Wallonia is a region of Belgium. As the southern portion of the country, Wallonia is French-speaking, accounts for 55% of Belgium's territory and a third of its population; the Walloon Region was not merged with the French Community of Belgium, the political entity responsible for matters related to culture and education, because the French Community of Belgium encompasses both Wallonia and the majority French-Speaking Brussels-Capital Region. The German-speaking minority in eastern Wallonia results from WWI and the subsequent annexation of three cantons that were part of the former German empire; this community represents less than 1% of the Belgian population. It forms the German-speaking Community of Belgium, which has its own government and parliament for culture-related issues. During the industrial revolution, Wallonia was second only to the United Kingdom in industrialization, capitalizing on its extensive deposits of coal and iron; this brought the region wealth, from the beginning of the 19th to the middle of the 20th century, Wallonia was the more prosperous half of Belgium.
Since World War II, the importance of heavy industry has diminished, the Flemish Region surpassed Wallonia in wealth, as Wallonia declined economically. Wallonia now suffers from high unemployment and has a lower GDP per capita than Flanders; the economic inequalities and linguistic divide between the two are major sources of political conflicts in Belgium and a major factor in Flemish separatism. The capital of Wallonia is Namur, the most populous city is Charleroi. Most of Wallonia's major cities and two-thirds of its population lie along the Sambre and Meuse valley, the former industrial backbone of Belgium. To the north lies the Central Belgian Plateau, like Flanders, is flat and agriculturally fertile. In the southeast lie the Ardennes and sparsely populated. Wallonia borders Flanders and the Netherlands in the north, France to the south and west, Germany and Luxembourg to the east. Wallonia has been a member of the Organisation Internationale de la Francophonie since 1980; the term "Wallonia" can mean different things in different contexts.
One of the three federal regions of Belgium is still constitutionally defined as the Walloon Region, but the region's government has renamed it Wallonia, it is called Wallonia. Preceding 1 April 2010, when the renaming came into effect, Wallonia would sometimes refer to the territory governed by the Walloon Region, whereas Walloon Region referred to the government. In practice, the difference between the two terms is small and what is meant is clear, based on context; the root of the word Wallonia, like the words Wales and Wallachia, is the Germanic word Walha, meaning the strangers. Wallonia is named after the Walloons, the population of the Burgundian Netherlands speaking Romance languages. In Middle Dutch, the term Walloons included the French-speaking population of the Prince-Bishopric of Liège or the whole population of the Romanic sprachraum within the medieval Low Countries. Julius Caesar conquered Gaul in 57 BC; the Low Countries became part of the larger Gallia Belgica province which stretched from southwestern Germany to Normandy and the southern part of the Netherlands.
The population of this territory was Celtic with a Germanic influence, stronger in the north than in the south of the province. Gallia Belgica became progressively romanized; the ancestors of the Walloons became Gallo-Romans and were called the "Walha" by their Germanic neighbours. The "Walha" started to speak Vulgar Latin; the Merovingian Franks gained control of the region during the 5th century, under Clovis. Due to the fragmentation of the former Roman Empire, Vulgar Latin regionally developed along different lines and evolved into several langue d'oïl dialects, which in Wallonia became Picard and Lorrain; the oldest surviving text written in a langue d'oïl, the Sequence of Saint Eulalia, has characteristics of these three languages and was written in or near to what is now Wallonia around 880 AD. From the 4th to the 7th century, the Franks established several settlements mostly in the north of the province where the romanization was less advanced and some Germanic trace was still present.
The language border began to crystallize between 700 under the reign of the Merovingians and Carolingians and around 1000 after the Ottonian Renaissance. French-speaking cities, with Liège as the largest one, appeared along the Meuse river and Gallo-Roman cities such as Tongeren and Aachen became Germanized; the Carolingian dynasty dethroned the Merovingians in the 8th century. In 843, the Treaty of Verdun gave the territory of present-day Wallonia to Middle Francia, which would shortly fragment, with the region passing to Lotharingia. On Lotharingia's breakup in 959, the present-day territory of Belgium became part of Lower Lotharingia, which fragmented into rival principalities and duchies by 1190. Literary Latin, taught in schools, lost its hegemony during the 13th century and was replaced by Old French. In the 15th century, the Dukes of Burgundy took over the Low Countries; the death of Charles the Bold in 1477 raised the issue of succession, the Liégeois took advantage of this to regain some of their autonomy.
