A river is a natural flowing watercourse freshwater, flowing towards an ocean, lake or another river. In some cases a river flows into the ground and becomes dry at the end of its course without reaching another body of water. Small rivers can be referred to using names such as stream, brook and rill. There are no official definitions for the generic term river as applied to geographic features, although in some countries or communities a stream is defined by its size. Many names for small rivers are specific to geographic location. Sometimes a river is defined as being larger than a creek, but not always: the language is vague. Rivers are part of the hydrological cycle. Potamology is the scientific study of rivers, while limnology is the study of inland waters in general. Most of the major cities of the world are situated on the banks of rivers, as they are, or were, used as a source of water, for obtaining food, for transport, as borders, as a defensive measure, as a source of hydropower to drive machinery, for bathing, as a means of disposing of waste.
A river begins at a source, follows a path called a course, ends at a mouth or mouths. The water in a river is confined to a channel, made up of a stream bed between banks. In larger rivers there is also a wider floodplain shaped by flood-waters over-topping the channel. Floodplains may be wide in relation to the size of the river channel; this distinction between river channel and floodplain can be blurred in urban areas where the floodplain of a river channel can become developed by housing and industry. Rivers can flow down mountains, through valleys or along plains, can create canyons or gorges; the term upriver refers to the direction towards the source of the river, i.e. against the direction of flow. The term downriver describes the direction towards the mouth of the river, in which the current flows; the term left bank refers to the left bank in the direction of right bank to the right. The river channel contains a single stream of water, but some rivers flow as several interconnecting streams of water, producing a braided river.
Extensive braided rivers are now found in only a few regions worldwide, such as the South Island of New Zealand. They occur on peneplains and some of the larger river deltas. Anastamosing rivers are quite rare, they have multiple sinuous channels carrying large volumes of sediment. There are rare cases of river bifurcation in which a river divides and the resultant flows ending in different seas. An example is the bifurcation of Nerodime River in Kosovo. A river flowing in its channel is a source of energy which acts on the river channel to change its shape and form. In 1757, the German hydrologist Albert Brahms empirically observed that the submerged weight of objects that may be carried away by a river is proportional to the sixth power of the river flow speed; this formulation is sometimes called Airy's law. Thus, if the speed of flow is doubled, the flow would dislodge objects with 64 times as much submerged weight. In mountainous torrential zones this can be seen as erosion channels through hard rocks and the creation of sands and gravels from the destruction of larger rocks.
A river valley, created from a U-shaped glaciated valley, can easily be identified by the V-shaped channel that it has carved. In the middle reaches where a river flows over flatter land, meanders may form through erosion of the river banks and deposition on the inside of bends. Sometimes the river will cut off a loop, shortening the channel and forming an oxbow lake or billabong. Rivers that carry large amounts of sediment may develop conspicuous deltas at their mouths. Rivers whose mouths are in saline tidal waters may form estuaries. Throughout the course of the river, the total volume of water transported downstream will be a combination of the free water flow together with a substantial volume flowing through sub-surface rocks and gravels that underlie the river and its floodplain. For many rivers in large valleys, this unseen component of flow may exceed the visible flow. Most but not all rivers flow on the surface. Subterranean rivers flow underground in caverns; such rivers are found in regions with limestone geologic formations.
Subglacial streams are the braided rivers that flow at the beds of glaciers and ice sheets, permitting meltwater to be discharged at the front of the glacier. Because of the gradient in pressure due to the overlying weight of the glacier, such streams can flow uphill. An intermittent river only flows and can be dry for several years at a time; these rivers are found in regions with limited or variable rainfall, or can occur because of geologic conditions such as a permeable river bed. Some ephemeral rivers flow during the summer months but not in the winter; such rivers are fed from chalk aquifers which recharge from winter rainfall. In England these rivers are called bournes and give their name to places such as Bournemouth and Eastbourne. In humid regions, the location where flow begins in the smallest tributary streams moves upstream in response to precipitation and downstream in its absence or when active summer vegetation diverts water for evapotrans
Elbląg is a city in northern Poland on the eastern edge of the Żuławy region with 121,191 inhabitants. It has been assigned to the Warmian-Masurian Voivodeship, it was the capital of Elbląg Voivodeship and a county seat within Gdańsk Voivodeship. Elbląg is one of the oldest cities in the province, its history dates back to 1237, when the Teutonic Order constructed their fortified stronghold on the banks of a nearby river. The castle subsequently served as the official seat of the Teutonic Order Masters. Elbląg became part of the Hanseatic League, which contributed much to the city's wealth. Through the Hansa agreement, the city was linked to other major ports like Danzig, Lübeck and Amsterdam. After the defeat of the Teutonic Knights at the Battle of Grunwald and conclusion of the Second Peace of Thorn in 1466, the city was annexed by Poland, it flourished and turned into a significant trading point, but its growth was hindered by the Second Northern War and the Swedish Deluge. The city was transferred to Prussia after the first partition of Poland in 1772.
