E! is an American basic cable channel owned by the NBCUniversal Cable Entertainment Group division of NBCUniversal, a subsidiary of Comcast. As of January 2016, E! is available to 92.4 million households in the United States. E! was launched on July 31, 1987, as Movietime, a service that aired movie trailers, entertainment news and awards coverage, interviews as an early example of a national barker channel. The channel was founded by Alan Mruvka. Early Movietime hosts included Greg Kinnear, Katie Wagner, Julie Moran, Suzanne Kay, Mark DeCarlo, Sam Rubin and Richard Blade. Controlling ownership was held by a consortium of five cable television providers, HBO/Warner Communications, various founding shareholders, with HBO directly programming and managing the network. In 1989, after Time-Life bought Warner Communications to fend off a takeover bid by Paramount, the new Time Warner company held four of the eight major ownership positions and took over management control of Movietime and renamed the network as E!: Entertainment Television on June 1, 1990.

In 1997, one of the minority partners, teamed up with Disney/ABC Cable Networks to buy the channel after Time-Warner had exercised their put agreement. Comcast increased the ownership stakes in the network through mergers with forerunners of TCI and Continental under various circumstances. In November 2006, Comcast acquired Disney's 39.5% share of E! for $1.23 billion to gain full ownership of the network as part of a broader programming carriage agreement between Disney/ABC and Comcast. In January 2011, Comcast Entertainment Group, the company's television unit, became a division of the NBCUniversal Television Group, after Comcast acquired a 51% majority stake in NBCUniversal from General Electric. E!'s only sister networks prior to the NBC Universal merger were the now-defunct channels Style Network and G4, along with Comcast's sports networks: Versus, Comcast SportsNet and Golf Channel. In the case of Versus, E! staff produced that network's Sports Soup and G4's Web Soup, while the Orlando-based Golf Channel featured no crossovers with E! at all due to incompatible audiences and operations.

Versus and Golf Channel were taken under the direct control of the NBC Sports division, with the former being renamed NBC Sports Network in January 2012, are no longer connected to their former sister networks beyond advertising and in-house operations. On July 9, 2012, the channel introduced a revised logo. removing the exclamation mark background behind the "E" but keeping the exclamation point underneath, along with a new slogan "Pop of Culture", which coincided with the launch of the new series Opening Act. The network started the process of introducing scripted programming, in addition to its existing reality and documentary series; the changes were announced during E!'s programming upfront presentation on April 30, 2012. E! is one of the few U. S. general-entertainment cable channels. News, which debuted on September 1, 1991; the weekday program features stories and gossip about celebrities, the film and television industries, has been broadcast under various formats since its launch being aired live for a time during the mid-2000s.

It was first hosted by Dagny Hultgreen. Steve Kmetko was a host from 1994-2002, it has been hosted by Terrence Jenkins and Giuliana Rancic since 2012 and 2006 with Ryan Seacrest serving as managing editor of the news operation. E! News was the only entertainment news show on the channel for much of its history until 2006, when the channel launched The Daily 10, hosted by Sal Masekela and Catt Sadler. News would be expanded to one hour starting on October 25, 2010. E! carried a simulcast of business news channel Bloomberg Television from 2004 to January 2009, when the latter network had expanded its cable and satellite carriage to a level that allowed the discontinuation of the simulcast. Outside E! News telecasts, the channel runs an E! News–branded news ticker displaying entertainment news headlines each half-hour during regular programming. E! is known for its live red carpet pre-shows for the industry's three prominent award shows, the Primetime Emmy Awards, the Golden Globe Awards, the Academy Awards, were famous for their fashion critiques by Joan Rivers.

In April 2017, it was announced that E! had acquired the People's Choice Awards, which will move to the network from CBS in 2018 with a new November scheduling. The network promoted that the show would be given an "end-to-end" experience that will leverage its existing experience in awards show coverage; the network produces many documentary and biographical series, most notably E! True Hollywood Story.

Ellis Hooks

Ellis Hooks is an American soul blues and electric blues singer and songwriter, who has released six albums to date. The Allmusic journalist, Thom Jurek, noted that Hooks " touches upon Wilson Pickett, Sam Cooke, Otis Redding, but feels like one of the gritty New York streets Hooks has busked upon." Hooks was born in Bay Minette, United States, to a Cherokee mother and an African American father, a Baptist raised sharecropper. He was the thirteenth of sixteen children. By the age of fourteen, Hooks left his strict upbringing. Subsequently hitchhiking across the United States, Hooks travelled around Europe, residing in Paris and Amsterdam, before relocating to New York in his mid-twenties. After busking on the streets of the city, by accident he met the record producer, Jon Tiven, who produced Hooks debut album, Undeniable. Hooks secured headline status at the BBC's World Music Festival in 2003, opened for Terence Trent D'Arby. Hooks performed with Carla Thomas at the Montreux Jazz Festival, his 2003 album, Up Your Mind, was nominated for a Blues Music Award.