From the 16th to the 18th century, the Low Countries wer
Streaming media is multimedia, received by and presented to an end-user while being delivered by a provider. The verb "to stream" refers to the process of obtaining media in this manner. A client end-user can use their media player to start playing digital video or digital audio content before the entire file has been transmitted. Distinguishing delivery method from the media distributed applies to telecommunications networks, as most of the delivery systems are either inherently streaming or inherently non-streaming. For example, in the 1930s, elevator music was among the earliest popular music available as streaming media; the term "streaming media" can apply to media other than video and audio, such as live closed captioning, ticker tape, real-time text, which are all considered "streaming text". Live streaming is the delivery of Internet content in real-time much as live television broadcasts content over the airwaves via a television signal. Live internet streaming requires a form of source media, an encoder to digitize the content, a media publisher, a content delivery network to distribute and deliver the content.
Live streaming does not need to be recorded at the origination point, although it is. There are challenges with streaming content on the Internet. If the user does not have enough bandwidth in their Internet connection, they may experience stops, lags, or slow buffering of the content; some users may not be able to stream certain content due to not having compatible computer or software systems. Some popular streaming services include the video sharing website YouTube and Mixer, which live stream the playing of video games. Netflix and Amazon Video stream movies and TV shows, Spotify, Apple Music and TIDAL stream music. In the early 1920s, George O. Squier was granted patents for a system for the transmission and distribution of signals over electrical lines, the technical basis for what became Muzak, a technology streaming continuous music to commercial customers without the use of radio. Attempts to display media on computers date back to the earliest days of computing in the mid-20th century.
However, little progress was made for several decades due to the high cost and limited capabilities of computer hardware. From the late 1980s through the 1990s, consumer-grade personal computers became powerful enough to display various media; the primary technical issues related to streaming were having enough CPU power bus bandwidth to support the required data rates, creating low-latency interrupt paths in the operating system to prevent buffer underrun, enabling skip-free streaming of the content. However, computer networks were still limited in the mid-1990s, audio and video media were delivered over non-streaming channels, such as by downloading a digital file from a remote server and saving it to a local drive on the end user's computer or storing it as a digital file and playing it back from CD-ROMs. In 1991 the first commercial Ethernet Switch was introduced, which enabled more powerful computer networks leading to the first streaming video solutions used by schools and corporations such as expanding Bloomberg Television worldwide.
In the mid 1990s the World Wide Web was established, but streaming audio would not be practical until years later. During the late 1990s and early 2000s, users had increased access to computer networks the Internet. During the early 2000s, users had access to increased network bandwidth in the "last mile"; these technological improvements facilitated the streaming of audio and video content to computer users in their homes and workplaces. There was an increasing use of standard protocols and formats, such as TCP/IP, HTTP, HTML as the Internet became commercialized, which led to an infusion of investment into the sector; the band Severe Tire Damage was the first group to perform live on the Internet. On June 24, 1993, the band was playing a gig at Xerox PARC while elsewhere in the building, scientists were discussing new technology for broadcasting on the Internet using multicasting; as proof of PARC's technology, the band's performance was broadcast and could be seen live in Australia and elsewhere.