Its trading role weakened, until the era of industrialization, which occurred in the 19th century. It was that the famous Elbląg Canal was commissioned. After World War II the city again became part of Poland; the war casualties were catastrophic the severe destruction of the Old Town district, one of the grandest and most beautiful in East Prussia. Today, Elbląg has over 121,000 inhabitants and is a "vibrant city with an attractive tourist base", it serves as an academic and financial center and among its numerous historic monuments is the Market Gate from 1309 and St. Nicholas Cathedral. Elbląg is known for its archaeological sites and the largest brewery in the country; the Elbląg Canal, built in 1825–44 under Prussia, is a tourist site of Elbląg. The canal is believed to be one of the most important monuments related to the history of engineering and has been named one of the Seven Wonders of Poland; the canal was named one of Poland's official national Historic Monuments in 2011. Its listing is maintained by the National Heritage Board of Poland.
Elbląg derives from the earlier German-language Elbing, the name by which the Teutonic Knights knew both the river here and the citadel they established on its banks in 1237. The purpose of the citadel was to prevent the Old Prussian settlement of Truso from being reoccupied, the German crusaders being at war with the pagan Prussians; the citadel was named after itself of uncertain etymology. One traditional etymology connects it to the name of the Helveconae, a Germanic tribe mentioned in Ancient Greek and Latin sources, but the etymology or language of the tribal name remains unknown; the oldest known mention of the river or town Elbing is in the form Ylfing in the report of a sailor Wulfstan from the end of the 9th century, in The Voyages of Ohthere and Wulfstan, written in Anglo-Saxon in King Alfred's reign. Elbing was completely destroyed at the end of World War II; the city became the Polish Elbląg after the war, when the area was ceded to Poland under border changes promulgated at the Potsdam Conference.
Parts of the inner city were rebuilt, around 2000 rebuilding was begun in a style emulating the previous architecture, in many cases over the same foundations and utilizing old bricks and portions of the same walls. The western suburbs of the old city have not been reconstructed; the modern city adjoins about half the length of the river between Lake Drużno and Elbląg Bay, spreads out on both banks, though on the eastern side. To the east is the Elbląg Upland, a dome pushed up by glacial compression, 390 km2 in diameter and 200 m high at its greatest elevation, it parkland. Views to the west show flat fields extending to the horizon. To the south are the marshes and swamps of Drużno; the Elbląg River has been left in a more natural state through the city, but elsewhere it is a controlled channel with branches. One of them, the Jagiellonski Channel, leads to the Nogat River, along which navigation to Gdańsk is common; the Elbląg Canal connecting Lake Drużno with Drwęca River and Lake Jeziorak is a popular tourist site.
Elbląg is not a deep-water port. The draft of vessels using its waterways must be no greater than 1.5 m by law. The turning area at Elbląg is 120 m diameter and a pilot is required for large vessels. Deep water vessels cannot manoeuvre. Traffic of smaller vessels at Elbląg is within the river and marginal, while larger vessels cannot reach the open Baltic Sea because the channel, once built in East-Prussia to go through the peninsula, has belonged to Russia since 1945; the city features three quay complexes, movable cranes, railways. Ancient and recent views of Elbląg Elbląg is located about 55 kilometres south-east of Gdańsk and 90 km south-west of Kaliningrad, Russia; the city is a port on the river Elbląg, which flows into the Vistula Lagoon about 10 km to the north, thus giving the city access to the Baltic Sea via the Russian-controlled Strait of Baltiysk. The Old Town is located on the river Elbląg connecting Lake Drużno to the Vistula Lagoon, about 10 km from the lagoon and 60 km from Gdańsk.
