Austar was an Australian telecommunications company. Its main business activity was subscription television but it has been involved with internet access and mobile phones, it was founded in 1995 under the name Community Entertainment Television. Austar's television subscriber base grew to 747,148, making it the largest subscription television operator in regional and rural Australia. Austar provided subscription television services in a service area of 2.4m homes, one-third of Australia's total homes using digital satellite technology. Austar operated a digital cable network in Darwin. Austar is now owned by Foxtel, which acquired the company in 2012. Since the acquisition, Foxtel has progressively merged all operations into a national system. In mid-to-late 2013, Foxtel merged all accounts to Foxtel and removed the MyStar related online services; this was the last step in the merge. In November 2013, the Foxtel iQ units were made available with satellite connections for those who wished to replace their MyStar units.
The transition was completed in 2014, when all Austar branding was replaced with the current Foxtel moniker. Austar was involved with providing services to Sega Channel in Australia in partnership with Namco Bandai Partners, a joint venture between Sega and Ozisoft. On 11 July 2011, Austar announced that "it had entered into definitive transaction agreements with Liberty Global, Inc. and Foxtel Management Pty Limited under which Foxtel will acquire AUSTAR by a series of transactions including a scheme of arrangement." This takeover involved a minority shareholder approval on 30 March 2012, the approval of the Australian Competition & Consumer Commission on 10 April 2012, has had approval from a Second Court Hearing. The Austar shares were suspended on the Australian Securities Exchange as of 16 April 2012, were delisted from the ASX on 27 April 2012; the takeover was completed on 24 May 2012. Austar's main business was subscription television, serving customers outside of the major metro areas.
It took programming from both Foxtel and Optus services, operates on a digital platform. Austar Television was available in 2.4 million homes in regional areas of New South Wales, Victoria and South Australia and all areas of Tasmania and the Northern Territory. Subscriber numbers to Austar Television were second behind Foxtel. Delivery methods include utilising the Optus C-Class Satellite Optus C1 and a digital cable network in Darwin. Austar Featured on Demand used to deliver Austar shows – on demand – to the MyStar each week free of charge with a MyStar subscription, it has since been replaced by Foxtel on Demand. Austar AnyWhere was Austar's online TV service, which allowed customers to watch or download full-length programs online. Austar Anywhere closed on 30 June 2013. MyStar was launched to existing subscribers in late 2007, with a general launch to both new and existing customers in February 2008; the last MyStar was the model T500. It was a four-tuner set-top box equipped with two satellite tuners and two terrestrial tuners available both for viewing and recording standard definition digital free-to-air services including full electronic program guide data for Seven Network, WIN Television, Prime Television and Network Ten..
However, only two tuners can be used because the processor is not capable of handling all four tuners at once. It featureed a 160 GB hard drive, it could record 60 hours of content. Because it is equipped with Macrovision copy protection, content saved to the MyStar cannot be transferred to other media without the use of something such as a video stabiliser, it had support for Time shifting for up to one hour. Support for Dolby Digital Surround Sound was available on selected programming when connected to appropriate equipment, however the Mystar box wouldn't control the volume when using optical or coax, the volume had to be controlled by the device it was plugged into, it had support for Closed Captioning and four different aspect ratios. Both of these features were accessible through the remote's coloured buttons, it supported additional outputs not found on some of the standard decoders such as Component Video, as well as both coaxial and optical digital audio outputs. Support for Composite Video, S-Video and RF out were available.
It had USB and Ethernet ports, but they didn't have a clear function as yet, were to be used for updating the decoder. The MyStar Remote is similar to the standard Austar Digital remote, but it had the addition of buttons specific to recording and playing back video, it shared an identical design to the Foxtel IQ remote, with the exception that it has an Austar button instead of a Foxtel button, there were no AV button. The next generation of MyStar, called MyStar HD, was launched on 15 November 2009, with installations beginning the following day, it had many advantages over its predecessor, most notably support for HD programming. It included a doubling over the 160 GB found in the original MyStar. Only 160 GB of this was available for recordings and other user-selected content, with the other 160 GB being reserved for OnDemand content, which launched in early 2010. MyStar HD included an HDMI output, allowing HD content to be viewed in its native resolution, it had a model number of T600 and a T601.
