The United States of America known as the United States or America, is a country composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, various possessions. At 3.8 million square miles, the United States is the world's third or fourth largest country by total area and is smaller than the entire continent of Europe's 3.9 million square miles. With a population of over 327 million people, the U. S. is the third most populous country. The capital is Washington, D. C. and the largest city by population is New York City. Forty-eight states and the capital's federal district are contiguous in North America between Canada and Mexico; the State of Alaska is in the northwest corner of North America, bordered by Canada to the east and across the Bering Strait from Russia to the west. The State of Hawaii is an archipelago in the mid-Pacific Ocean; the U. S. territories are scattered about the Pacific Ocean and the Caribbean Sea, stretching across nine official time zones. The diverse geography and wildlife of the United States make it one of the world's 17 megadiverse countries.
Paleo-Indians migrated from Siberia to the North American mainland at least 12,000 years ago. European colonization began in the 16th century; the United States emerged from the thirteen British colonies established along the East Coast. Numerous disputes between Great Britain and the colonies following the French and Indian War led to the American Revolution, which began in 1775, the subsequent Declaration of Independence in 1776; the war ended in 1783 with the United States becoming the first country to gain independence from a European power. The current constitution was adopted in 1788, with the first ten amendments, collectively named the Bill of Rights, being ratified in 1791 to guarantee many fundamental civil liberties; the United States embarked on a vigorous expansion across North America throughout the 19th century, acquiring new territories, displacing Native American tribes, admitting new states until it spanned the continent by 1848. During the second half of the 19th century, the Civil War led to the abolition of slavery.
By the end of the century, the United States had extended into the Pacific Ocean, its economy, driven in large part by the Industrial Revolution, began to soar. The Spanish–American War and World War I confirmed the country's status as a global military power; the United States emerged from World War II as a global superpower, the first country to develop nuclear weapons, the only country to use them in warfare, a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council. Sweeping civil rights legislation, notably the Civil Rights Act of 1964, the Voting Rights Act of 1965 and the Fair Housing Act of 1968, outlawed discrimination based on race or color. During the Cold War, the United States and the Soviet Union competed in the Space Race, culminating with the 1969 U. S. Moon landing; the end of the Cold War and the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991 left the United States as the world's sole superpower. The United States is the world's oldest surviving federation, it is a representative democracy.
The United States is a founding member of the United Nations, World Bank, International Monetary Fund, Organization of American States, other international organizations. The United States is a developed country, with the world's largest economy by nominal GDP and second-largest economy by PPP, accounting for a quarter of global GDP; the U. S. economy is post-industrial, characterized by the dominance of services and knowledge-based activities, although the manufacturing sector remains the second-largest in the world. The United States is the world's largest importer and the second largest exporter of goods, by value. Although its population is only 4.3% of the world total, the U. S. holds 31% of the total wealth in the world, the largest share of global wealth concentrated in a single country. Despite wide income and wealth disparities, the United States continues to rank high in measures of socioeconomic performance, including average wage, human development, per capita GDP, worker productivity.
The United States is the foremost military power in the world, making up a third of global military spending, is a leading political and scientific force internationally. In 1507, the German cartographer Martin Waldseemüller produced a world map on which he named the lands of the Western Hemisphere America in honor of the Italian explorer and cartographer Amerigo Vespucci; the first documentary evidence of the phrase "United States of America" is from a letter dated January 2, 1776, written by Stephen Moylan, Esq. to George Washington's aide-de-camp and Muster-Master General of the Continental Army, Lt. Col. Joseph Reed. Moylan expressed his wish to go "with full and ample powers from the United States of America to Spain" to seek assistance in the revolutionary war effort; the first known publication of the phrase "United States of America" was in an anonymous essay in The Virginia Gazette newspaper in Williamsburg, Virginia, on April 6, 1776. The second draft of the Articles of Confederation, prepared by John Dickinson and completed by June 17, 1776, at the latest, declared "The name of this Confederation shall be the'United States of America'".