The settlement was first mentioned as "Ilfing" in The Voyages o
Drużno is a body of water considered a lake in northern Poland on the east side of the Vistula delta, near the city of Elbląg. As it is not deep enough to qualify as a lake hydrologically and receives some periodic inflow of sea water from the Vistula Lagoon along the Elbląg River, some suggest that it be termed an estuary reservoir. A village of recent origin called Drużno is situated near the lake; the German name Drausensee, in earlier records called Drusensee, is connected to the ancient trade city of Truso, which stood within the lands now occupied by Elbląg. The lake is reduced from its original size due to large building expansion of housing in the last few decades, but because of the natural death of the lake by sedimentation; the lake is the site of a nature reserve, one of the 13 sites in Poland protected under the Ramsar convention. An old mention of the name is as a place named Truso in the report of sailor Wulfstan from the end of the 9th century; the report was included in The Voyages of Ohthere and Wulfstan, written in Anglo-Saxon in King Alfred's reign.
The central coordinates of the lake are 54°4′N 19°27′E. It lies to the east of the Nogat, the main right branch of the lower Vistula, at the edge of the lowland of the delta, a region of shifting sediments and channels controlled by dikes and ditches; the lake is sometimes up to 1.8 metres below sea level. The delta ends at Elbląg upland, much of, wooded; the delta itself is sparsely populated, despite the presence of large cities nearby. Most of it is rich the rest is a wildlife habitat; the lake today is a 13 to 29 square kilometres. Body of water with a mean depth of about 1.2 metres and a maximum depth of 3 metres. The lake is drained by the Elbląg River. There is only a 0.1 metres difference in altitude between the lake and Elbląska Bay, which projects from Vistula Lagoon. The surface altitude of these bodies varies for a few reasons, such as wind; when there is a strong wind blowing to the south the bay can be a meter or so higher than the lake, which causes back currents in the river. The Prussians called Vistula Lagoon by the name "fresh-water bay".
Since the diminished egress of Vistula water, due to human uses, has brought Baltic water into the bay, now brackish. As a result, back currents in the river bring intrusions of brackish water into the lake; the southern end remains fresh. There always were reversals of river current, which must have speeded traffic between Frisches Haff and the lake; the lake is surrounded by and includes marsh and alder thickets. On its surface are floating Nymphaea, submerged are Potamogeton and the marshes feature tracts of Phragmites, it should have sedimented over long ago but the high throughput of water from various sources brings fresh Oxygen into the lake, retarding its aging. Twelve streams empty into the lake radially, with water from another twelve canals being pumped into it, they bring about 6.9 cubic metres per second into the lake with about 7 draining through the river. Variability in these figures as well as wind and back currents cause expansion and contraction of the lake over wide areas; the total capacity is about 22.4 million cubic metres with a catchment area of 1,084 square kilometres.
The lake is valuable mainly as a nature preserve. Some 20,000 migratory waterfowl use it, chiefly Anser, Anas and Chlidonias. In ancient times the lake was deeper and of wider extent. In the troubled Viking Age and the conflicts and acts of piracy between the various tribes of the Balts and voyagers from Scandinavia and elsewhere, the lake would have been an ideal masked route for shallow-draft vessels, such as the Viking ships; when the lake became useless for that purpose Elblag was still a port with access to the Zalew Wislany and through there to the Gulf of Danzig. It rose to prominence as that; the remains of Truso may be one of the archaeological sites in the area, or it may be under Elblag, or may have been obliterated by construction. In an attempt to make the inland region more accessible, the Prussian government opened the Elbląg Canal through the lake in 1860; the northern terminus of the canal route to the south is Elbląg. It becomes an overland canal to the south, it joins a number of lakes to the south.
During its life the canal was used to haul timber to the coast. After destruction in World War II the canal was restored in 1948 but finds little commercial use now. Instead the entire route has been converted into a recreational area featuring nature preserves such as Lake Druzno. Janow Pomorski is a village about 7 km to the southeast of Elbląg where the traces of some workshops have been found that were on the edge of the lake. A large abundance of finished and finished artifacts in antler and amber have been found, they were manufactured in structures of about 5 by 10 metres, long houses about 6 by 21 metres above ground, three rooms, made of wood, believed to be residences also. A cache of wrecked boats has been found; the artifacts are similar to both Scandinavian equivalents. Some archaeologists suggest; the settlement is dated from t
Poland the Republic of Poland, is a country located in Central Europe. It is divided into 16 administrative subdivisions, covering an area of 312,696 square kilometres, has a temperate seasonal climate. With a population of 38.5 million people, Poland is the sixth most populous member state of the European Union. Poland's capital and largest metropolis is Warsaw. Other major cities include Kraków, Łódź, Wrocław, Poznań, Gdańsk, Szczecin. Poland is bordered by the Baltic Sea, Russia's Kaliningrad Oblast and Lithuania to the north and Ukraine to the east and Czech Republic, to the south, Germany to the west; the establishment of the Polish state can be traced back to AD 966, when Mieszko I, ruler of the realm coextensive with the territory of present-day Poland, converted to Christianity. The Kingdom of Poland was founded in 1025, in 1569 it cemented its longstanding political association with the Grand Duchy of Lithuania by signing the Union of Lublin; this union formed the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth, one of the largest and most populous countries of 16th and 17th century Europe, with a uniquely liberal political system which adopted Europe's first written national constitution, the Constitution of 3 May 1791.