Austar planned to use MyStar HD as its cornerstone set-top box, with true video-on-demand launched in 2010, more access to web content becoming available after that time, building up to a complete interface redesign for its set-top boxes in late 2011 or early 2012. Sin
Virgin Media Limited is a British company which provides telephone and internet services in the United Kingdom. Its headquarters are in Hampshire. Since 2013, Virgin Media has been a subsidiary of Liberty Global plc, an international television and telecommunications company; the company was listed on the NASDAQ Stock Market and London Stock Exchange. Virgin Media is not a sister company of Virgin Mobile USA, owned by Sprint Corporation; the company was founded in March 2006 by the merger of Telewest, which created NTL: Telewest. In July 2006, the company purchased Virgin Mobile UK, creating the first "quadruple-play" media company in the United Kingdom, offering television, mobile phone and fixed-line telephone services. In November 2006, the company signed a deal with Sir Richard Branson to licence the Virgin brand for the combined business. All of the company's consumer services were rebranded under the Virgin Media name in February 2007. Virgin Media owns and operates its own fibre-optic cable network in the United Kingdom, although their optical fibre network does not reach the customer premises, rather they connect to a street cabinet.
As of 31 December 2012, it had a total of 4.8 million cable customers, of whom around 3.79 million were supplied with its television services, around 4.2 million with broadband internet services and around 4.1 million with fixed-line telephony services. At the same date, it had around 3 million mobile telephony customers. Virgin Media competes in broadband with Sky, BT Group and TalkTalk, in mobile with EE, O2, Vodafone and Three; the company's origins lie in both Telewest and NTL, which merged in March 2006. Telewest began in 1984 in Croydon under the name "Croydon Cable", was acquired by United Cable of Denver in 1988; the company expanded during the 1990s and adopted the Telewest name in 1992 following the merger of its then-parent TCI and US West. It expanded into cable television access in 1999 by purchasing the remaining 50% stake in Cable London, one of the first cable TV companies in the UK, from NTL, adding 400,000 homes in north London. In April 2000 Telewest merged with Flextech, in November extended its cable network with the acquisition of Eurobell, taking the total number of homes past 4.9 million.
NTL was established by Barclay Knapp and George Blumenthal in 1993 as "International CableTel", taking advantage of the deregulation of the UK cable market. Cabletel acquired local cable franchises covering Guildford, Northern Ireland and parts of Central Scotland and South Wales. In 1996 CableTel acquired National Transcommunications Limited, the privatised UK Independent Broadcasting Authority transmission network. In 1998 CableTel adopted "NTL" as its new name. NTL purchased the ISP Virgin.net in 2004, having operated it as a joint venture with Virgin Group since it launched in November 1996. It sold ADSL broadband services through BT landlines to those living outside areas served by NTL's cable network and offered subscription-based and subscription-free dial-up Internet access. Prior to acquiring Virgin.net, NTL offered. Telewest and NTL began discussions regarding a merger in late 2003. Thanks to their geographically distinct areas, NTL and Telewest had co-operated as in redirecting potential customers living outside their respective areas.
On 3 October 2005, NTL announced a US$16 billion purchase of Telewest, to form one of the largest media companies in the UK. The merger agreement as structured would have required NTL to negotiate with BBC Worldwide due to a change-of-ownership clause written into the agreement for UKTV, a joint venture with Telewest's Flextech content division. To prevent this, Telewest instead acquired NTL. In December 2005 NTL:Telewest and mobile virtual network operator Virgin Mobile UK announced that talks had taken place regarding a merger. Virgin Mobile's independent directors rejected the original bid of £817 million, taking the view that NTL's bid "undervalued the business". Sir Richard Branson expressed confidence that a restructured deal could go ahead, in January 2006 NTL increased its offer to £961 million. On 4 April 2006, NTL announced a £962.4 million recommended offer for Virgin Mobile. According to reports, Branson accepted a mix of shares and cash, making him a 10.7% shareholder of the combined company.