Uncomplicated was noted by one reviewer as "somehow both connects with the past while pointing ahead to the future". The Hand of God was recorded in New York and Nashville and had five of its tracks mixed by Dan Penn, his next recording, Godson of Soul, was produced by Jon Tiven, included contributions from Steve Cropper and Wayne Jackson. Hooks' most recent release was Another Saturday Morning, issued in July 2007. In May 2004, Hooks performed at Memphis in May. Hooks appeared at the Kitchener Blues Festival in August 2014. In 2003, Hooks recorded his cover version of "Bulbs" for the Van Morrison tribute album, Vanthology: A Tribute to Van Morrison. In addition, Hooks recorded as a backing vocalist on Frank Black's 2005 album, Honeycomb, he performed similar duties in helping Little Milton record his album Think of Me in 2005. In 2006, Hooks backing vocals were part of Fast Man Raider Man. Hooks' co-composed song "40 Days" was recorded by Blue Day. List of electric blues musicians List of soul-blues musicians Zane Records: Ellis Hooks discography

Coprosma rhamnoides

Coprosma rhamnoides is an endemic shrub in New Zealand. It forms a small shrub up to 2 m tall; the leaves are small and variable in shape. The inconspicuous flowers believed to be wind pollinated, it is widespread in occurrence and can be the dominant small leaved divaricating shrub in some locations It is a dense shrub. If rocks are nearby it can sprawl out prostrate over the rocks; the species occurs less than 1m. The branches grow in many directions and are very thin; this gives a distinct twiggy appearance which accounts for the common name ‘twiggy coprosma’. The leaves have a leather like a matte appearance and a hairless lamina; the leaves are not translucent. They are not evidently reticulate on the top, however they are reticulate when viewed from the bottom; the leaves are fascicled. They are attached by short petioles; the leaves are opposite from each other. The leaves are 7 – 12 mm long. On any individual plant, the leaves vary in shape; this can depend on maturity. The common broad shape leaves are orbicular.

The leaves narrow into the petiole. The petioles are pubescent, with small hairs covering the petiole entirely; the hairs continue onto the lower area of the leaf ). The stipule at the base of the leaf is pubescent, it has a sharp denticle on the apex. The stipules are microscopic; the branches are very small, about 10mm in diameter and numerous, which makes the shrub dense. The branches divaricate. Furthermore, they are rigid; the bark is a reddish brown colour, when scratched, it exposes an energetic yellow/green colour. The flowers of coprosma rhamnoides are axillary; the female flowers are smaller. However, both male and female corollas comprise four lobed petals; the male petal is 2.7 mm, whereas the female are more narrow and funnel shaped. The male has four stamens. Lastly, the coprosma rhamnoides can be identified by the fleshy berries, of a crimson or ruby red colour, they are distributed solitarily along the branchlets. The berries are of a globose shape; the Coprosma rhamnoides species is endemic to New Zealand, meaning it is found nowhere else in the world apart from New Zealand The coprosma rhamnoides is found throughout all of New Zealand, from Northland to Stewart island.

Furthermore, it is common throughout, apart from a few areas. These areas are Otago and the Fiordlands. Notably, the species is hardly found in coastal areas, it is far more common inland; the coprosma rhamnoides prefers lowland areas, including the lower ranges of mountains. The habitat preferences is in shrubland. Furthermore, the species has a notable preference to grow as understorey vegetation of Leptospermum and Kunzea, it is not common, in coastal areas, it prefers to grow far inland. This suggests; the coprosma rhamnoides has a small seed with fleshy red berry surrounding it. The seedlings start to appear after two/three months Once the shrub is grown, small flowers occur; this would be during Spring time from September to October. The flowers are wind pollinated. Soon after, in November, the flowers turn into small green berries; these red berries turn red by June the next year. Once they are red, the berry is now ripe, encompasses only two small seeds inside it; the berries can remain on the shrub, over ripen as they turn a crimson or black colour.

The coprosma rhamnoides. Saline soils are not preferred by the twiggy coprosma. Ideal soil conditions have a neutral pH for the shrub to grow. Apart from that, this shrub is well known to be hardy, it can grow under high wind and weather exposure. The shrub can grow in sunny or rainy environmental conditions The coprosma rhamnoides is preyed upon by many species. Geckos and skinks are common herbivores of the berries, they eat the berries at night time. Birds such as kereru, korimako and weka will eat the berries by day. Lastly, rats will eat the berries too; the leaves are appetising for mammals such as deer or cattle. However, as the twiggy coprosma name suggests, the twig-like structure makes it difficult for grazers to access the leaves and berries. A more adapted herbivore to the twiggy coprosma is the ‘coprosma leaf beetle’; this species can chew holes in the young leaves. This beetle appears around Spring time on the shrub, it can jump from leaf to leaf. Other herbivorous insects include three native caterpillars.

These are the Dark Coprosma Carpet moth - Austrocidaria similata Coprosma pug moth - Pasiphila sandycias Pallid Coprosma leafroller - Leucotenes coprosmae Lastly, two coprosma scale insects are herbivores of the coprosma rhamnoides. Two gall mites are parasites of the coprosma rhamnoides and several gall midges; the mites can cause a discolouration in the leaves. They make the leaves turn yellow. Coprosma rhamnoides is the most common small-leaved coprosma in New Zealand. New Zealand has 30 in total; the coprosma rhamnoides is not grown in gardens due to the scruffy and twig-like appearance. However, if it were to be cultivated, it can grow roots from semi-hardwood cuttings when placed in the ground. Coprosma spathulata C. Michael Hogan. 2009. Crown Fern: Blechnum discolor,, ed. N. Stromberg New Zealand Institute. 1908. Transactions and Proceedings of the New Zealand Institute, Published by J. Hughes, vol. 40