for their summer vacation he and a companion moved to Italys Island of Capri for three months where they learned to skin dive. After studying abroad he returned to the U. S. to complete his education, moving to Florida he wrote and photographed features for every major U. S. outdoor magazine including several abroad. With his new bride, Burgess returned to Switzerland in 1956, in Milan they purchased an Italian Lambretta motor scooter that winter, riding it 700 miles, across the Rivieras to Spain, where they took a ferry to the Balearic Islands. They wintered on the island of Majorca, where he fished with Majorcan trawler fishermen and that spring they ferried to Valencia and motor scootered across Spain to Madrid, where he and his wife lived for the next 3 1⁄2 years.
While there Burgess wrote his first novel and numerous articles for periodicals in England, Spain. Over the years Burgess has written and published twenty books on such subjects as sharks, underwater archaeology, treasure diving, cave diving, travel. Robert F. Burgess lives in north Florida, where he continues to write magazine articles, Burgess, as well as a listing of his available works. The Photographic Art of Robert F. Burgess with information on how the photographs were made, for more books by Robert F. Burgess
Cahal Pech is a Maya site located near the town of San Ignacio in the Cayo District of Belize. The site rests high above the banks of the Macal River and is located to overlook the confluence of the Macal River. The site is a collection of 34 structures, with the tallest temple being about 25 meters in height, the site was abandoned in the 9th century CE for unknown reasons. The earliest pottery in western Belize is found here, emerging information from western Belize suggests that ceramic-using populations may have been in place as early as ca.1200 B. C. at Cahal Pech and perhaps elsewhere. It is now a reserve, and houses a small museum with artifacts from various ongoing excavations. The primary excavation of the began in 1988. Restoration was completed in 2000 under the leadership of Dr. Jaime Awe, Director of the National Institute of Archaeology, other nearby Mayan sites include Chaa Creek, Baking Pot, and Lower Dover
For the Québécoise singer see Carole Facal. Caracol is the given to a large ancient Maya archaeological site. It is situated approximately 40 kilometres south of Xunantunich and the town of San Ignacio Cayo and it rests on the Vaca Plateau at an elevation of 500 meters above sea-level, in the foothills of the Maya Mountains. Long thought to be a center, it is now known that the site was one of the most important regional political centers of the Maya Lowlands during the Classic Period. Caracol covered approximately 200 square kilometers, covering a much larger than present-day Belize City. Caracol is a name from Spanish, caracol snail, shell. Local tour guides say that the nickname Caracol originates from the population of snails present on the site. Researchers would say to go to one place with all the snails. When visiting the site you will see that snails are quite literally everywhere and its ancient name has been reconstructed from the Emblem Glyph popular among its early rulers - Ux Witz Ajaw, or “Three Hills Lord”.
The full name of Caracol would be Three-Hills Water, read Oxwitza, Uxwitza’ or, Hispanicised and this place name may reference the Three Stone Place of creation. The site was first reported by a native logger named Rosa Mai, Mai reported the site to the archaeological commission for British Honduras, today Belize. In 1938 the archaeological commissioner, A. H. Anderson visited the site for two weeks along with a colleague H. B and it was Anderson who gave the site its modern name. They conducted preliminary surveys, noted 9 carved monuments, took notes on the structures of the A Group Plaza, a. H. Anderson and Linton Satterthwaite discovered 40 stone monuments. The site was first noted and documented archaeologically in 1937 by A. H. Anderson, more extensive explorations and documentation of the site was undertaken by Linton Satterthwaite of the University Museum at the University of Pennsylvania from 1950 to 1953. During this time Satterthwaite primarily focused on finding and documenting monuments, removing several stelae, the Caracol Archaeological Project is directed by Drs.
Arlen and Diane Chase of the University of Nevada, Las Vegas, United States. The 1988-1989 field seasons researched the southeast section of the site, the only road Caracol may be accessed by is paved for the last ten miles and leads to the Western Highway between San Ignacio and Belmopan and to Santa Elena. Caana is the largest building at Caracol and it remains one of the largest man-made structures in Belize. Construction on Caana demonstrated to be post-AD8001990 Structures A2, A7,1991 Exploration and mapping of causeways
It impacted a few miles from the present-day town of Chicxulub in Mexico, after which the impactor and its crater are named. The impactors crater is more than 180 km in diameter, making it the third largest known crater on Earth. In September 2007, William F. Bottke, David Vokrouhlický and this argued that a collision in the asteroid belt 160 million years ago resulted in the Baptistina family of asteroids, the largest surviving member of which is 298 Baptistina. According to Bottke, the Chicxulub impactor was a fragment of a larger parent body about 170 km across. In 2010, another theory implicated the newly discovered asteroid P/2010 A2, alvarez hypothesis Timeline of Cretaceous-Paleogene extinction event research
It is one of six areas in the world where ancient civilization arose independently, and the second in the Americas along with Norte Chico in present-day northern coastal Peru. As a cultural area, Mesoamerica is defined by a mosaic of cultural traits developed and shared by its indigenous cultures, while Mesoamerican civilization did know of the wheel and basic metallurgy, neither of these technologies became culturally important. Among the earliest complex civilizations was the Olmec culture, which inhabited the Gulf coast of Mexico and extended inland, frequent contact and cultural interchange between the early Olmec and other cultures in Chiapas and Oaxaca laid the basis for the Mesoamerican cultural area. All this was facilitated by considerable regional communications in ancient Mesoamerica and this Formative period saw the spread of distinct religious and symbolic traditions, as well as artistic and architectural complexes. In the subsequent Preclassic period, complex urban polities began to develop among the Maya, with the rise of such as El Mirador and Tikal.