The final version of the Articles sent to the states for ratification in late 1777 contains the sentence "The Stile of this Confederacy shall be'The United States of America'". In June 1776, Thomas Jefferson wrote the phrase "UNITED STATES OF AMERICA" in all capitalized letters in the headline of his "original Rough draught" of the Declaration of Independence; this draft of the document did not surface unti
Boston is the capital and most populous city of the Commonwealth of Massachusetts in the United States. The city proper covers 48 square miles with an estimated population of 685,094 in 2017, making it the most populous city in New England. Boston is the seat of Suffolk County as well, although the county government was disbanded on July 1, 1999; the city is the economic and cultural anchor of a larger metropolitan area known as Greater Boston, a metropolitan statistical area home to a census-estimated 4.8 million people in 2016 and ranking as the tenth-largest such area in the country. As a combined statistical area, this wider commuting region is home to some 8.2 million people, making it the sixth-largest in the United States. Boston is one of the oldest cities in the United States, founded on the Shawmut Peninsula in 1630 by Puritan settlers from England, it was the scene of several key events of the American Revolution, such as the Boston Massacre, the Boston Tea Party, the Battle of Bunker Hill, the Siege of Boston.
Upon gaining U. S. independence from Great Britain, it continued to be an important port and manufacturing hub as well as a center for education and culture. The city has expanded beyond the original peninsula through land reclamation and municipal annexation, its rich history attracts many tourists, with Faneuil Hall alone drawing more than 20 million visitors per year. Boston's many firsts include the United States' first public park, first public or state school and first subway system; the Boston area's many colleges and universities make it an international center of higher education, including law, medicine and business, the city is considered to be a world leader in innovation and entrepreneurship, with nearly 2,000 startups. Boston's economic base includes finance and business services, information technology, government activities. Households in the city claim the highest average rate of philanthropy in the United States; the city has one of the highest costs of living in the United States as it has undergone gentrification, though it remains high on world livability rankings.
Boston's early European settlers had first called the area Trimountaine but renamed it Boston after Boston, England, the origin of several prominent colonists. The renaming on September 7, 1630, was by Puritan colonists from England who had moved over from Charlestown earlier that year in quest for fresh water, their settlement was limited to the Shawmut Peninsula, at that time surrounded by the Massachusetts Bay and Charles River and connected to the mainland by a narrow isthmus. The peninsula is thought to have been inhabited as early as 5000 BC. In 1629, the Massachusetts Bay Colony's first governor John Winthrop led the signing of the Cambridge Agreement, a key founding document of the city. Puritan ethics and their focus on education influenced its early history. Over the next 130 years, the city participated in four French and Indian Wars, until the British defeated the French and their Indian allies in North America. Boston was the largest town in British America until Philadelphia grew larger in the mid-18th century.
Boston's oceanfront location made it a lively port, the city engaged in shipping and fishing during its colonial days. However, Boston stagnated in the decades prior to the Revolution. By the mid-18th century, New York City and Philadelphia surpassed Boston in wealth. Boston encountered financial difficulties as other cities in New England grew rapidly. Many of the crucial events of the American Revolution occurred near Boston. Boston's penchant for mob action along with the colonists' growing distrust in Britain fostered a revolutionary spirit in the city; when the British government passed the Stamp Act in 1765, a Boston mob ravaged the homes of Andrew Oliver, the official tasked with enforcing the Act, Thomas Hutchinson the Lieutenant Governor of Massachusetts. The British sent two regiments to Boston in 1768 in an attempt to quell the angry colonists; this did not sit well with the colonists. In 1770, during the Boston Massacre, the army killed several people in response to a mob in Boston.
The colonists compelled the British to withdraw their troops. The event was publicized and fueled a revolutionary movement in America. In 1773, Britain passed the Tea Act. Many of the colonists saw the act as an attempt to force them to accept the taxes established by the Townshend Acts; the act prompted the Boston Tea Party, where a group of rebels threw an entire shipment of tea sent by the British East India Company into Boston Harbor. The Boston Tea Party was a key event leading up to the revolution, as the British government responded furiously with the Intolerable Acts, demanding compensation for the lost tea from the rebels; this led to the American Revolutionary War. The war began in the area surrounding Boston with the Battles of Concord. Boston itself was besieged for a year during the Siege of Boston, which began on April 19, 1775; the New England militia impeded the movement of the British Army. William Howe, 5th Viscount Howe the commander-in-chief of the British forces in North America, led the British army in the siege.