More than a century after the Partitions of Poland at the end of the 18th century, Poland regained its independence in 1918 with the Treaty of Versailles. In September 1939, World War II started with the invasion of Poland by Germany, followed by the Soviet Union invading Poland in accordance with the Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact. More than six million Polish citizens, including 90% of the country's Jews, perished in the war. In 1947, the Polish People's Republic was established as a satellite state under Soviet influence. In the aftermath of the Revolutions of 1989, most notably through the emergence of the Solidarity movement, Poland reestablished itself as a presidential democratic republic. Poland is regional power, it has the fifth largest economy by GDP in the European Union and one of the most dynamic economies in the world achieving a high rank on the Human Development Index. Additionally, the Polish Stock Exchange in Warsaw is the largest and most important in Central Europe. Poland is a developed country, which maintains a high-income economy along with high standards of living, life quality, safety and economic freedom.
Having a developed school educational system, the country provides free university education, state-funded social security, a universal health care system for all citizens. Poland has 15 UNESCO World Heritage Sites. Poland is a member state of the European Union, the Schengen Area, the United Nations, NATO, the OECD, the Three Seas Initiative, the Visegrád Group; the origin of the name "Poland" derives from the West Slavic tribe of Polans that inhabited the Warta river basin of the historic Greater Poland region starting in the 6th century. The origin of the name "Polanie" itself derives from the early Slavic word "pole". In some languages, such as Hungarian, Lithuanian and Turkish, the exonym for Poland is Lechites, which derives from the name of a semi-legendary ruler of Polans, Lech I. Early Bronze Age in Poland begun around 2400 BC, while the Iron Age commenced in 750 BC. During this time, the Lusatian culture, spanning both the Bronze and Iron Ages, became prominent; the most famous archaeological find from the prehistory and protohistory of Poland is the Biskupin fortified settlement, dating from the Lusatian culture of the early Iron Age, around 700 BC.
Throughout the Antiquity period, many distinct ancient ethnic groups populated the regions of what is now Poland in an era that dates from about 400 BC to 500 AD. These groups are identified as Celtic, Slavic and Germanic tribes. Recent archeological findings in the Kujawy region, confirmed the presence of the Roman Legions on the territory of Poland; these were most expeditionary missions sent out to protect the amber trade. The exact time and routes of the original migration and settlement of Slavic peoples lacks written records and can only be defined as fragmented; the Slavic tribes who would form Poland migrated to these areas in the second half of the 5th century AD. Up until the creation of Mieszko's state and his subsequent conversion to Christianity in 966 AD, the main religion of Slavic tribes that inhabited the geographical area of present-day Poland was Slavic paganism. With the Baptism of Poland the Polish rulers accepted Christianity and the religious authority of the Roman Church.