In a March 2017 interview, band member Russ Haines stated that the band had used "half of the total bandwidth of the internet" to stream the performance, a 152-by-76 pixel video, updated eight to twelve times per second, with audio quality, "at best, a bad telephone connection". Microsoft Research developed a Microsoft TV application, compiled under MS Windows Studio Suite and tested in conjunction with Connectix QuickCam. RealNetworks was a pioneer in the streaming media markets, when it broadcast a baseball game between the New York Yankees and the Seattle Mariners over the Internet in 1995; the first symphonic concert on the Internet took place at the Paramount Theater in Seattle, Washington on November 10, 1995. The concert was a collaboration between The Seattle Symphony and various guest musicians such as Slash, Matt Cameron, Barrett Martin; when Word Magazine launched in 1995, they featured the first-ever streaming soundtracks on the Internet. Metro
Vlaamse Radio- en Televisieomroeporganisatie
The Vlaamse Radio- en Televisieomroeporganisatie, or VRT standard. Canvas, the quality TV channel. Started in 1997. Ketnet, the children's channel. Took up Canvas's channel from 6am to 8pm. Sporza, the sports channel. Sport programs are aired on the channels of Één, Canvas or Ketnet. During big sport events it is not uncommon for two or more channels to air Sporza. BRTN TV2 was launched on 26 April 1977 as BRT TV2. BRT TV2 broadcast Terzake and Het Journaal 8 uur until Sunday, 30 November 1997, when TV2 ceased transmission. On Monday 1 December 1997, BRTN TV2 was split into two channels: BRTN Canvas; the two channels were part of BRTN until 1998 – Canvas and Ketnet are still broadcasting as part of VRT2. OP12 was a channel used as backup in the event of primetime shortage. Used for excess sport- and culture programs, it was discontinued in 2014. The VRT broadcasts radio channels in digital format. All channels are broadcast live over the Internet. International broadcasting was done via VRT's Radio Vlaanderen Internationaal.
Radio 1 - news and cultural channel Radio 2 - popular music Klara - classical music channel Studio Brussel - young and alternative channel MNM - hit music Klara continuo - uninterrupted classical music MNM Hits - uninterrupted popular music VRT NWS - latest news programme continuously repeated Ketnet Hits - uninterrupted kids music MNM UrbaNice - uninterrupted urban music Studio Brussel De Tijdloze - uninterrupted alternative classics They have a TMC service transmitted on Radio 2. List of radio stations in Belgium List of television stations in Belgium Bert De Graeve, former CEO Tony Mary, former CEO 16 April'Belgian pubcaster to launch HD Channel' via Broadband TV News Media related to Vlaamse Radio- en Televisieomroeporganisatie at Wikimedia Commons Official website VRT NWS news site of VRT
KPN is a Dutch landline and mobile telecommunications company. KPN is based in Rotterdam, Netherlands; the company was called Koninklijke PTT Nederland, prior to that Staatsbedrijf der Posterijen, Telegrafie en Telefonie or PTT and was the publicly owned fixed-line operator of the Netherlands. KPN took on its present form on 1 January 1989. Before the spin-off of TPG, the company controlled the national Dutch postal services; the Dutch government progressively privatized KPN beginning in 1994, reducing its stake to 6.4% in 2005, completed the process in 2006, giving up its golden share veto rights. In 2001 KPN tried to merge with the Belgian telco Belgacom, it did not succeed because of the objections of the Belgian government. In 2001, Spanish Telefonica expressed an interest in buying KPN; the Japanese mobile telephone company NTT DoCoMo holds a 2% stake in KPN Mobile NV. From 2002 until 2007 KPN Mobile provided i-mode services on its mobile phone networks. I-mode as introduced by KPN's E-Plus in Germany in March 2002 and by KPN Mobile The Netherlands in April 2002 was the first mobile Internet service in Europe.
KPN owned KPNQwest, a telecommunications company owned by KPN and the American Qwest Communications International. The company was set to bring together the state-of-the-art fibre-optic networks of the two partners and the Internet services expertise and customer base of EUnet International; the company collapsed in a bankruptcy in 2002. KPN has operational synergies through joint ventures with TDC and Swisscom. In 2007 KPN acquired Getronics N. V. a worldwide ICT services company with more than 22,000 employees, doubled its former size. KPN is still divesting parts of Getronics, they sold a Dutch department of Getronics named Business Application Services to CapGemini for about €250,000,000. In August 2013, América Móvil offered to take over the remaining 70% stake of the Dutch telecommunications company for 7.2 billion Euros. América Móvil owns close to 30% of KPN; the Dutch Government has issued a warning on this proposed takeover of KPN by Mexican Billionaire Carlos Slim, as part of his ambition to expand his telecom empire.