NTL and Telewest formally completed their merger on 3 March 2006, making the merged company the UK's largest cable provider, with more than 90% of the market. The combined company renamed itself NTL Incorporated, with ex-NTL shareholders controlling 75% of the stock and ex-Telewest shareholders 25%. Nine of the 11 directors of the new board came with two from Telewest. NTL:Telewest's takeover of Virgin Mobile completed on 4 July 2006, creating the UK's first'quadruple play' media company, bringing together television, mobile phone and fixed-line phone services; the deal included a 30-year exclusive branding agreement that saw NTL adopt the "Virgin" name after it completed its merger with Telewest. NTL:Telewest announced on 8 November 2006 it would change its name to "Virgin Media Inc". On 9 November 2006, NTL announced it had approached the commercial television broadcaster ITV plc about a proposed merger, after a similar announcement by ITV. BSkyB blocked the merger on 17 November 2006 by controversially buying a 17.9% stake in ITV plc, a move that attracted anger from NTL shareholder Richard Branson, an investigation from media and telecoms regulator Ofcom.
On 6 December 2006 NTL announced that it had complained to the Office of Fair Trading about BSkyB's
Foxtel is an Australian pay television company, operating in cable television, direct broadcast satellite television, IPTV streaming services. It was formed in 1995 through a joint venture established between News Telstra. With Fox being the 65% and Telstra the 35% shareholders, it shares many features with the Sky service in the United Kingdom, including iQ, the electronic program guide, a similar remote control, Red Button Active. In 1995, a venture between News Corporation and Telstra took place whereby Telstra would transmit a TV signal through its coaxial network and News Corporation would be the basis for offering channel negotiations and connections. Foxtel was formed... On 23 October 1995, Foxtel commenced a 20 channel service, delivered over the Telstra Hybrid Fibre Coaxial network. In May 1998, Australis Media, the owner of a satellite television service known as Galaxy, was declared insolvent. In June 1998, Foxtel was able to boost its customer base by acquiring Galaxy subscribers from the liquidator of Australis Media and commenced supplying programming to Galaxy's subscribers on an interim basis.
In February 1999, Foxtel began offering its own satellite service to new customers. Publishing and Broadcasting Limited bought half of News Corporation's shares in October 1998, giving each quarter ownership. In 2002, a Content Sharing Agreement between Foxtel and Optus Television was approved by the Australian Competition and Consumer Commission. On 11 July 2011, Austar announced that "it had entered into definitive transaction agreements with Liberty Global, Inc. and Foxtel Management Pty Limited under which Foxtel will acquire Austar by a series of transactions including a scheme of arrangement." This takeover involved a minority shareholder approval on 30 March 2012, the approval of the Australian Competition and Consumer Commission on 10 April 2012, has had approval from a Second Court Hearing. Austar shares were suspended from the ASX on 16 April 2012 and delisted on 27 April 2012; the takeover was completed on 24 May 2012. News Corporation acquired Consolidated Media Holdings in November 2012, bringing its stake in Foxtel to 50%, up from 25%.
On 15 June 2015, Foxtel agreed to buyout 15% shares in Ten Network Holdings, subject to approval from the ACCC. Prior to the acquisition, Discovery backed out from bidding partnership with Foxtel. In June 2017, Foxtel announced that it would be undergoing a major rebrand – the first in its 22-year history – as part of a move to convey an image that "Foxtel is for everyone"; the former logo, described by the company as "quite aggressive, quite arrogant, quite elitist", would be replaced with an all lowercase logo, its Foxtel Play service would rebranded to Foxtel Now. On 6 March 2018, News Corp Australia announced a merger of Fox Sports with Foxtel. News Corp owns a 65 percent stake in the combined entity, with Telstra owning 35 percent; the combining of the two businesses places emphasis on live-streaming sports and entertainment. Foxtel grew in 2007, with most of Foxtel's highest-ever rating events being broadcast that year, including the 2007 AFC Asian Cup quarter-final between Australia and Japan, which drew an average of 419,000 viewers, an Australian pay television record at that time.
This ratings record has since been eclipsed by the 2011 Rugby World Cup on Fox Sports 1 averaging around 500,000 viewers, smashed by the 2012 London Olympics Coverage, broadcast on 8 dedicated channels in both HD and SD formats, which saw an average of 946,432 viewers tuning in on the opening weekend, with around 600,000 to 700,000 viewers nightly thereafter. As of 2012, Fox Sports channels Fox Footy, average between 90,000 and 300,000 + viewers for NRL/AFL matches throughout the week; the highest-rated light entertainment shows are The Simpsons most weeknights on FOX8 with around 110,000 viewers, as well as Family Guy with around 70,000 viewers. A&E has recorded healthy audience numbers for its TruTV & A&E US syndicated shows from the US – Pawn Stars, Hardcore Pawn, Storage Wars. BBC UKTV consistently rates well with British soaps EastEnders and Coronation Street; the LifeStyle channel has experienced audiences in excess of 100,000 people for its Premiere shows Location, Location Australia, Grand Designs Australia, Selling Houses Australia, Disney Channel and The Real Housewives of Melbourne brings strong ratings.
