J. B. Turgeon
Joseph-Balsora Turgeon was the first French-Canadian mayor of Bytown, Canada. He was born in Terrebonne, Quebec in 1810 and came to Bytown in around 1836, he was elected to the town council in 1848, 1849, 1851 and 1852. In 1852, he became a school trustee and founded L'Institut canadien-français d'Ottawa, he became mayor of Bytown in 1853. Turgeon proposed the establishment of a Separate School system in Bytown and lobbied for more French-speaking teachers, he suggested a new name rich in history, for the town. He buried at Notre Dame Cemetery. Biography Bibliography
William Borthwick (mayor)
William Borthwick was mayor of Ottawa from 1895 to 1896. He was born near Mer Bleue in Gloucester Township in 1848, he worked in the timber trade there. He opened a grocery store, he was first elected as an alderman in 1887. He was buried in Beechwood Cemetery. Chain of Office: Biographical Sketches of the Early Mayors of Ottawa, Dave Mullington
McLeod Stewart was a Canadian lawyer and politician. Stewart was mayor of Ottawa, Canada from 1887 to 1888, he was born in Ottawa in 1847, the son of William Stewart, who represented Bytown in the Legislative Assembly of the Province of Canada from 1844 to 1847. The Stewart family owned some of the land south of Gladstone Avenue, the southern limit for the city of Ottawa; the area was called Stewarton, the family home was located on the current site of the Canadian Museum of Nature. McLeod Street in Ottawa is named after him. Stewart studied at the University of Toronto, receiving an M. A.. He served as a lieutenant in the Governor General's Foot Guards. In 1874, he married the daughter of Colonel Walker Powell. In 1881, with William Hodgson, he built the Molson's Bank building on the Sparks Street Mall, he served as president of the Canada Atlantic Railway and served on the boards of several companies. Stewart represented a number of companies as their solicitor in Ottawa; the first Central Canada Exhibition opened on September 1888, during his term as mayor.
In 1897, he visited London, seeking financial backers for a canal linking the Ottawa River and Georgian Bay. In 1910, he authored The first half century of Ottawa; the first half century of Ottawa A Cyclopæedia of Canadian biography: being chiefly men of the time... GM Rose McLeod Stewart at Find a Grave
James Davidson (Canadian politician)
James Davidson was mayor of Ottawa, Canada in 1901. He was born in Ottawa in 1856. With his brothers, he worked in manufactured doors, he served as alderman from 1898 to 1907. D. Morris was forced to resign. Davidson was replaced by Fred Cook two months later, he was buried in the Beechwood Cemetery. Chain of Office: Biographical Sketches of the Early Mayors of Ottawa, Dave Mullington
Charles Herbert Mackintosh
Charles Herbert Mackintosh was a Canadian journalist and politician. Mackintosh served as mayor of Ottawa from 1879–1881, represented Ottawa City as a Liberal-Conservative in the House of Commons of Canada from 1882 to 1887, from 1890 to 1893, served as Lieutenant Governor of the Northwest Territories from 1893 to 1898, he was born in London, Canada West on May 13, 1843, the son of Captain William Mackintosh, of Wicklow, Ireland, an Irish-born officer posted to Canada with the British Army's Ordnance Department, who served as County Engineer for Middlesex County, Ontario. Mackintosh's paternal grandfather was Captain Duncan Mackintosh, a Scotsman, sent to Ireland with the British Army's Highland regiment during the Irish Rebellion of 1798. After the Rebellion, he bought an estate in County Wicklow, in 1802, married, at Dublin, Alicia Weldon, variously described as being the daughter of Lady Weldon, a niece of the Earl of Dysart, though which ones are meant is not specified. C. H. Mackintosh's mother was daughter of Col. Dickinson, of Jamaica, British West Indies.