Mesoamerica is one of three regions of the world where writing is known to have independently developed. Upon the collapse of Teotihuacán around AD600, competition between several important political centers in central Mexico, such as Xochicalco and Cholula, ensued. During the early period, Central Mexico was dominated by the Toltec culture, Oaxaca by the Mixtec. Towards the end of the period, the Aztecs of Central Mexico built a tributary empire covering most of central Mesoamerica. The distinct Mesoamerican cultural tradition ended with the Spanish conquest in the 16th century, over the next centuries, Mesoamerican indigenous cultures were gradually subjected to Spanish colonial rule. The exact geographic extent of Mesoamerica has varied through time, as the civilization extended North and South from its heartland in southern Mexico, Mesoamerica is recognized as a near-prototypical cultural area, and the term is now fully integrated in the standard terminology of pre-Columbian anthropological studies.
Conversely, the sister terms Aridoamerica and Oasisamerica, which refer to northern Mexico, 10° and 22° northern latitude, Mesoamerica possesses a complex combination of ecological systems, topographic zones, and environmental contexts. A main distinction groups these different niches into two categories, the lowlands and the altiplanos, or highlands. In the low-lying regions, sub-tropical and tropical climates are most common, as is true for most of the coastline along the Pacific and Gulf of Mexico and the Caribbean Sea. The highlands show much more diversity, ranging from dry tropical to cold mountainous climates. The rainfall varies from the dry Oaxaca and north Yucatan to the humid southern Pacific, several distinct sub-regions within Mesoamerica are defined by a convergence of geographic and cultural attributes. These sub-regions are more conceptual than culturally meaningful, and the demarcation of their limits is not rigid, the Maya area, for example, can be divided into two general groups, the lowlands and highlands.
The lowlands are further divided into the southern and northern Maya lowlands, the southern Maya lowlands are generally regarded as encompassing northern Guatemala, southern Campeche and Quintana Roo in Mexico, and Belize
International Standard Book Number
The International Standard Book Number is a unique numeric commercial book identifier. An ISBN is assigned to each edition and variation of a book, for example, an e-book, a paperback and a hardcover edition of the same book would each have a different ISBN. The ISBN is 13 digits long if assigned on or after 1 January 2007, the method of assigning an ISBN is nation-based and varies from country to country, often depending on how large the publishing industry is within a country. The initial ISBN configuration of recognition was generated in 1967 based upon the 9-digit Standard Book Numbering created in 1966, the 10-digit ISBN format was developed by the International Organization for Standardization and was published in 1970 as international standard ISO2108. Occasionally, a book may appear without a printed ISBN if it is printed privately or the author does not follow the usual ISBN procedure, this can be rectified later. Another identifier, the International Standard Serial Number, identifies periodical publications such as magazines, the ISBN configuration of recognition was generated in 1967 in the United Kingdom by David Whitaker and in 1968 in the US by Emery Koltay.
The 10-digit ISBN format was developed by the International Organization for Standardization and was published in 1970 as international standard ISO2108, the United Kingdom continued to use the 9-digit SBN code until 1974. The ISO on-line facility only refers back to 1978, an SBN may be converted to an ISBN by prefixing the digit 0. For example, the edition of Mr. J. G. Reeder Returns, published by Hodder in 1965, has SBN340013818 -340 indicating the publisher,01381 their serial number. This can be converted to ISBN 0-340-01381-8, the check digit does not need to be re-calculated, since 1 January 2007, ISBNs have contained 13 digits, a format that is compatible with Bookland European Article Number EAN-13s. An ISBN is assigned to each edition and variation of a book, for example, an ebook, a paperback, and a hardcover edition of the same book would each have a different ISBN. The ISBN is 13 digits long if assigned on or after 1 January 2007, a 13-digit ISBN can be separated into its parts, and when this is done it is customary to separate the parts with hyphens or spaces.