Foxtel transmits its cable service via Telstra hybrid fibre-coaxial cable into the Brisbane, Melbourne and Perth metropolitan areas, along with the Gold Coast. Foxtel now transmits its satellite service into these cities as well as all over Australia including regional areas since the takeover of Austar, previous Austar customers are now 100% Foxtel customers with the conversion from Austar to Foxtel in regional Australia is now complete, satellite service is not supplied to user sites where Telstra HFC cable is available in metropolitan areas. Foxtel on Mobile launched on Telstra's Next G Network in late 2006 and is now available within Telstra Next G coverage areas, which covers 99% of the population. Telstra's network and Foxtel were created to combat the threat posed to Telstra's local call business by the combination of Optus Vision content bundling with Optus' local telephony services.
Hot Telecommunication Systems Ltd. is a company that provides cable television, last-mile Internet access and telecommunication services in Israel. It provides various data transmission services and network services at different rates, services to the business sector and other ancillary services. In November 2004, Hot Telecom commenced providing domestic fixed line telephone services to residential and business subscribers; the company’s shares were traded on the Tel Aviv Stock Exchange and was a constitute of the TA-100 Index until its acquisition by Altice. In March 2013, the company employed 3,958 workers; the company was founded on August 18, 2003 as union of the three national cable companies in Israel – Matav and Golden Channels that can be directly linked to the growing competition of the local satellite television provider Yes. While these companies had pursued a union since the late 1990s in order to save administrative and content purchasing costs, after Yes was founded in order to annihilate it before it could grow, the Israeli government monopoly regulator had denied it until the time when Yes had grown at least a minimum subscriber base.
The three original companies had not competed with each other since each had been regulated with specific cities and regions around the country. Hot offers about 200 foreign-language channels in its digital television services. Hot offers several'exclusive' channels under the Hot brand name. In addition to the digital television services, Hot still provides an analog television service, despite plans to abandon it by 2012, but it has disconnected the analog service in many areas including central Israel, in favor of digital signals. Many HOT subscribers must now have a digital converter box installed if they wish to view broadcasts. Not long after it was created, Hot began offering local telecom service using VoIP, a voice-over-internet technology, internet access services as well. Hot is only permitted to offer last mile access; as of 2006, Hot has about 950,000 clients - 60% of these are using the digital television services, over 400,000 are using the internet services and over 100,000 are using the phone services.
As of late 2005, Hot offers a wide VOD service, offering contents from all channels and content, not broadcast by other companies. Hot has a "start over" service in a few of Hot owned channels, as of 2008. In 2009, businessman Patrick Drahi increased his stake in the company. Drahi completed the takeover in 2011, offered to buy remaining shares in 2012; as a result, Hot is a part of Drahi's company, Altice Europe NV, as of 2018. In December 2010, Hot received a license to operate an Internet service provider in the form of a child company. In 2018, Hot started broadcasting the Kan11 channel at 4K resolution for the first time at channel 511. Hot has been criticized for refusing to provide service to certain areas of Israel, despite being bound by contract to do so. Regions lacking are those that are predominantly Haredi and Arab-Israeli, as well as the Arava. Hot responded that it provided service for 95–98% of the country, sought an official exemption from providing them to certain areas, where the decision lies with the Communications Ministry.
Hot has been accused of using extortionist tactics in its customer service, including refusal to log customer requests to cancel service, sending repeated bills after termination of service. Hot used to be well known for the longest waiting times for customer service in Israel, they forced to get their await time from hours to 3 minutes and the option to get a callback. HOT3 - The main channel of Hot, which airs US shows, as well as original Israeli shows. Yes - the competing satellite television provider. Official website Hot TV Guide Cable Internet – support site Hot Customer Service Hot Customer Service stories List of Hot channels
Streaming media is multimedia, received by and presented to an end-user while being delivered by a provider. The verb "to stream" refers to the process of obtaining media in this manner. A client end-user can use their media player to start playing digital video or digital audio content before the entire file has been transmitted. Distinguishing delivery method from the media distributed applies to telecommunications networks, as most of the delivery systems are either inherently streaming or inherently non-streaming. For example, in the 1930s, elevator music was among the earliest popular music available as streaming media; the term "streaming media" can apply to media other than video and audio, such as live closed captioning, ticker tape, real-time text, which are all considered "streaming text". Live streaming is the delivery of Internet content in real-time much as live television broadcasts content over the airwaves via a television signal. Live internet streaming requires a form of source media, an encoder to digitize the content, a media publisher, a content delivery network to distribute and deliver the content.