On June 17, the British captured the Charlestown peninsula in Boston, during the Battle of Bunker Hill. The British army outnumbered the militia stationed there, but it was a Py
Frank Morrison Spillane, better known as Mickey Spillane, was an American crime novelist, whose stories feature his signature detective character, Mike Hammer. More than 225 million copies of his books have sold internationally. Spillane was an occasional actor, once playing Hammer himself. Born in Brooklyn, New York City, raised in Elizabeth, New Jersey, Spillane was the only child of his Irish bartender father, John Joseph Spillane, his Scottish mother, Catherine Anne. Spillane attended Erasmus Hall High School, graduating in 1935, he started writing while in high school attended Fort Hays State College in Kansas and worked a variety of jobs, including summers as a lifeguard at Breezy Point, a period as a trampoline artist for the Ringling Bros. and Barnum & Bailey Circus. During World War II Spillane enlisted in the Army Air Corps, becoming a fighter pilot and a flight instructor. While flying over Murrells Inlet, South Carolina, he said, "That is where I want to live." He would use his celebrity status to publicize the Grand Strand on TV, but when it became a popular resort area and traffic became a problem, Spillane said, "I shouldn't have told people about it."
He was an active Jehovah's Witness. Mickey and Mary Ann Spillane had four children, their marriage ended in 1962. In November 1965, he married nightclub singer Sherri Malinou. After that marriage ended in divorce in 1983, Spillane shared his waterfront house in Murrells Inlet with his third wife, Jane Rogers Johnson, whom he married in October 1983, her two daughters. In the 1960s, Spillane became a friend of the novelist Ayn Rand. Despite their apparent differences, Rand admired Spillane's literary style, Spillane became, as he described it, a "fan" of Rand's work. In 1989, Hurricane Hugo ravaged his Murrells Inlet house to such a degree it had to be entirely reconstructed. A television interview showed Spillane standing in the ruins of his house, he received an Edgar Allan Poe Grand Master Award in 1995. Spillane's novels went out of print. Spillane died July 17, 2006 of pancreatic cancer. After his death, his friend and literary executor, Max Allan Collins, began the task of editing and completing Spillane's unpublished typescripts, beginning with a non-series novel, Dead Street.
In July 2011, the community of Murrells Inlet named U. S 17 Business the "Mickey Spillane Waterfront 17 Highway." The proposal first passed the Georgetown County Council in 2006 while Spillane was still alive, but the South Carolina General Assembly rejected the plan then. He is survived by Jane Spillane. Spillane started as a writer for comic books. While working as a salesman in Gimbels department store basement in 1940, he met tie salesman Joe Gill, who found a lifetime career in scripting for Charlton Comics. Gill told Spillane to meet his brother, Ray Gill, who wrote for Funnies Inc. an outfit that packaged comic books for different publishers. Spillane soon began writing an eight-page story every day, he concocted adventures for major 1940s comic book characters, including Captain Marvel, Superman and Captain America. In the early 1940s, working for Funnies, Inc. he wrote two-page text stories which were syndicated to various comic book publishers, including Timely Comics. At one point, Spillane estimated he wrote fifty of these "short-short stories," which were intended to fulfill a postal regulation requiring comic books to have at least two pages of text to qualify for a second-class mailing permit.
While most comic books writers toiled anonymously, Spillane's byline appeared on most of his prose "filler" stories. 26 stories were collected in Primal Spillane: Early Stories 1941-1942. When Primal Spillane was reprinted by Bold Venture Press in 2018, the new volume contained an additional fifteen stories, including the unpublished "A Turn of the Tide." Spillane joined the United States Army Air Corps on December 8, 1941, the day after the attack on Pearl Harbor. In the mid-1940s he was stationed as a flight instructor in Greenwood, where he met and married Mary Ann Pearce in 1945; the couple wanted to buy a country house in the town of Newburgh, New York, 60 miles north of New York City, so Spillane decided to boost his bank account by writing a novel. He wrote the Jury in just 19 days. At the suggestion of Ray Gill, he sent it to E. P. Dutton. With the combined total of the 1947 hardcover and the Signet paperback, I, the Jury sold 6-1/2 million copies in the United States alone. I, hardboiled detective Mike Hammer.