Separating the parts of a 10-digit ISBN is done with either hyphens or spaces, figuring out how to correctly separate a given ISBN number is complicated, because most of the parts do not use a fixed number of digits. ISBN issuance is country-specific, in that ISBNs are issued by the ISBN registration agency that is responsible for country or territory regardless of the publication language. Some ISBN registration agencies are based in national libraries or within ministries of culture, in other cases, the ISBN registration service is provided by organisations such as bibliographic data providers that are not government funded. In Canada, ISBNs are issued at no cost with the purpose of encouraging Canadian culture. In the United Kingdom, United States, and some countries, where the service is provided by non-government-funded organisations. Australia, ISBNs are issued by the library services agency Thorpe-Bowker
Nohmul is a pre-Columbian Maya archaeological site located on the eastern Yucatán Peninsula, in what is today northern Belize. The name Nohmul may be translated as great mound in Yucatec Maya and it is the most important Maya site in northern Belize. The site included a large pyramid, about 17 meters tall, most of the pyramid was destroyed in May 2013 by contractors tearing it apart for rocks and gravel to use to fill roads, leaving only the core of the pyramid behind. Nohmul was occupied initially during the Preclassic era of Mesoamerican chronology, by the 5th century, monumental construction at the site had effectively ceased and the site seems to have been largely abandoned save for some scattered rural-domestic activities. After a hiatus in construction activities of several centuries, Nohmul was reoccupied and large-scale building resumed, the site was densely developed and occupied into the 12th century. Built above the Hondo River to control the trade routes. At its height, it was the seat of government for an area spanning approximately 8 square miles, pre-Columbian residents built structures of the northern Yucatán type over those erected in the Classic era.
Some of these more recent constructions covered the front of older stairways and these newer constructions include one that resembles El Caracol, Chichen Itza in Chichén Itzá. These constructions are evidence supporting the theory that outsiders from the Yucatán settled in Nohmul, Nohmul is 10 kilometres north of Orange Walk Town and occupies about 35 square kilometres making it the largest Maya site in northern Belize. The site includes about 700 visible mounds ranging from 10 to 30 meters in diameter, the two groups of buildings have a total of ten plazas. Combined, these include more than 80 separate structures. Most of them were constructed either in the Preclassic or Classic period, the first published reference to Nohmul occurs in Thomas Ganns 1897 paper On the Contents of Some Ancient Mounds in Central America. Gann performed several excavations at the site between 1908 and 1936, several of the artifacts collected by Gann are now housed at the British Museum in London. Prehistoric features at the site were first mapped in 1973 by Norman Hammond, Hammond returned with a small team in the 1980s to do a series of excavations known as The Nohmul Project.
On May 13,2013, the largest structure at Nohmul was almost completely destroyed, contractors used excavators and bulldozers to remove large portions of the central pyramid for its limestone content to fill roads in nearby Douglas Village with gravel. Prior to the destruction, the pyramid had a footprint of approximately 50 by 52 meters and was approximately 17 meters tall, more than 70% of the structure was destroyed. The heavy equipment belonged to De-Mars Stone Company, a company owned by UDP politician Denny Grijalva, although the structure was on privately owned land, by law, all pre-Columbian sites are under national government protection in Belize. John Morris of the Belizean Institute of Archaeology said that the workers would have known that they were bulldozing Maya ruins as the structure was unmistakable
Nim Li Punit
Nim Li Punit is a Maya Classic Period site in the Toledo District of the nation of Belize, located 40 kilometres north of the town of Punta Gorda, at 16°19 N, 88°47 60W. Nim Li Punit is a site from the Maya Classic Period. It consists of structures around three plazas, including several step-pyramids, the tallest being 12.2 meters high, the site has a number of carved stelae illustrating the ancient citys rulers. Several stelae are in a state, suggesting a sudden halt to work. The site is near Belizes Southern Highway and is open to visitors subject to an admission charge, Nim Li Punit is situated in the foothills of the Maya Mountains with proximity to clear mountain streams. The Maya Mountains form a nearly impenetrable backdrop forest to the north and east, low-lying swampland between the Sarstoon and Temash Rivers is situated to the south. The site is two kilometres of Belizes Southern Highway, accessed by an unpaved road. Area soils are fertile for tropical standards, and explain the regions ability to support sizeable prehistoric settlements such as Nim Li Punit.
Local sandstones are found in stream and river beds. The sky world is exhibited characteristically in the north by shrines, the location of the ballcourt is intermediary, illustrating the position of this activity to represent perpetual conflict between the forces of life and death. The ballcourt is so well preserved, it appears ready to host a game and it is thought that within the Plaza of the Stela in the South Group that there is an E Group geometry that would have been used for astronomical observations. For example, several monuments present before a terrace known as Structure One. The peak population of Nim Li Punit is estimated to have been in the range of 5000 to 7000 people during the peak occupation Late Classic period, early occupiers of this site probably migrated from Guatemala, similar to the history of nearby Lubaantun. The peoples of Nim Li Punit are thought to have spoken a dialect of the Cholan language, evidence from carved stelae document the site was active in the period 721 to 790 AD, based upon actual Mayan calendar dates inscribed on at least six different stones.
The Nim Li Punit population is thought to have aligned with Mayan settlements such as Tikal in the Petén Basin region of Guatemala. The visitors center indicates that this site had political and social connections with Copan in Honduras, Nim Li Punit is situated in a locale rich in forest, soil and other natural resources. These assets, coupled with proximity to ample flowing mountain streams, mammals found in the area include two primates, Yucatán black howler monkey, Alouatta pigra and Central American spider monkey, Ateles geoffroya. Numerous rodents are found including the common paca, Agouti paca