The euro sign is the currency sign used for the euro, the official currency of the European Union and some non-EU countries. The design was presented to the public by the European Commission on 12 December 1996, it consists of a stylized letter E, crossed by two lines instead of one. The character is encoded in Unicode at U+20AC € EURO SIGN. In English, the sign precedes the value. In some style guides, the euro sign is not spaced; the euro currency sign was designed to be similar in structure to the old sign for the European Currency Unit. There were 32 proposals; these ten were put to a public survey. After the survey had narrowed the original ten proposals down to two, it was up to the European Commission to choose the final design; the other designs that were considered are not available for the public to view, nor is any information regarding the designers available for public query. The European Commission considers the process of designing to have been internal and keeps these records secret.
The eventual winner was a design created by a team of four experts whose identities have not been revealed. It is assumed that the Belgian graphic designer Alain Billiet was the winner and thus the designer of the euro sign. Inspiration for the € symbol itself came from the Greek epsilon – a reference to the cradle of European civilization – and the first letter of the word Europe, crossed by two parallel lines to ‘certify’ the stability of the euro; the official story of the design history of the euro sign is disputed by Arthur Eisenmenger, a former chief graphic designer for the European Economic Community, who claims he had the idea prior to the European Commission. The European Commission specified a euro logo with exact proportions and colours, for use in public-relations material related to the euro introduction. While the Commission intended the logo to be a prescribed glyph shape, type designers made it clear that they intended to design their own variants instead. Generating the euro sign using a computer depends on the operating system and national conventions.
Some mobile phone companies issued an interim software update for their special SMS character set, replacing the less-frequent Japanese yen sign with the euro sign. Mobile phones have both currency signs; the euro is represented in the Unicode character set with the character name EURO SIGN and the code position U+20AC as well as in updated versions of the traditional Latin character set encodings. In HTML, the &euro. An implicit character encoding, along with the fact that the code position of the euro sign is different in common encoding schemes, led to many problems displaying the euro sign in computer applications. While displaying the euro sign is no problem as long as only one system is used, mixed setups produced errors. One example is a content management system where articles are stored in a database using a different character set than the editor's computer. Another is legacy software which could only handle older encodings such as ISO 8859-1 that contained no euro sign at all. In such situations, character set conversions had to be made introducing conversion errors such as a question mark being displayed instead of a euro sign.
Care has been taken to avoid replacing an existing obsolete currency sign with the euro sign. That could create different currency signs for sender and receiver in e-mails or web sites, with confusions about business agreements as a result. Depending on keyboard layout and the operating system, the symbol can be entered as: AltGr+4 AltGr+5 AltGr+E AltGr+U Ctrl+Alt+4 Ctrl+Alt+5 Ctrl+Alt+e in Microsoft Word in United States layout Alt+0128 in Microsoft Windows Ctrl+⇧ Shift+u followed by 20ac in Chrome OS, in other operating systems using IBus. Ctrl+k followed by =e in the Vim text editor On the macOS operating system, a variety of key combinations are used depending on the keyboard layout, for example: ⌥ Option+2 in British layout ⌥ Option+⇧ Shift+2 in United States layout ⌥ Option+⇧ Shift+5 in Slovenian layout ⌥ Option+$ in French layout ⌥ Option+E in German and Italian layout ⇧ Shift+4 in Swedish layoutThe Compose key sequence for the euro sign is =E. Placement of the sign varies. Countries have sustained those of their former currencies.
For example, in Ireland and the Netherlands, where previous currency signs were placed before the figure, the euro sign is universally placed in the same position. In many other countries, including France, Germany, Spain and Lithuania, an amount such as €3.50 is written as 3,50 € instead in accordance with conventions for previous currencies. The European Union did indeed usher a guideline on the use of the euro sign, stating it should be placed in front of the amount without any space in English, but after the amount in most other languages. In English, the euro sign—like the dollar sign and the pound sign —is placed before the figure, unspaced, as used by publications such as the Financial Times and The Economist; when written out, "euro" is placed after the value in lower case. No official recommendation is made with regard to the use of a cent sign, usage differs between and within m
An alphabet is a standard set of letters that represent the phonemes of any spoken language it is used to write. This is in contrast to other types such as syllabaries and logographic systems; the first phonemic script, the Proto-Canaanite script known as the Phoenician alphabet, is considered to be the first alphabet, is the ancestor of most modern alphabets, including Arabic, Latin, Cyrillic and Brahmic. Peter T. Daniels, distinguishes an abugida or alphasyllabary, a set of graphemes that represent consonantal base letters which diacritics modify to represent vowels, an abjad, in which letters predominantly or represent consonants, an "alphabet", a set of graphemes that represent both vowels and consonants. In this narrow sense of the word the first "true" alphabet was the Greek alphabet, developed on the basis of the earlier Phoenician alphabet. Of the dozens of alphabets in use today, the most popular is the Latin alphabet, derived from the Greek, which many languages modify by adding letters formed using diacritical marks.