Live streaming does not need to be recorded at the origination point, although it is. There are challenges with streaming content on the Internet. If the user does not have enough bandwidth in their Internet connection, they may experience stops, lags, or slow buffering of the content; some users may not be able to stream certain content due to not having compatible computer or software systems. Some popular streaming services include the video sharing website YouTube and Mixer, which live stream the playing of video games. Netflix and Amazon Video stream movies and TV shows, Spotify, Apple Music and TIDAL stream music. In the early 1920s, George O. Squier was granted patents for a system for the transmission and distribution of signals over electrical lines, the technical basis for what became Muzak, a technology streaming continuous music to commercial customers without the use of radio. Attempts to display media on computers date back to the earliest days of computing in the mid-20th century.
However, little progress was made for several decades due to the high cost and limited capabilities of computer hardware. From the late 1980s through the 1990s, consumer-grade personal computers became powerful enough to display various media; the primary technical issues related to streaming were having enough CPU power bus bandwidth to support the required data rates, creating low-latency interrupt paths in the operating system to prevent buffer underrun, enabling skip-free streaming of the content. However, computer networks were still limited in the mid-1990s, audio and video media were delivered over non-streaming channels, such as by downloading a digital file from a remote server and saving it to a local drive on the end user's computer or storing it as a digital file and playing it back from CD-ROMs. In 1991 the first commercial Ethernet Switch was introduced, which enabled more powerful computer networks leading to the first streaming video solutions used by schools and corporations such as expanding Bloomberg Television worldwide.
In the mid 1990s the World Wide Web was established, but streaming audio would not be practical until years later. During the late 1990s and early 2000s, users had increased access to computer networks the Internet. During the early 2000s, users had access to increased network bandwidth in the "last mile"; these technological improvements facilitated the streaming of audio and video content to computer users in their homes and workplaces. There was an increasing use of standard protocols and formats, such as TCP/IP, HTTP, HTML as the Internet became commercialized, which led to an infusion of investment into the sector; the band Severe Tire Damage was the first group to perform live on the Internet. On June 24, 1993, the band was playing a gig at Xerox PARC while elsewhere in the building, scientists were discussing new technology for broadcasting on the Internet using multicasting; as proof of PARC's technology, the band's performance was broadcast and could be seen live in Australia and elsewhere.
In a March 2017 interview, band member Russ Haines stated that the band had used "half of the total bandwidth of the internet" to stream the performance, a 152-by-76 pixel video, updated eight to twelve times per second, with audio quality, "at best, a bad telephone connection". Microsoft Research developed a Microsoft TV application, compiled under MS Windows Studio Suite and tested in conjunction with Connectix QuickCam. RealNetworks was a pioneer in the streaming media markets, when it broadcast a baseball game between the New York Yankees and the Seattle Mariners over the Internet in 1995; the first symphonic concert on the Internet took place at the Paramount Theater in Seattle, Washington on November 10, 1995. The concert was a collaboration between The Seattle Symphony and various guest musicians such as Slash, Matt Cameron, Barrett Martin; when Word Magazine launched in 1995, they featured the first-ever streaming soundtracks on the Internet. Metro
The Dominican Republic is a country located in the island of Hispaniola, in the Greater Antilles archipelago of the Caribbean region. It occupies the eastern five-eighths of the island, which it shares with the nation of Haiti, making Hispaniola one of two Caribbean islands, along with Saint Martin, that are shared by two sovereign states; the Dominican Republic is the second-largest Caribbean nation by area at 48,671 square kilometers, third by population with 10 million people, of which three million live in the metropolitan area of Santo Domingo, the capital city. Christopher Columbus landed on the island on December 5, 1492, which the native Taíno people had inhabited since the 7th century; the colony of Santo Domingo became the site of the first permanent European settlement in the Americas, the oldest continuously inhabited city, the first seat of the Spanish colonial rule in the New World. After more than three hundred years of Spanish rule the Dominican people declared independence in November 1821.