Through the maternal line, Mackintosh claimed to be close kin to Sir Stamford Raffles, founder of Singapore, one of whose sisters was called Leonora, one of whose half-aunts, Elizabeth Raffles, married William Carter, Esq. of Jamaica. Paternally, he claimed to be a near relation of the essayist and politician, the Right Honourable Sir James Mackintosh, member of the Kellachie branch of the Inverness-shire-based Clan Mackintosh, part of the Scottish Highlands Chattan Confederation. In addition to C. H. Mackintosh's grand, if vague, ties to the ruling class, there is occasional confusion with another Mackintosh author, Charles Henry Mackintosh, a prolific Plymouth Brethren author and evangelist, known principally by the initials, C. H. M. which happen to coincide with those of the present subject. Details in this second man's biography indicate that the elder and younger C. H. Mackintoshes were uncle and nephew, or, at least, related. At any rate, in nineteenth century colonial Canada, these exalted family connexions in Britain and the empire may have played a rôle in fostering Mackintosh's ambitions, aiding him in his advancement.
Coupled with his innate talents, they may have served to mark him in Conservative party political circles where, in 1893, Canada's Prime Minister Sir John Thompson viewed him as the more suitable vice-regal candidate over rival fellow Tory, Nicholas Flood Davin, whose own chagrin at Mackintosh's appointment is well documented. Educated at Galt Grammar School and Caradoc Academy, he first began the study of law but instead, in 1862, entered the trade of journalism, he first served as city editor of the London Free Press acting as city editor of the Hamilton Times. He edited the Parkhill Gazette, served as managing editor of the Chicago Journal of Commerce. During his time in Strathroy, Ontario, he was proprietor of the Strathroy Dispatch. In 1873, he was elected to the town council of Strathroy, Ontario, at a time when this was not prohibited as a conflict of interest in an era of partisan journalism. In 1874, he acquired the Ottawa Daily Citizen, serving as its owner and editor-in-chief from 1874 to 1892.
He was owner and editor of the Canadian Parliamentary Companion from 1877 to 1882. On 6 August 1875, he won the gold and silver medals offered by the St. Patrick's Society during the O'Connell centenary at Major's Hill Park in Ottawa for a prize poem entitled, The Irish Liberator, he was president of the Parliamentary Press Gallery, Ottawa, in 1879. He served as chairman for the Dominion Exhibition in 1879, as president of the Agricultural Association in 1881. After only one year, 1873, on the Strathroy town council, he served as 13th Mayor of Ottawa from 1879 to 1881. Elected as a Conservative, he was returned as a Member of Parliament for the riding of Ottawa City in the House of Commons of Canada from 1882 to 1887 and again from 1890 to 1893, he was unsuccessful in contesting the constituency of Russell, Ontario in the 1887 Dominion election. He was appointed Lieutenant Governor of the Northwest Territories in 1893, serving in that capacity until his resignation in 1898. During his tenure of the territorial viceregal office, he promoted a great Territorial Exhibition, opened by His Excellency the Earl of Aberdeen, Governor General of the Dominion of Canada at Regina, district of Assiniboia, N.
W. T. on 30 July 1895. For these services he was presented with an oil portrait of himself in August 1895. Following his vice-regency, he contested unsuccessfully the provincial seat of Rossland, British Columbia in 1900, the riding of Kootenay, British Columbia in the Dominion general elections of 1900 and 1904, all in the Conservative or Liberal-Conservative interest. In 1898, he became Canadian manager of the British American Mining Company, British Columbia becoming a broker and financial agent in Victoria, British Columbia. In 1898, he sold the Le Roi mining property. In 1901, on behalf of the miners of British Columbia, he presented two unusual gold nuggets to King Edward VII and, his wife, Queen Alexandra; the Montreal Gazette described him as "a tactful and experienced public man", while the Toronto Telegram declared him to be "warm hearted and altogether likeable". He was a life director of the Carleton County Protestant Home for the Aged in Ontario. In politics, he was a Liberal-Conservative, being noted as "an imperialist of no uncertain sound", served as vice-president of the British Empire League in Canada.
In religion, he was an Anglican. He was a member of two gentleman's clubs, the Union Club, Victoria
Gatineau Park is located in the Outaouais region of Quebec, Canada. Administered by the National Capital Commission as part of the National Capital Region, Gatineau Park is a 361 square kilometres wedge of land extending north and west from the city of Gatineau. With a perimeter of 179.2 kilometres, the park includes parts of the municipalities of Chelsea, Pontiac, La Pêche, the City of Gatineau. The main entrance to the park is 4 kilometres north of downtown Ontario; the park's area has a long history of human inhabitation and usage predating the arrival of European settlers. Its more recent pre-park history includes various forms of human exploitation such as farming, logging and industrial activity; the idea of creating a park in the Gatineau Hills for recreational purposes was proposed as early as 1903. In 1938 money was allotted for the acquisition of Gatineau woodlands and the construction of a parkway; the Government of Canada maintains a conference centre at Meech Lake, known as Willson House, the site of meetings leading to a failed attempt to reform Canada's Constitution in 1987, the Meech Lake Accord.