While most alphabets have letters composed of lines, there are exceptions such as the alphabets used in Braille. The Khmer alphabet is the longest, with 74 letters. Alphabets are associated with a standard ordering of letters; this makes them useful for purposes of collation by allowing words to be sorted in alphabetical order. It means that their letters can be used as an alternative method of "numbering" ordered items, in such contexts as numbered lists and number placements; the English word alphabet came into Middle English from the Late Latin word alphabetum, which in turn originated in the Greek ἀλφάβητος. The Greek word was made from the first two letters and beta; the names for the Greek letters came from the first two letters of the Phoenician alphabet. Sometimes, like in the alphabet song in English, the term "ABCs" is used instead of the word "alphabet". "Knowing one's ABCs", in general, can be used as a metaphor for knowing the basics about anything. The history of the alphabet started in ancient Egypt.
Egyptian writing had a set of some 24 hieroglyphs that are called uniliterals, to represent syllables that begin with a single consonant of their language, plus a vowel to be supplied by the native speaker. These glyphs were used as pronunciation guides for logograms, to write grammatical inflections, to transcribe loan words and foreign names. In the Middle Bronze Age, an "alphabetic" system known as the Proto-Sinaitic script appears in Egyptian turquoise mines in the Sinai peninsula dated to circa the 15th century BC left by Canaanite workers. In 1999, John and Deborah Darnell discovered an earlier version of this first alphabet at Wadi el-Hol dated to circa 1800 BC and showing evidence of having been adapted from specific forms of Egyptian hieroglyphs that could be dated to circa 2000 BC suggesting that the first alphabet had been developed about that time. Based on letter appearances and names, it is believed to be based on Egyptian hieroglyphs; this script had no characters representing vowels, although it was a syllabary, but unneeded symbols were discarded.
An alphabetic cuneiform script with 30 signs including three that indicate the following vowel was invented in Ugarit before the 15th century BC. This script was not used after the destruction of Ugarit; the Proto-Sinaitic script developed into the Phoenician alphabet, conventionally called "Proto-Canaanite" before ca. 1050 BC. The oldest text in Phoenician script is an inscription on the sarcophagus of King Ahiram; this script is the parent script of all western alphabets. By the tenth century, two other forms can be distinguished, namely Aramaic; the Aramaic gave rise to the Hebrew script. The South Arabian alphabet, a sister script to the Phoenician alphabet, is the script from which the Ge'ez alphabet is descended. Vowelless alphabets, which are not true alphabets, are called abjads exemplified in scripts including Arabic and Syriac; the omission of vowels was not always a satisfactory solution and some "weak" consonants are sometimes used to indicate the vowel quality of a syllable. These letters have a dual function since they are used as pure consonants.
The Proto-Sinaitic or Proto-Canaanite script and the Ugaritic script were the first scripts with a limited number of signs, in contrast to the other used writing systems at the time, Egyptian hieroglyphs, Linear B. The Phoenician script was the first phonemic script and it contained only about two dozen distinct letters, making it a script simple enough for common traders to learn. Another advantage of Phoenician was that it could be used to write down many different languages, since it recorded words phonemically; the script was spread by the Phoenicians across the Mediterranean. In Greece, the script was modified to add vowels, giving rise to the ancestor of all alphabets in the West; the vowels have independent letter forms separate from those of consonants. The Greeks chose letters representing sounds. Vowels are significant in the Greek language, the syllabical Linear B scri
In mathematics, an element, or member, of a set is any one of the distinct objects that make up that set. Writing A = means that the elements of the set A are the numbers 1, 2, 3 and 4. Sets of elements of A, for example, are subsets of A. Sets can themselves be elements. For example, consider the set B =; the elements of B are not 1, 2, 3, 4. Rather, there are only three elements of B, namely the numbers 1 and 2, the set; the elements of a set can be anything. For example, C =, is the set whose elements are the colors red and blue; the relation "is an element of" called set membership, is denoted by the symbol " ∈ ". Writing x ∈ A means that "x is an element of A". Equivalent expressions are "x is a member of A", "x belongs to A", "x is in A" and "x lies in A"; the expressions "A includes x" and "A contains x" are used to mean set membership, however some authors use them to mean instead "x is a subset of A". Logician George Boolos urged that "contains" be used for membership only and "includes" for the subset relation only.