The leader of the independence movement José Núñez de Cáceres, intended the Dominican nation to unite with the country of Gran Colombia, but no longer under Spain's custody the newly independent Dominicans were forcefully annexed by Haiti in February 1822. Independence came 22 years after victory in the Dominican War of Independence in 1844. Over the next 72 years the Dominican Republic experienced internal conflicts and a brief return to colonial status before permanently ousting Spanish rule during the Dominican War of Restoration of 1863–1865. A United States occupation lasted eight years between 1916 and 1924, a subsequent calm and prosperous six-year period under Horacio Vásquez was followed by the dictatorship of Rafael Leónidas Trujillo until 1961. A civil war in 1965, the country's last, was ended by U. S. military occupation and was followed by the authoritarian rule of Joaquín Balaguer, the rules of Antonio Guzmán & Salvador Jorge Blanco. Since 1996, the Dominican Republic has moved toward representative democracy and has been led by Leonel Fernández for most of the time since 1996.
Danilo Medina, the Dominican Republic's current president, succeeded Fernandez in 2012, winning 51% of the electoral vote over his opponent ex-president Hipólito Mejía. The Dominican Republic has the ninth-largest economy in Latin America and is the largest economy in the Caribbean and Central American region. Over the last two decades, the Dominican Republic has had one of the fastest-growing economies in the Americas – with an average real GDP growth rate of 5.4% between 1992 and 2014. GDP growth in 2014 and 2015 reached 7.3 and 7.0% the highest in the Western Hemisphere. In the first half of 2016 the Dominican economy grew 7.4% continuing its trend of rapid economic growth. Recent growth has been driven by construction, manufacturing and mining; the country is the site of the second largest gold mine in the Pueblo Viejo mine. Private consumption has been strong, as a result of low inflation, job creation, as well as a high level of remittances; the Dominican Republic is the most visited destination in the Caribbean.
The year-round golf courses are major attractions. A geographically diverse nation, the Dominican Republic is home to both the Caribbean's tallest mountain peak, Pico Duarte, the Caribbean's largest lake and point of lowest elevation, Lake Enriquillo; the island has an average temperature of biological diversity. The country is the site of the first cathedral, castle and fortress built in the Americas, located in Santo Domingo's Colonial Zone, a World Heritage Site. Music and sport are of great importance in the Dominican culture, with Merengue and Bachata as the national dance and music, baseball as the favorite sport; the "Dominican" word comes from the Latin Dominicus. However, the island has this name by Santo Domingo de Guzmán, founder of the Order of the Dominicans; the Dominicans established a house of high studies in the island of Santo Domingo that today is known as the Universidad Autónoma de Santo Domingo and dedicated themselves to the protection of the native taínos of the island, who were subjected to slavery, to the education of the inhabitants of the island.
For most of its history, up until independence, the country was known as Santo Domingo—the name of its present capital and patron saint, Saint Dominic—and continued to be known as such in English until the early 20th century. The residents were called "Dominicans", the adjective form of "Domingo", the revolutionaries named their newly independent country "Dominican Republic". In the national anthem of the Dominican Republic, the term "Dominicans" does not appear; the author of its lyrics, Emilio Prud'Homme uses the poetic term "Quisqueyans". The word "Quisqueya" derives from a native tongue of the Taino Indians and means "Mother of the lands", it is used in songs as another name for the country. The name of the country is shortened to "the D. R." The Arawakan-speaking Taíno moved into Hispaniola from the north east region of what is now known as South America, displacing earlier inhabitants, c. AD 650, they engaged in hunting and gathering. The fierce Caribs drove the Taíno to the northeastern Caribbean during much of the 15th century.