The plans ended when the "Stichting Preferente Aandelen B KPN" exercised a call option to gain ~50% of the total shares, in order to put up a temporary protection wall against the hostile takeover. As of 2018, main share holders are: América Móvil 16.08% Franklin Mutual Series Funds 4.99% BlackRock 3.83% Norges Bank 2.91%Stichting Preferente Aandelen B KPN is a foundation which "was established to promote the interests of KPN, KPN its related companies and all stakeholders, including influences the continuity, independence or identity of KPN in conflict with the interests and threaten to keep much as possible." The foundation exercised a call option to gain 50% of the KPN shares in order to protect KPN against a hostile takeover. This stock was withdrawn on a special shareholder meeting held on 10 January 2014, as per the request of the foundation in November 2013. In the Netherlands, KPN has 6.3 million fixed-line telephone customers. Its mobile division, KPN Mobile, has more than 33 million subscribers in the Netherlands, Belgium and Spain under different brand names.
Through its ownership of several European Internet service providers, KPN provides Internet access to 2.1 million customers, it offers business network services and data transport throughout Western Europe. KPN operates a mobile services network for 3G and 4G technologies, it offers LTE-Advanced in limited locations on the 1800 MHz band, whereas the majority of KPN's 4G network operates in the 8/900 MHz bands, which will allow theoretic download speeds up to 200MBit/sec. Along with the completion of the 4G network, KPN is upgrading the 2G and 3G networks and capacity, using Huawei Single-RAN technology. Most of KPN's operations are in the Dutch telecommunication market. In the 2000s and early 2010s, KPN had multiple subsidiaries in European countries such as Belgium and France. Most of these international operations were sold off in the 2010s. In the Dutch telephone market, KPN is the owner of the fixed telephone operations network and is the market leader in mobile network operator under its own brand name and as a mobile virtual network operator under the brand names Telfort and Ortel Mobile.
In the Internet market, KPN provides Internet service under its own brand name and under the brand names Telfort and XS4ALL. Defunct subsidiary providers include Planet Internet, Het Net, Speedlinq, HCCNet, Demon Netherlands. In 2004, KPN started offering digital terrestrial television in the Netherlands as part of its multi-play services via its subsidiary KPN Digitenne. Since 1 May 2006, KPN offers Interactive Television, an IPTV service based on their DSL service, with the ability to receive Video On Demand and replay your missed TV episodes besides regular TV programming. KPN Retail is a Dutch subsidiary. In Belgium, KPN owned mobile provider Base. In 2015, it was sold to Telenet, a Belgian cable broadband service provider. In 2007 KPN purchased the Belgian fixed telephone and broadband operations of the Tele2-Versatel joint venture; these were sold again in December 2009 to Mobistar. In 2009, KPN bought a 33.3% share in MVNO Mobile Vikings, sold to Medialaan in 2015. In Germany, KPN owned mobile provider E-Plus, Germany's third largest mobile phone network.
E-Plus was sold to Telefónica Germany
La Une French pronunciation: is a Belgian national television channel and operated by the French-language public-service broadcasting organization RTBF. La Une is considered the equivalent of Flemish station Eén, the first channel of the Flemish broadcaster, VRT. Experimental television was born in Belgium June 2, 1953 with the live broadcast of the coronation of Queen Elizabeth II of the United Kingdom. On 31 October at 20:30 from Studio 5 in Flagey, the headquarters of the National Institute of Belgian Radio, Andrée Rolin opened the channel. After that, the announcer Janine Lambotte opens the broadcast with the new experimental television just born and broadcast 2 hours a day, 6 days a week. Transmission began with the French television news relayed by the RTF transmitter TV-Lille, followed by the broadcast of the cabaret type and called Boum. In the early days, the INR broadcast two to three evenings per week, with a strong focus on theatre and drama, is released on Friday and during the holidays.