Although tame by current standards, his novels featured more sex than competing titles, the violence was more overt than the usual detective story. Covers tended to feature scantily-dressed women or women who appeared as if they were about to undress. In the beginning, Mike Hammer's chief nemesis consisted of gangsters, but by the early'50s, with the onset of the Red Scare, this switched to communists. An early version of Spillane's Mike Hammer character, called Mike Danger, was submitted in a script for a detective-themed comic book. "'Mike Hammer started out to be a comic book. I was gonna have a Mike Danger comic book,' said in a 1984 interview." Two Mike Danger comic-book stories were published in 1954 without Spillane's knowledge, as well as one featuring Mike Lancer. These were published with other material in "Byline: Mickey Spillane," edited by Max Allan Collins and Lynn F. Myers, Jr.. The Mike Hammer series proved
Ayn Rand was a Russian-American writer and philosopher. She is known for her two best-selling novels, The Fountainhead and Atlas Shrugged, for developing a philosophical system she named Objectivism. Educated in Russia, she moved to the United States in 1926, she had a play produced on Broadway in 1935 and 1936. After two early novels that were unsuccessful, she achieved fame with her 1943 novel, The Fountainhead. In 1957, Rand published the novel Atlas Shrugged. Afterward, she turned to non-fiction to promote her philosophy, publishing her own periodicals and releasing several collections of essays until her death in 1982. Rand rejected faith and religion, she rejected altruism. In politics, she condemned the initiation of force as immoral and opposed collectivism and statism as well as anarchism, instead supporting laissez-faire capitalism, which she defined as the system based on recognizing individual rights, including property rights. In art, Rand promoted romantic realism, she was critical of most philosophers and philosophical traditions known to her, except for Aristotle, Thomas Aquinas and classical liberals.
Literary critics received Rand's fiction with mixed reviews and academia ignored or rejected her philosophy, though academic interest has increased in recent decades. The Objectivist movement attempts to spread her ideas, both in academic settings, she has been a significant influence among American conservatives. Rand was born Alisa Zinovyevna Rosenbaum on February 2, 1905, to a Russian-Jewish bourgeois family living in Saint Petersburg, she was the eldest of his wife, Anna Borisovna. Her father was upwardly mobile and a pharmacist and her mother was ambitious and religiously observant. Rand said she found school unchallenging and began writing screenplays at the age of eight and novels at the age of ten. At the prestigious Stoiunina Gymnasiumru, her closest friend was Vladimir Nabokov's younger sister, Olga; the two girls shared an intense interest in politics and would engage in debates at the Nabokov mansion: while Olga defended constitutional monarchy, Alisa supported republican ideals. She was twelve at the time of the February Revolution of 1917, during which she favored Alexander Kerensky over Tsar Nicholas II.
The subsequent October Revolution and the rule of the Bolsheviks under Vladimir Lenin disrupted the life the family had enjoyed. Her father's business was confiscated, the family fled to the Crimean Peninsula, under control of the White Army during the Russian Civil War. While in high school, she realized that she was an atheist and valued reason above any other human virtue. After graduating from high school in the Crimea in June 1921, she returned with her family to Petrograd, where they faced desperate conditions, on occasion nearly starving. After the Russian Revolution, universities were opened to women, allowing her to be in the first group of women to enroll at Petrograd State University. At the age of 16, she began her studies in the department of social pedagogy. At the university she was introduced to the writings of Aristotle and Plato, who would be her greatest influence and counter-influence, respectively, she studied the philosophical works of Friedrich Nietzsche. Able to read French and Russian, she discovered the writers Fyodor Dostoevsky, Victor Hugo, Edmond Rostand, Friedrich Schiller, who became her perennial favorites.
Along with many other bourgeois students, she was purged from the university shortly before graduating. After complaints from a group of visiting foreign scientists, many of the purged students were allowed to complete their work and graduate, which she did in October 1924, she studied for a year at the State Technicum for Screen Arts in Leningrad. For an assignment she wrote an essay about the Polish actress Pola Negri, which became her first published work. By this time she had decided her professional surname for writing would be Rand because it is graphically similar to a vowelless excerpt Рзнб of her birth surname in Cyrillic handwriting, she adopted the first name Ayn, either from a Finnish name Aino or from the Hebrew word עין. In late 1925, Rand was granted a visa to visit relatives in Chicago, she departed on January 17, 1926. When she arrived in New York City on February 19, 1926, she was so impressed with the skyline of Manhattan that she cried what she called "tears of splendor". Intent on staying in the United States to become a screenwriter, she lived for a few months with her relatives, one of whom owned a movie theater and allowed her to watch dozens of films free of charge.