For the relation ∈, the converse relation ∈T may be written A ∋ x, meaning "A contains x". The negation of set membership is denoted by the symbol "∉". Writing x ∉ A means that "x is not an element of A"; the symbol ∈ was first used by Giuseppe Peano 1889 in his work Arithmetices principia, nova methodo exposita. Here he wrote on page X: Signum ∈ significat est. Ita a ∈ b legitur a est quoddam b. So a ∈ b is read; every relation R: U → V is subject to two involutions: complementation R → R ¯ and conversion RT: V → U. The relation ∈ has for its domain a universal set U, has the power set P for its codomain or range; the complementary relation ∈ ¯ = ∉ expresses the opposite of ∈. An element x ∈ U may have x ∉ A, in which case x ∈ U \ A, the complement of A in U; the converse relation ∈ T = ∋ swaps the domain and range with ∈. For any A in P, A ∋ x is true when x ∈ A; the number of elements in a particular set is a property known as cardinality. In the above examples the cardinality of the set A is 4, while the cardinality of either of the sets B and C is 3.
An infinite set is a set with an infinite number of elements, while a finite set is a set with a finite number of elements. The above examples are examples of finite sets. An example of an infinite set is the set of positive integers. Using the sets defined above, namely A =, B = and C =: 2 ∈ A ∈ B 3,4 ∉ B is a member of B Yellow ∉ C The cardinality of D = is finite and equal to 5; the cardinality of P = is infinite. Halmos, Paul R. Naive Set Theory, Undergraduate Texts in Mathematics, NY: Springer-Verlag, ISBN 0-387-90092-6 - "Naive" means that it is not axiomatized, not that it is silly or easy. Jech, Thomas, "Set Theory", Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy Suppes, Axiomatic Set Theory, NY: Dover Publications, Inc. ISBN 0-486-61630-4 - Both the notion of set, membership or element-hood, the axiom of extension, the axiom of separation, the union axiom are needed for a more thorough understanding of "set element". Weisstein, Eric W. "Element". MathWorld
The ampersand is the logogram &, representing the conjunction "and". It originated as a ligature of the letters et—Latin for "and"; the word ampersand is a corruption of the phrase "and per se &", meaning "and by itself and". Traditionally, when reciting the alphabet in English-speaking schools, any letter that could be used as a word in itself was repeated with the Latin expression per se; this habit was useful in spelling where a syllable was repeated after spelling. It was common practice to add the "&" sign at the end of the alphabet as if it were the 27th letter, pronounced as the Latin et or in English as and; as a result, the recitation of the alphabet would end in "X, Y, Z, per se and". This last phrase was slurred to "ampersand" and the term had entered common English usage by 1837. However, in contrast to the 26 letters, the ampersand does not represent a speech sound—although other characters that were dropped from the English alphabet did, such as the Old English thorn and eth. Through popular etymology, it has been falsely claimed that André-Marie Ampère used the symbol in his read publications and that people began calling the new shape "Ampère's and".
The ampersand can be traced back to the 1st century A. D. and the Old Roman cursive, in which the letters E and T were written together to form a ligature. In the and more flowing New Roman Cursive, ligatures of all kinds were common. During the development of the Latin script leading up to Carolingian minuscule the use of ligatures in general diminished; the et-ligature, continued to be used and became more stylized and less revealing of its origin. The modern italic type ampersand is a kind of "et" ligature that goes back to the cursive scripts developed during the Renaissance. After the advent of printing in Europe in 1455, printers made extensive use of both the italic and Roman ampersands. Since the ampersand's roots go back to Roman times, many languages that use a variation of the Latin alphabet make use of it; the ampersand appeared as a character at the end of the Latin alphabet, as for example in Byrhtferð's list of letters from 1011. & was regarded as the 27th letter of the English alphabet, as taught to children in the US and elsewhere.