The estimates of Hispaniola's population in 1492 vary including one hundred thousand, three hundred thousand, an
DirecTV is an American direct broadcast satellite service provider based in El Segundo, California and is a subsidiary of AT&T. Its satellite service, launched on June 17, 1994, transmits digital satellite television and audio to households in the United States, Latin America and the Caribbean, its primary competitors are cable television providers. On July 24, 2015, after receiving approval from the United States Federal Communications Commission and United States Department of Justice, AT&T acquired DirecTV in a transaction valued at $67.1 billion. As of Q1 2017, DirecTV U. S. had 21 million revenues of $12 billion. On November 30, 2016, DirecTV Now, their internet streaming TV service, was launched. In 1953, Howard Hughes created the Howard Hughes Medical Institute, to which he transferred full ownership of Hughes Aircraft. Ostensibly created as a non-profit medical research foundation, HHMI was accused of being used by Hughes as a tax shelter. Following Hughes' death in 1976, HHMI was incorporated in 1977, litigation ensued to determine whether it would be allowed to maintain its interest in Hughes Aircraft.
In 1984, the court appointed a new board for HHMI, which proceeded to sell off Hughes Aircraft to General Motors on December 20, 1985, for an estimated $5.1 billion. General Motors merged Hughes Aircraft with its subsidiary Delco Electronics to create Hughes Electronics Corporation; the new subsidiary was composed of four units: Delco Electronics Company, Hughes Aircraft Company, Hughes Space and Communications Company, Hughes Network Systems. Stanley E. Hubbard founded United States Satellite Broadcasting in 1981 and was a leading proponent for the development of direct-broadcast satellite service in the United States. USSB was awarded five frequencies at the coveted 101-degree west satellite location. Hughes Communications, Inc. was awarded 27 frequencies at the same 101-degree location. After many years, the technology was developed to enable the building of high-power satellites, digital compression standards were developed that allowed multiple digital television channels to be sent through each satellite frequency.
Hughes attempted to create a joint venture with NBC, News Corp. and Cablevision in 1990, to launch the first high-power digital television service called Sky Cable. Failing to do so, the company instead created DirecTV as a separate division and secured an agreement with USSB to build and launch the first high-power direct-broadcast satellite system. DirecTV's name is a portmanteau of "direct" and "TV". Hughes/DirecTV turned to Thomson Consumer Electronics to develop the digital satellite system for the service that would be capable of receiving 175 channels on a small 18-inch dish; these dishes utilized a new generation of smaller, lighter receiver dishes based on military technology introduced by the Global Broadcast System, which predated DirecTV's viability by ten years. Hughes was awarded the contract to build and launch the new high-powered satellites, USSB and DirecTV agreed that the new satellites would carry the two separate programming services: USSB and DirecTV; the USSB and DirecTV programming services were launched on June 17, 1994.
Digital Equipment Corporation provided the hardware for DirecTV, Matrixx Marketing provided customer care via the Matrixx Plus department, DBS Systems created the billing software. In December 1998, DirecTV acquired USSB for $1.3 billion, combined the two satellite services. In 1999, DirecTV acquired PrimeStar, a competitor in the satellite television industry, for $1.83 billion increasing its share of the satellite television market in the US. In September 1996, Hughes purchased 70% of PanAmSat for $3 billion. In 1997, GM transferred it to Delphi Automotive Systems; that same year, Hughes Aircraft was sold to Raytheon for $9.5 billion. Raytheon filed a lawsuit in 1999 accusing Hughes of overstating the value of Hughes Aircraft by $1 billion. A $635.5-million settlement was reached in 2001. In 2000, Hughes Space and Communications was sold to Boeing for $3.75 billion, which it claimed had been overvalued by Hughes. Hughes settled with Boeing for $360 million; these sales left DirecTV, PanAmSat and Hughes Network Systems as the remaining components of Hughes Electronics.
Direct satellite broadcaster were mandated in 1992 to set aside 4% of its channel space for noncommercial educational and informational programming. DirecTV selected C-SPAN, EWTN and the Trinity Broadcasting Network from its current channel lineup plus request additional proposals from other programmers. DirecTV had given PBS Kids, PBS's original application, carriage that did not count against the set aside six weeks before the deadline. DirecTV selected an additional six channels. In 2000, DirecTV introduced the first live in-flight television service for airlines. In September 2000, GM executives, under pressure from GM's shareholders as a result of its poor performance and the greater market worth of Hughes, authorized Hughes executives to begin seeking buyers. In 2001, News Corporation began negotiations to acquire Hughes Electronics in a deal worth $8 billion, which would allow News Corp. to expand its Sky Global Networks satellite television operations into the United States. Negotiations with News Corp. failed, Hughes entered into an agreement on October 28, 2001 to be purchased for $26 billion