She left for Hollywood, California. In Hollywood, a chance meeting with famed director Cecil B. DeMille led to work as an extra in his film The King of Kings and a subsequent job as a junior screenwriter. While working on The King of Kings, she met Frank O'Connor, she became a permanent American resident in July 1929 and an American citizen on March 3, 1931. Taking various jobs during the 1930s to support her writing, she worked for a time as the head of the costume department at RKO Studios, she made several attempts to bring her parents and sisters to the United States, but they were unable to acquire permission to emigrate. Rand's first literary success came with the sale of her screenplay Red Pawn to Uni
New York City
The City of New York called either New York City or New York, is the most populous city in the United States. With an estimated 2017 population of 8,622,698 distributed over a land area of about 302.6 square miles, New York is the most densely populated major city in the United States. Located at the southern tip of the state of New York, the city is the center of the New York metropolitan area, the largest metropolitan area in the world by urban landmass and one of the world's most populous megacities, with an estimated 20,320,876 people in its 2017 Metropolitan Statistical Area and 23,876,155 residents in its Combined Statistical Area. A global power city, New York City has been described as the cultural and media capital of the world, exerts a significant impact upon commerce, research, education, tourism, art and sports; the city's fast pace has inspired the term New York minute. Home to the headquarters of the United Nations, New York is an important center for international diplomacy.
Situated on one of the world's largest natural harbors, New York City consists of five boroughs, each of, a separate county of the State of New York. The five boroughs – Brooklyn, Manhattan, The Bronx, Staten Island – were consolidated into a single city in 1898; the city and its metropolitan area constitute the premier gateway for legal immigration to the United States. As many as 800 languages are spoken in New York, making it the most linguistically diverse city in the world. New York City is home to more than 3.2 million residents born outside the United States, the largest foreign-born population of any city in the world. In 2017, the New York metropolitan area produced a gross metropolitan product of US$1.73 trillion. If greater New York City were a sovereign state, it would have the 12th highest GDP in the world. New York is home to the highest number of billionaires of any city in the world. New York City traces its origins to a trading post founded by colonists from the Dutch Republic in 1624 on Lower Manhattan.
The city and its surroundings came under English control in 1664 and were renamed New York after King Charles II of England granted the lands to his brother, the Duke of York. New York served as the capital of the United States from 1785 until 1790, it has been the country's largest city since 1790. The Statue of Liberty greeted millions of immigrants as they came to the U. S. by ship in the late 19th and early 20th centuries and is an international symbol of the U. S. and its ideals of liberty and peace. In the 21st century, New York has emerged as a global node of creativity and entrepreneurship, social tolerance, environmental sustainability, as a symbol of freedom and cultural diversity. Many districts and landmarks in New York City are well known, with the city having three of the world's ten most visited tourist attractions in 2013 and receiving a record 62.8 million tourists in 2017. Several sources have ranked New York the most photographed city in the world. Times Square, iconic as the world's "heart" and its "Crossroads", is the brightly illuminated hub of the Broadway Theater District, one of the world's busiest pedestrian intersections, a major center of the world's entertainment industry.
The names of many of the city's landmarks and parks are known around the world. Manhattan's real estate market is among the most expensive in the world. New York is home to the largest ethnic Chinese population outside of Asia, with multiple signature Chinatowns developing across the city. Providing continuous 24/7 service, the New York City Subway is the largest single-operator rapid transit system worldwide, with 472 rail stations. Over 120 colleges and universities are located in New York City, including Columbia University, New York University, Rockefeller University, which have been ranked among the top universities in the world. Anchored by Wall Street in the Financial District of Lower Manhattan, New York has been called both the most economically powerful city and the leading financial center of the world, the city is home to the world's two largest stock exchanges by total market capitalization, the New York Stock Exchange and NASDAQ. In 1664, the city was named in honor of the Duke of York.
James's older brother, King Charles II, had appointed the Duke proprietor of the former territory of New Netherland, including the city of New Amsterdam, which England had seized from the Dutch. During the Wisconsinan glaciation, 75,000 to 11,000 years ago, the New York City region was situated at the edge of a large ice sheet over 1,000 feet in depth; the erosive forward movement of the ice contributed to the separation of what is now Long Island and Staten Island. That action left bedrock at a shallow depth, providing a solid foundation for most of Manhattan's skyscrapers. In the precolonial era, the area of present-day New York City was inhabited by Algonquian Native Americans, including the Lenape, whose homeland, known as Lenapehoking, included Staten Island; the first documented visit into New York Harbor by a European was in 1524 by Giovanni da Verrazzano, a Florentine explorer in the service of the French crown. He named it Nouvelle Angoulême. A Spanish expedition led by captain Estêvão Gomes, a Portuguese sailing for Emperor Charles V, arrived in New York Harbor in January 1525 and charted the mouth of the Hudson River, which he named Río de San Antonio.