An example may be seen in M. B. Moore's 1863 book The Dixie Primer, for the Little Folks. In her 1859 novel Adam Bede, George Eliot refers to this when she makes Jacob Storey say: "He thought it had only been put to finish off th' alphabet like; the popular Apple Pie ABC finishes with the lines "X, Y, Z, ampersand, All wished for a piece in hand". The ampersand should not be confused with the Tironian "et", which has the same meaning, but which in appearance resembles the numeral 7. Both symbols have their roots in the classical antiquity, both signs were used throughout the Middle Ages as a representation for the Latin word "et". However, while the ampersand was in origin a common ligature in everyday script, the Tironian "et" was part of a specialised stenographic shorthand; the Tironian "et" is found in old Irish language script, a Latin-based script only used for decorative purposes today, where it signifies agus in Irish. This symbol may have entered the script language by way of monastic influence in the time of the early Christian church in Ireland.
In everyday handwriting, the ampersand is sometimes simplified in design as a large lowercase epsilon or a backwards numeral 3 superimposed by a vertical line. The ampersand is often shown as a backwards 3 with a vertical line above and below it or a dot above and below it; the + sign is informally used in place of an ampersand, sometimes with an added loop and resembling ɬ. Ampersands are seen in business names formed from partnership of two or more people, such as Johnson & Johnson, Dolce & Gabbana, Marks & Spencer, A&P, Tiffany & Co. as well as some abbreviations containing the word and, such as AT&T, R&D, R&B, B&B, P&L. In film credits for stories, etc. & indicates a closer collaboration than and. The ampersand is used by the Writers Guild of America to denote two writers collaborating on a specific script, rather than one writer rewriting another's work. In screenplays, two authors joined with & collaborated on the script, while two authors joined with and worked on the script at different times and may not have consulted each other at all.
In the latter case, they both contributed enough significant material to the screenplay to receive credit but did not work together. In APA style, the ampersand is used. In the list of references, an ampersand precedes the last author's name when there is more than one author; the phrase et cetera written as etc. can be abbreviated &c. representing the combination et + c. The ampersand can be used to indicate that the "and" in a listed item is a part of the item's name and not a separator; the ampersand may still be used as an abbreviation for "and" in inform
Electromotive force, abbreviated emf, is the electrical intensity produced by a non-electrical source. A device that converts other forms of energy into electrical energy, such as a battery or generator, provides an emf as its output. Sometimes an analogy to water "pressure" is used to describe electromotive force. In electromagnetic induction, emf can be defined around a closed loop of conductor as the electromagnetic work that would be done on an electric charge if it travels once around the loop. For a time-varying magnetic flux linking a loop, the electric potential scalar field is not defined due to a circulating electric vector field, but an emf does work that can be measured as a virtual electric potential around the loop. In the case of a two-terminal device, modeled as a Thévenin's equivalent circuit, the equivalent emf can be measured as the open-circuit potential difference or "voltage" between the two terminals; this potential difference can drive an electric current if an external circuit is attached to the terminals.
Devices that can provide emf include electrochemical cells, thermoelectric devices, solar cells, electrical generators and Van de Graaff generators. In nature, emf is generated; the shifting of the Earth's magnetic field during a geomagnetic storm induces currents in the electrical grid as the lines of the magnetic field are shifted about and cut across the conductors. In the case of a battery, the charge separation that gives rise to a voltage difference between the terminals is accomplished by chemical reactions at the electrodes that convert chemical potential energy into electromagnetic potential energy. A voltaic cell can be thought of as having a "charge pump" of atomic dimensions at each electrode, that is: A source of emf can be thought of as a kind of charge pump that acts to move positive charge from a point of low potential through its interior to a point of high potential. … By chemical, mechanical or other means, the source of emf performs work dW on that charge to move it to the high potential terminal.
The emf ℰ of the source is defined as the work dW done per charge dq: ℰ = dW/dq. In the case of an electrical generator, a time-varying magnetic field inside the generator creates an electric field via electromagnetic induction, which in turn creates a voltage difference between the generator terminals. Charge separation takes place within the generator, with electrons flowing away from one terminal and toward the other, until, in the open-circuit case, sufficient electric field builds up to make further charge separation impossible. Again, the emf is countered by the electrical voltage due to charge separation. If a load is attached, this voltage can drive a current; the general principle governing the emf in such electrical machines is Faraday's law of induction. Around 1830, Michael Faraday established that the reactions at each of the two electrode–electrolyte interfaces provide the "seat of emf" for the voltaic cell, that is, these reactions drive the current and are not an endless source of energy as was thought.