There are significant ongoing controversies about the administration of the park, including its status as the only federal park, not part of the national parks system, the existence and construction of private residences inside it, residents' extensive violation of shoreline protection bylaws at Meech Lake, changes to its boundaries without the knowledge of parliament. For instance, inspection reports carried out by the Municipality of Chelsea in 2013 and 2015 confirm that 119 structures have been built without permit at Meech Lake, that 80% of Meech Lake residents whose properties were inspected continue to violate county bylaw MRC 137-09 several years after it was adopted. Although advocated by Dominion Parks Commissioner James Harkin to be the first national park outside the Rocky Mountains, it remains the only federal park, not a national park, a situation that has direct repercussions on its ecology and land mass. Created in 1938, Gatineau is the only federal park not protected by the National Parks Act as a result of former Prime Minister William Lyon Mackenzie King's caution, fear of criticism, desire for privacy.
Gatineau Park was not only the first national park advocated for Quebec, it was intended as the first one outside the Rocky Mountains. As well, it was to be the first national park created by the first parks service in the world, the Dominion Parks Branch. On December 3, 1913, Dominion Parks Commissioner James B. Harkin wrote to Deputy Minister of the Interior William Cory, arguing for the creation of a nationwide system of parks, the first of, to be Gatineau Park. In his memo, Harkin said: "The East has no national parks like those in the Rockies, it is proposed that the country develop a broader scheme of parks than exists in any other country Bringing into effect the proposed Gatineau Park would, I think, most commence this scheme."A few months on Cory's suggestion, Harkin wrote Quebec Minister of Mines and Forests Charles Devlin inquiring whether he would help establish a national park in the Gatineau district. Although provincial officials wrote back that the matter would receive their minister's immediate attention, Devlin died before he could follow up on Harkin's request, no further response was received.
With the First World War intervening shortly thereafter, the government of Canada had to tend to more pressing matters. On April 7, 1927, the idea of creating a Gatineau national park was again raised in the House of Commons, where MPs considered a bill to create the Federal District Commission, which would build parks and parkways on both sides of the Ottawa River. During debate, Conservative MP John Edwards accused Prime Minister King of wanting to create a park around his Kingsmere property and ease access to it by building a parkway. Though he denied the charge, the criticism would shape King's subsequent decisions regarding the park, it would take another eleven years for the park to be created in embryonic form on July 1, 1938, as a result of efforts by Percy Sparks of the Federal Woodlands Preservation League. By choosing to create the park through gradual property acquisition, the King government allowed private property to continue existing in Gatineau Park—a situation that has prevented the park from becoming a national park.
Today, the National Capital Commission manages the park, along with all federal lands and buildings in Canada's National Capital Region. Its policies on park boundaries, land management and ownership, as well as on residential construction in the park, have been the subject of controversy. To address these issues, several private members’ bills have been introduced in the Senate and House of Commons since 2005; the federal government tabled its own Gatineau Park legislation in June 2009 and April 2010. None of the bills tabled so far has been enacted into law; the latest government legislation on the subject, Bill C-20, was reported back to the House of Commons on November 15, 2010. However, it died on the Order Paper before it could be given third reading when the 40th parliament was dissolved. In the fall of 2010, a controversy broke out in the press pertaining to the rehabilitation of Trail no. 1 in Gatineau Park. According to published reports, the contractor hired by the NCC had laced the trail with broken glass and other debris.