However, the transition from paganism was not a smooth and instantaneous process for the rest of the population as evident from the pagan reaction of the 1030s. Poland began to form into a recognizable unitary and territorial entity around the middle of the 10th century under the Piast dynasty. Poland's first documented ruler, Mieszko I, accepted Christianity with the Baptism of Poland in 966, as the new official religion of his subjects; the bulk of the population converted in the course of the next few centuries. In 1000, Boleslaw the Brave, continuing the policy of his father Mieszko, held a Congress of Gniezno and created the metropolis of Gniezno and the dioceses of Kraków, Kołobrzeg, Wrocław. However, the pagan unrest led to the transfer of the capital to Kraków in 1038 by Casimir I the Restorer. In 1109, Prince Bolesław III Wrymouth defeated the King of Germany Henry V at the Battle of Hundsfeld, stopping the Ge
The Baltic Sea is a marginal sea of the Atlantic Ocean, enclosed by Denmark, Finland, Lithuania, northeast Germany, Poland and the North and Central European Plain. The sea stretches from 53 ° N from 10 ° E to 30 ° E longitude. A mediterranean sea of the Atlantic, with limited water exchange between the two bodies, the Baltic Sea drains through the Danish islands into the Kattegat by way of the straits of Øresund, the Great Belt, the Little Belt, it includes the Gulf of Bothnia, the Bay of Bothnia, the Gulf of Finland, the Gulf of Riga, the Bay of Gdańsk. The Baltic Proper is bordered on its northern edge, at the latitude 60°N, by the Åland islands and the Gulf of Bothnia, on its northeastern edge by the Gulf of Finland, on its eastern edge by the Gulf of Riga, in the west by the Swedish part of the southern Scandinavian Peninsula; the Baltic Sea is connected by artificial waterways to the White Sea via the White Sea Canal and to the German Bight of the North Sea via the Kiel Canal. Administration The Helsinki Convention on the Protection of the Marine Environment of the Baltic Sea Area includes the Baltic Sea and the Kattegat, without calling Kattegat a part of the Baltic Sea, "For the purposes of this Convention the'Baltic Sea Area' shall be the Baltic Sea and the Entrance to the Baltic Sea, bounded by the parallel of the Skaw in the Skagerrak at 57°44.43'N."Traffic history Historically, the Kingdom of Denmark collected Sound Dues from ships at the border between the ocean and the land-locked Baltic Sea, in tandem: in the Øresund at Kronborg castle near Helsingør.
The narrowest part of Little Belt is the "Middelfart Sund" near Middelfart. Oceanography Geographers agree that the preferred physical border of the Baltic is a line drawn through the southern Danish islands, Drogden-Sill and Langeland; the Drogden Sill is situated north of Køge Bugt and connects Dragør in the south of Copenhagen to Malmö. By this definition, the Danish Straits are part of the entrance, but the Bay of Mecklenburg and the Bay of Kiel are parts of the Baltic Sea. Another usual border is the line between Falsterbo and Stevns Klint, Denmark, as this is the southern border of Øresund. It's the border between the shallow southern Øresund and notably deeper water. Hydrography and biology Drogden Sill sets a limit to Øresund and Darss Sill, a limit to the Belt Sea; the shallow sills are obstacles to the flow of heavy salt water from the Kattegat into the basins around Bornholm and Gotland. The Kattegat and the southwestern Baltic Sea have a rich biology; the remainder of the Sea is poor in oxygen and in species.
Thus, the more of the entrance, included in its definition, the healthier the Baltic appears. Tacitus called it Mare Suebicum after the Germanic people of the Suebi, Ptolemy Sarmatian Ocean after the Sarmatians, but the first to name it the Baltic Sea was the eleventh-century German chronicler Adam of Bremen; the origin of the latter name is speculative and it was adopted into Slavic and Finnic languages spoken around the sea likely due to the role of Medieval Latin in cartography. It might be connected to the Germanic word belt, a name used for two of the Danish straits, the Belts, while others claim it to be directly derived from the source of the Germanic word, Latin balteus "belt". Adam of Bremen himself compared the sea with a belt, stating that it is so named because it stretches through the land as a belt, he might have been influenced by the name of a legendary island mentioned in the Natural History of Pliny the Elder. Pliny mentions an island named Baltia with reference to accounts of Xenophon.
It is possible. Baltia might be derived from belt and mean "near belt of sea, strait." Meanwhile, others have suggested that the name of the island originates from the Proto-Indo-European root *bhel meaning "white, fair". This root and its basic meaning were retained in both Latvian. On this basis, a related hypothesis holds that the name originated from this Indo-European root via a Baltic language such as Lithuanian. Another explanation is that, while derived from the aforementioned root, the name of the sea is related to names for various forms of water and related substances in several European languages, that might have been associated with colors found in swamps, yet another explanation is that the name meant "enclosed sea, bay" as opposed to open sea. Some Swedish historians believe. In the Middle Ages the sea was known by a variety of names; the name Baltic Sea became dominant only after 1600. Usage of Baltic and similar terms to denote the region east of the sea started only in 19th century.