In the open-circuit case, charge separation continues until the electrical field from the separated charges is sufficient to arrest the reactions. Years earlier, Alessandro Volta, who had measured a contact potential difference at the metal–metal interface of his cells, had held the incorrect opinion that contact alone was the origin of the emf. Electromotive force is denoted by E or ℰ. In a device without internal resistance, if an electric charge Q passes through that device, gains an energy W, the net emf for that device is the energy gained per unit charge, or W/Q. Like other measures of energy per charge, emf uses the SI unit volt, equivalent to a joule per coulomb. Electromotive force in electrostatic units is the statvolt. Inside a source of emf, open-circuited, the conservative electrostatic field created by separation of charge cancels the forces producing the emf. Thus, the emf has the same value but opposite sign as the integral of the electric field aligned with an internal path between two terminals A and B of a source of emf in open-circuit condition.
Mathematically: E = − ∫ A B E c s ⋅ d ℓ, where Ecs is the conservative electrostatic field created by the charge separation associated with the emf, dℓ is an element of the path from terminal A to terminal B, ‘·’ denotes the vector dot product. This equation applies only to locations A and B that are terminals, does not apply to paths between points A and B with portions outside the source of emf; this equation involves the electrostatic electric field due to charge separation Ecs and does not involve any non-conservative component of electric field due to Faraday's law of induction. In the case of
The Euler–Mascheroni constant is a mathematical constant recurring in analysis and number theory denoted by the lowercase Greek letter gamma. It is defined as the limiting difference between the harmonic series and the natural logarithm: γ = lim n → ∞ = ∫ 1 ∞ d x. Here, ⌊ x ⌋ represents the floor function; the numerical value of the Euler–Mascheroni constant, to 50 decimal places, is: 0.57721566490153286060651209008240243104215933593992... The constant first appeared in a 1734 paper by the Swiss mathematician Leonhard Euler, titled De Progressionibus harmonicis observationes. Euler used the notations O for the constant. In 1790, Italian mathematician Lorenzo Mascheroni used the notations a for the constant; the notation γ appears nowhere in the writings of either Euler or Mascheroni, was chosen at a time because of the constant's connection to the gamma function. For example, the German mathematician Carl Anton Bretschneider used the notation γ in 1835 and Augustus De Morgan used it in a textbook published in parts from 1836 to 1842.
The Euler–Mascheroni constant appears, among other places, in the following: Expressions involving the exponential integral* The Laplace transform* of the natural logarithm The first term of the Laurent series expansion for the Riemann zeta function*, where it is the first of the Stieltjes constants* Calculations of the digamma function A product formula for the gamma function An inequality for Euler's totient function The growth rate of the divisor function In Dimensional regularization of Feynman diagrams in Quantum Field Theory The calculation of the Meissel–Mertens constant The third of Mertens' theorems* Solution of the second kind to Bessel's equation In the regularization/renormalization of the Harmonic series as a finite value The mean of the Gumbel distribution The information entropy of the Weibull and Lévy distributions, implicitly, of the chi-squared distribution for one or two degrees of freedom. The answer to the coupon collector's problem* In some formulations of Zipf's law A definition of the cosine integral* Lower bounds to a prime gap An upper bound on Shannon entropy in quantum information theory The number γ has not been proved algebraic or transcendental.
In fact, it is not known whether γ is irrational. Continued fraction analysis reveals that if γ is rational, its denominator must be greater than 10242080; the ubiquity of γ revealed by the large number of equations below makes the irrationality of γ a major open question in mathematics. See Sondow. Γ is related to the digamma function Ψ, hence the derivative of the gamma function Γ, when both functions are evaluated at 1. Thus: − γ = Γ ′ = Ψ; this is equal to the limits: − γ = lim z → 0 = lim z → 0. Further limit results are: lim z → 0 1 z = 2 γ lim z → 0 1 z ( 1 Ψ ( 1
Old Italic script
Old Italic is one of several now-extinct alphabet systems used on the Italian Peninsula in ancient times for various Indo-European languages and non-Indo-European languages. The alphabets derive from the Euboean Greek Cumaean alphabet, used at Ischia and Cumae in the Bay of Naples in the eighth century BC. Various Indo-European languages belonging to the Italic branch used the alphabet. Faliscan, Umbrian, North Picene, South Picene all derive from an Etruscan form of the alphabet; the Germanic runic alphabet may have been derived from one of these alphabets by the 2nd century AD. The Etruscan alphabet originated as an adaptation of the Western Greek alphabet used by the Euboean Greeks in their first colonies in Italy, the island of Pithekoussai and the city of Cumae in Campania. In the alphabets of the West, X had the sound value, Ψ stood for; the earliest Etruscan abecedarium, the Marsiliana tablet which dates to c. 700 BC, lists 26 letters corresponding to contemporary forms of the Greek alphabet which retained digamma and qoppa but which had not yet developed omega.