On Wednesday and Sunday evenings, the channel broadcast its own productions. The rest of the programming was provided by RTF; the first live sports coverage began with the FIFA World Cup 1954 and Monday sports from 1955. The first newscast premièred on September 1, 1956, produced in Brussels and with no pictures, except of the presenter reading the script; the weather report exists. For several years, it is in the form of animated cartoons corresponding to the time announced; these drawings are executed at the Royal Meteorological Institute Live from the frosted glass leaving only to see the drawing, a character with an umbrella or a radiant sun on bathers, etc.... Done by Bob Boudard, a whimsical cabaret with a talented cartoonist. Hidden behind the frosted screen, Boudard must interpret the bulletin theft when he arrived at the institute at the last minute by taxi drivers who have learned to know and who are ready to go to bring in time because it has various obligations that occupy Brussels, among others hold its street cafe "Dominicans", visit many actors from the theaters of Brussels city centre.
The Brussels World's Fair in 1958 gave the INR an opportunity to strengthen its new television networks and supersede radio. The panel "Belgian experimental television" disappears from the screen, buses capture vest, Magazine Expo is broadcast daily for six months, days of release and interruption during the holidays disappear; every day, interviews and animations make the report of activities of the Expo'58. Investigations and Reports section introduces the first major magazine on Belgian television: Neuf Millions. In 1953, there were only 6,500 television sets in Belgium; the INR transmitters were located at the Palais de Justice in Brussels and limited to a radius of 40 km reach. It was not until 1954 for transmitters in Liège and 1958 in Wavre, which can cover 96% of the French-speaking territory. In 1956, there were over 100,000 television sets, in 1960, it reached the 70,000 viewers, throughout Belgium. In 1960, the Harmel Act replaced the National Institute of Broadcasting by Radio-Télévision Belge.
The new facility included a Dutch public broadcaster, a French public broadcaster and an institution of common services. Both broadcasters are independent of each other and have full cultural autonomy, an organic vis-à-vis independence from the government and the guarantee of freedom of information. RTB/BRT is headed by a program director appointed by the King. In 1962, cable was introduced in Liège and Namur and was rolled out throughout the country in 1975, ending the monopoly of public television. Numerous programmes premiered such as Le Jardin Extraordinaire, Le Week-end sportif, the live broadcast of the Tour de France, the first political debates and election night and major reports abroad. In 1971, the RTB began its color transmission with Le Jardin extraordinaire and the News in 1973. In 1977, a second television channel was created, RTbis, the decentralization of production took place with the creation of regional centres in Liège and Charleroi. A new Production Centre was established in Brussels in 1979.
RTB became the Belgian Radio and Television of the French Community in 1977 by the decree of the Cultural Council of the French Community. RTBF offered cultural autonomy, a monopoly of radio and television broadcasting, freedom of information and of independence from the government. RTBF is governed by a Board of Directors whose members are elected in accordance with policy distributions within the Cultural Council; the Chief Executive is appointed by the Cultural Council. The first television channel of the RTBF was renamed RTBF 1. In 1983, RTL Television was launched and obtained the authorization of a radio relay between Luxembourg and Brussels. Financial contributions and the quote on the screen of commercial sponsors will be permitted in exceptional cases in 1987 to allow the RTBF to organise the Eurovision Song Contest; the decree of the French Community authorizing the dissemination of commercial advertising by commercial channel RTL-TVI in 1988 put an end to the monopoly of broadcasting of the RTBF, but in 1989 another decree of the French Community authorizes the broadcast by RTBF advertisements trade to rebalance the situation.
Management and marketing of advertising space is entrusted to TVB, a joint venture of public and private channels of the French Community. TVB, divided the advertising revenue between the two channels by 25% to 75% for