The Baltic Sea was known in ancient Latin language sources as Mare Suebicum or Mare Germanicum. Older native names in languages that used to be spoken on the shores of the sea or near it indicate the geographical location of the sea, or its size in relation to smaller gulfs, or tribes associated with it. In modern lang
Morąg is a town in northern Poland in Ostróda County in the Warmian-Masurian Voivodeship. The town is situated in the western uplands of the historic Prussia region, its centre is located about 60 km south of the Polish - Russian border. The nearest city is Olsztyn in 38 km to the southeast. In medieval times, an Old Prussian settlement existed at the site under the name of Mawrin, Maurin or Morin. A new town was built on its place by the invading Teutonic Knights after they destroyed the original settlement in the late 13th century. Part of the Order's State, it was given the name Mohrungen after a nearby lake and in 1327 attained Kulm town law from the local commander Hermann von Oettingen; the first inhabitants of the town were emigrants from the southern Harz region in central Germany. After the 1410 Battle of Grunwald the town was occupied by the united forces of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania and the Kingdom of Poland until 1461. During the Polish–Teutonic Hunger War of 1414, Mohrungen incinerated completely.
In 1440, the citizens joined the Prussian Confederation and fought against the Tetonic Order in the Thirteen Years' War from 1454 to 1466. Reconquered by the Elbing commander Heinrich Reuß von Plauen in 1461, the town became his seat as deputy Grand Master. Mohrungen was on a shipping commerce line connecting Truso with harbors at the Black Sea. Agriculture and commerce was the primary occupations in the town, it was known as a cattle and grain market. Again conquered by Poland during the Prussian War of 1519–21, Mohrungen upon the Protestant Reformation and the secularisation of the Order's State in 1525 was part of Ducal Prussia a Polish fief; the estates were held by Colonel Peter von Dohna, Lord of Schlobitten, whose son Achatius von Dohna had a castle erected. Peter's grandson Christopher von Dohna became known as a scholar and governor of the Principality of Orange during the Thirty Years' War. Rebuilt in a Baroque style in the early 18th century, Dohna Castle is today used as a museum. Mohrungen was again devastated during the Polish–Swedish War in 1626.
From 1701 it was part of the Kingdom of Prussia under King Frederick I. It remained the seat of the local administration, since 1752 of Landkreis Mohrungen. During the Napoleonic War of the Fourth Coalition, in 1807, Marshal Jean-Baptiste Jules Bernadotte took his residence at Dohna Castle. An earthquake struck the town in 1818; the town received access to the Prussian state railways network in 1882. Part of the East Prussian Königsberg region, Mohrungen until 1945 belonged to Germany, it was occupied by Soviet Red Army forces of the 2nd Belorussian Front during the East Prussian Offensive on 23 January 1945. After World War II, the remaining local populace was expelled and the town became part of the re-established Polish Republic according to the Potsdam Agreement, renamed Morąg. From May 2010 to 2011 the town was the garrison of a US Army Patriot Missile Defense battery. After a fire in 1697 only Dohna Castle and the üarish church, restored and rebuilt several times, survived. Following World War II in 1945 fires burnt about 45% of the historic town centre.
Only the outer walls of the town hall remained. The old castle of the Teutonic Knights is being excavated as more of it has been discovered; the "Dohna-Schlößchen", destroyed in the Second World War, was restored in 1986. Now it houses the Museum of an impressive regional museum; the main body of the Catholic church of Saint Peter and Saint Paul goes back to the first half of the 14th century. The town hall, damaged in the Second World War, was rebuilt from 1947-1954; some ruins of the original town walls still remain. Kretowiny, a popular lake and camp ground are only 9 km away and are a favorite and frequent retreat for the local population. 1740: 1,067 1782: 1,753 1820: 2,108 1880: 3,742 1885: 3,879 1890: 3,780 1900: 4,025 1910: 4,147 1925: 4,934 1933: 5,414 2003: 14,570 2010: 13,895 2017: 14,042 Christoph von Dohna, German politician Abraham Calovius, Lutheran theologian Johann Gottfried von Herder, German author, Lutheran theologian, eminent enlightenment philosopher Friedrich von Zander Prussian Chancellor Gustav Hermann Schmischke, Gauleiter Elisabeth von Thadden, German educator Reinold von Thadden-Trieglaff, German theologian Alfred Jaedtke, Wehrmacht officer Gerhard Bondzin, German painter - Gallery Bernd Heine, German linguist Zbigniew Nienacki, Polish writer Cezary Worek, researcher at the AGH University of Science and Technology in Kraków Pastoral activity in the town is the Roman Catholic Church and the Pentecostal Church - Protestant community on the nature of the Gospel, as well as the Greek Orthodox Church.
Battle of Mohrungen Municipal website