Until about 600 BC, the archaic form of the Etruscan alphabet remained unchanged, the direction of writing was free. From the 6th century, the alphabet evolved, adjusting to the phonology of the Etruscan language, letters representing phonemes nonexistent in Etruscan were dropped. By 400 BC, it appears that all of Etruria was using the classical Etruscan alphabet of 20 letters written from left to right: An additional sign, in shape similar to the numeral 8, transcribed as F, was present in both Lydian and Etruscan, its origin is disputed. Its sound value was /f/ and it replaced the Etruscan digraph FH, used to express that sound; some letters were, on the other hand, falling out of use. Etruscan did not have any voiced stops, for which B, C, D were intended; the B and D therefore fell out of use, the C, simpler and easier to write than K, was adopted to write /k/ displacing K itself. Since Etruscan had no /o/ vowel sound, O disappeared and was replaced by U. In the course of its simplification, the redundant letters showed some tendency towards a semi-syllabary: C, K and Q were predominantly used in the contexts CE, KA, QU.
This classical alphabet remained in use until the 2nd century BC when it began to be influenced by the rise of the Latin alphabet. The Romans, who did have voiced stops in their language, revived B and D for /b/ and /d/, used C for both /k/ and /g/, until they invented a separate letter G to distinguish the two sounds. Soon after, the Etruscan language itself became extinct; the Osci adopted the archaic Etruscan alphabet during the 7th century BC, but a recognizably Oscan variant of the alphabet is attested only from the 5th century BC. Ú came to be used to represent Oscan /o/, while U was used for /u/ as well as historical long */oː/, which had undergone a sound shift in Oscan to become ~. The Nucerian alphabet is based on inscriptions found in southern Italy, it is attested only between the 6th and the 5th century BC. The most important sign is the /S/, shaped like a fir tree, a derivation from the Phoenician alphabet; the Alphabet of Lugano, based on inscriptions found in northern Italy and Canton Ticino, was used to record Lepontic inscriptions, among the oldest testimonies of any Celtic language, in use from the 7th to the 5th centuries BC.
The alphabet has 18 letters, derived from the archaic Etruscan alphabet: The alphabet does not distinguish voiced and unvoiced occlusives, i.e. P represents /b/ or /p/, T is for /t/ or /d/, K for /g/ or /k/. Z is for /ts/. U /u/ and V /w/ are distinguished. Θ is for /t/ and X for /g/. There are claims of a related script discovered in Glozel; the alphabet of Sanzeno, about 100 Raetic inscriptions. The alphabet of Magrè, east Raetian inscriptions. Alphabet of Este: Similar but not identical to that of Magrè, Venetic inscriptions. Inscribed abecedarium on rock drawings in Valcamonica. 21 of the 26 archaic Etruscan letters were adopted for Old Latin from the 7th century BC, either directly from the Cumae alphabet, or via archaic Etruscan forms, compared to the classical Etruscan alphabet retaining B, D, K, O, Q, X but dropping Θ, Ś, Φ, Ψ, F. The South Picene alphabet, known from the 6th century BC, is most like the southern Etruscan alphabet in that it uses Q for /k/ and K for /g/, it is: ⟨.⟩ is a reduced ⟨o⟩ and ⟨:⟩ is a reduced ⟨8⟩, used for /f/.
The Old Italic alphabets were unified and added to the Unicode Standard in March, 2001 with the release of version 3.1. The Unicode block for Old Italic is U+10300–U+1032F without specification of a particular alphabet. Writing direction varies based on the language and the time period. For simplicity most scholars use left-to-right and this is the Unicode default direction for the Old Italic block. For this reason, the glyphs in the code chart are shown with left-to-right orientation. Euboean alphabet Negau he