Its report concluded that garbage spread along the trail was within acceptable standards, a conclusion that park advocates met with scepticism. The NCC confirmed staff for the contractor were not cert
Ottawa is the capital city of Canada. It stands on the south bank of the Ottawa River in the eastern portion of southern Ontario. Ottawa borders Gatineau, Quebec; as of 2016, Ottawa had a city population of 964,743 and a metropolitan population of 1,323,783 making it the fourth-largest city and the fifth-largest CMA in Canada. Founded in 1826 as Bytown, incorporated as Ottawa in 1855, the city has evolved into the political centre of Canada, its original boundaries were expanded through numerous annexations and were replaced by a new city incorporation and amalgamation in 2001 which increased its land area. The city name "Ottawa" was chosen in reference to the Ottawa River, the name of, derived from the Algonquin Odawa, meaning "to trade". Ottawa has the most educated population among Canadian cities and is home to a number of post-secondary and cultural institutions, including the National Arts Centre, the National Gallery, numerous national museums. Ottawa has the highest standard of living in low unemployment.
With the draining of the Champlain Sea around ten thousand years ago, the Ottawa Valley became habitable. Local populations used the area for wild edible harvesting, fishing, trade and camps for over 6500 years; the Ottawa river valley has archaeological sites with arrow heads and stone tools. Three major rivers meet within Ottawa, making it an important trade and travel area for thousands of years; the Algonquins called the Ottawa River Kichi Sibi or Kichissippi meaning "Great River" or "Grand River". Étienne Brûlé regarded as the first European to travel up the Ottawa River, passed by Ottawa in 1610 on his way to the Great Lakes. Three years Samuel de Champlain wrote about the waterfalls in the area and about his encounters with the Algonquins, using the Ottawa River for centuries. Many missionaries would follow the early traders; the first maps of the area used the word Ottawa, derived from the Algonquin word adawe, to name the river. Philemon Wright, a New Englander, created the first settlement in the area on 7 March 1800 on the north side of the river, across from the present day city of Ottawa in Hull.
He, with five other families and twenty-five labourers, set about to create an agricultural community called Wrightsville. Wright pioneered the Ottawa Valley timber trade by transporting timber by river from the Ottawa Valley to Quebec City. Bytown, Ottawa's original name, was founded as a community in 1826 when hundreds of land speculators were attracted to the south side of the river when news spread that British authorities were constructing the northerly end of the Rideau Canal military project at that location; the following year, the town was named after British military engineer Colonel John By, responsible for the entire Rideau Waterway construction project. The canal's military purpose was to provide a secure route between Montreal and Kingston on Lake Ontario, bypassing a vulnerable stretch of the St. Lawrence River bordering the state of New York that had left re-supply ships bound for southwestern Ontario exposed to enemy fire during the War of 1812. Colonel By set up military barracks on the site of today's Parliament Hill.
He laid out the streets of the town and created two distinct neighbourhoods named "Upper Town" west of the canal and "Lower Town" east of the canal. Similar to its Upper Canada and Lower Canada namesakes "Upper Town" was predominantly English speaking and Protestant whereas "Lower Town" was predominantly French and Catholic. Bytown's population grew to 1,000 as the Rideau Canal was being completed in 1832. Bytown encountered some impassioned and violent times in her early pioneer period that included Irish labour unrest that attributed to the Shiners' War from 1835 to 1845 and political dissension evident from the 1849 Stony Monday Riot. In 1855 Bytown was incorporated as a city. William Pittman Lett was installed as the first city clerk guiding it through 36 years of development. On New Year's Eve 1857, Queen Victoria, as a symbolic and political gesture, was presented with the responsibility of selecting a location for the permanent capital of the Province of Canada. In reality, Prime Minister John A. Macdonald had assigned this selection process to the Executive Branch of the Government, as previous attempts to arrive at a consensus had ended in deadlock.
The "Queen's choice" turned out to be the small frontier town of Ottawa for two main reasons: Firstly, Ottawa's isolated location in a back country surrounded by dense forest far from the Canada–US border and situated on a cliff face would make it more defensible from attack. Secondly, Ottawa was midway between Toronto and Kingston and Montreal and Quebec City. Additionally, despite Ottawa's regional isolation it had seasonal water transportation access to Montreal over the Ottawa River and to Kingston via the Rideau Waterway. By 1854 it had a modern all season Bytown and Prescott Railway that carried passengers and supplies the 82-kilometres to Prescott on the Saint Lawrence River and beyond. Ottawa's small size, it was thought, would make it less prone to rampaging politically motivated mobs, as had happened in the previous Canadian capitals; the government owned the land that would become Parliament Hill which they thought would be an ideal location for the Parliament Buildings. Ottawa was th