An electronic book known as an e-book or eBook, is a book publication made available in digital form, consisting of text, images, or both, readable on the flat-panel display of computers or other electronic devices. Although sometimes defined as "an electronic version of a printed book", some e-books exist without a printed equivalent. E-books can be read on dedicated e-reader devices, but on any computer device that features a controllable viewing screen, including desktop computers, laptops and smartphones. In the 2000s, there was a trend of print and e-book sales moving to the Internet, where readers buy traditional paper books and e-books on websites using e-commerce systems. With print books, readers are browsing through images of the covers of books on publisher or bookstore websites and selecting and ordering titles online. With e-books, users can browse through titles online, when they select and order titles, the e-book can be sent to them online or the user can download the e-book.
By the early 2010s, e-books had begun to overtake hardcover by overall publication figures in the U. S; the main reasons for people buying e-books are lower prices, increased comfort and a larger selection of titles. With e-books, "lectronic bookmarks make referencing easier, e-book readers may allow the user to annotate pages." "Although fiction and non-fiction books come in e-book formats, technical material is suited for e-book delivery because it can be searched" for keywords. In addition, for programming books, code examples can be copied; the amount of e-book reading is increasing in the U. S.. This is increasing, because by 2014 50% of American adults had an e-reader or a tablet, compared to 30% owning such devices in 2013. E-books are referred to as "ebooks", "eBooks", "Ebooks", "e-Books", "e-journals", "e-editions", or "digital books". A device, designed for reading e-books is called an "e-reader", "ebook device", or "eReader"; some trace the concept of an e-reader, a device that would enable the user to view books on a screen, to a 1930 manifesto by Bob Brown, written after watching his first "talkie".
He titled it The Readies, playing off the idea of the "talkie". In his book, Brown says movies have outmaneuvered the book by creating the "talkies" and, as a result, reading should find a new medium: A simple reading machine which I can carry or move around, attach to any old electric light plug and read hundred-thousand-word novels in 10 minutes if I want to, I want to. Brown's notion, was much more focused on reforming orthography and vocabulary, than on medium: introducing huge numbers of portmanteau symbols to replace normal words, punctuation to simulate action or movement. E-readers never followed a model at all like Brown's. In an article, Jennifer Schuessler writes, "The machine, Brown argued, would allow readers to adjust the type size, avoid paper cuts and save trees, all while hastening the day when words could be'recorded directly on the palpitating ether.'" Brown believed that the e-reader would bring a new life to reading. Schuessler correlates it with a DJ spinning bits of old songs to create a beat or an new song, as opposed to just a remix of a familiar song.
The inventor of the first e-book is not agreed upon. Some notable candidates include the following: In 1949, Ángela Ruiz Robles, a teacher from Ferrol, patented the Enciclopedia Mecánica, or the Mechanical Encyclopedia, a mechanical device which operated on compressed air where text and graphics were contained on spools that users would load onto rotating spindles, her idea was to create a device which would decrease the number of books that her pupils carried to school. The final device was planned to include audio recordings, a magnifying glass, a calculator and an electric light for night reading, her device was never put into production but a prototype is kept in the National Museum of Science and Technology in A Coruña. The first e-book may be the Index Thomisticus, a annotated electronic index to the works of Thomas Aquinas, prepared by Roberto Busa, S. J. beginning in 1949 and completed in the 1970s. Although stored on a single computer, a distributable CD-ROM version appeared in 1989.
However, this work is sometimes omitted. In 2005, the Index was published online. Alternatively, some historians consider electronic books to have started in the early 1960s, with the NLS project headed by Douglas Engelbart at Stanford Research Institute, the Hypertext Editing System and FRESS projects headed by Andries van Dam at Brown University. FRESS documents were structure-oriented rather than line-oriented. All these systems provided extensive hyperlinking and other capabilities. Van Dam is thought to have coined the term "electronic book", it was established enough to use in an article title by 1985. FRESS was used for reading extensive primary
O. C. F. T. C is the Lebanese government authority; the OCFTC operates 12 bus lines in and around the capital city of Beirut using a fleet of blue and white colored buses. There are plans to restore intercity bus service; the OCFTC's main competitor is the owned and operated Lebanese Commuting Company which operates a fleet of red and white colored buses minibuses. Its service and efficiency is regarded to be better than the OCFTC and thus it charges higher fares. Due to many problems that have been plaguing the OCFTC, there have been calls to transform it into a regulatory agency with the bus system becoming privatized transferred to the Lebanese Commuting Company; these plans may never materialize however. The OCFTC owns all of the railway infrastructure in the country, however, as the railway system was damaged during Lebanese Civil War, none of the railway system is in operation. There are plans to revive Lebanon's railway system; the French railways, SNCF, have been hired to analyze the railway infrastructure in the country to see what steps should be taken to revive the system.
A project to restore the system may still be several years off as it would be costly. OCFTC Bus Routes and Schedules
Castle is the sixth studio album by Taiwanese singer Jolin Tsai. It was released on 27 February 2004, by Sony Music Taiwan. Following the success of her last studio album, Tsai continued to secure her A-list status with the new release. Tsai again rang up huge sales with the album, which further increased her popularity in her native Taiwan as well as in other Asian countries; the album has sold more than 2 million copies in Asia, with more than 300,000 copies sold in Taiwan alone, became the best-selling album by a female artist of the year in Taiwan. The second track, "It's Love", reached number 8 on the Hit FM Top 100 Singles of the Year; the opening track, "36 Tricks of Love", reached number 78 on the chart. The album earned Tsai an MTV Asia Award nomination for Favorite Artist Taiwan; the music video of the lead single, "Pirates", earned Tsai an MTV Video Music Award Japan nomination for Best Buzz Asia