The Padrón Rea
Françoise Sagan – real name Françoise Quoirez – was a French playwright and screenwriter. Hailed as "a charming little monster" by François Mauriac on the front page of Le Figaro, Sagan was known for works with strong romantic themes involving wealthy and disillusioned bourgeois characters, her best-known novel was her first – Bonjour Tristesse –, written when she was a teenager. Sagan was born in Cajarc and spent her early childhood in Lot, surrounded by animals, a passion that stayed with her throughout her life. Nicknamed'Kiki', she was the youngest child of bourgeois parents – her father a company director, her mother the daughter of landowners, her family spent World War II in the Dauphiné in the Vercors. Her paternal great-grandmother was Russian from Saint Petersburg; the family had a home in the prosperous 17th arrondissement of Paris, to which they returned after the war. Sagan was expelled from her first school, a convent, for "lack of deep spirituality", she was expelled from the Louise-de-Bettignies School because she had "hanged a bust of Molière with a piece of string".
She obtained her baccalauréat on the second attempt, at the cours Hattemer, was admitted to the Sorbonne in the fall of 1952. She was an indifferent student, did not graduate; the pseudonym "Sagan" was taken from a character in Marcel Proust's À la recherche du temps perdu. Sagan's first novel, Bonjour Tristesse, was published in 1954, it was an immediate international success. The novel concerns the life of a pleasure-driven 17-year-old named Cécile and her relationship with her boyfriend and her adulterous, playboy father. Sagan's characters, which became something of an icon for disillusioned teenagers, are in some ways similar to those of J. D. Salinger. During a literary career lasting until 1998, Sagan produced dozens of works, many of which have been filmed, she maintained the austere style of the French psychological novel while the nouveau roman was in vogue. The conversations between her characters are considered to contain existential undertones. In addition to novels, an autobiography, she wrote song lyrics and screenplays.
In the 1960s, Sagan became more devoted to writing plays, though lauded for excellent dialogue, were only moderately successful. Afterward, she concentrated on her career as a novelist. Sagan was married twice. On 13 March 1958, she married her first husband, Guy Schoeller, an editor with Hachette, 20 years older than Sagan; the couple divorced in June, 1960. In 1962, she married a young American playboy and would-be ceramicist; the couple divorced in 1963. She had a long-term relationship with fashion stylist Peggy Roche, she had a male lover, Bernard Frank, a married essayist obsessed with reading and eating. She added to her self-styled "family" by beginning a long-term affair with the French Playboy editor Annick Geille, after Geille approached Sagan for an article for her magazine. Fond of traveling in the United States, she was seen with Truman Capote and Ava Gardner. On 14 April 1957, while driving her Aston Martin sports car, she was involved in an accident that left her in a coma for some time.
She loved driving her Jaguar automobile to Monte Carlo for gambling sessions. In the 1990s, Sagan was convicted of possession of cocaine. At various times of her life, Sagan was addicted to a number of drugs, she was a long-term user of prescription pills, cocaine and alcohol. When the police came for an inspection of her house, her dog Banko showed cocaine to them, licked the cocaine. Sagan told the police, "Look! He likes it too."In 2010, her son Denis established the Prix Françoise Sagan. Her health was reported to be poor in the 2000s. In 2002, she was unable to appear at a trial that convicted her of tax fraud in a case involving the former French President François Mitterrand, she received a suspended sentence. Sagan died of a pulmonary embolism in Honfleur, Calvados, on 24 September 2004 at the age of 69. At her own request she was buried at Cajarc. In his memorial statement, the French President Jacques Chirac said: "With her death, France loses one of its most brilliant and sensitive writers – an eminent figure of our literary life."
She wrote her own obituary for the Dictionary of Authors compiled by Jérôme Garcin: "Appeared in 1954 with a slender novel, Bonjour tristesse, which created a scandal worldwide. Her death, after a life and a body of work that were pleasant and botched, was a scandal only for herself." Sagan's life was dramatized in a biographical film, directed by Diane Kurys, released in France on 11 June 2008. The French actress Sylvie Testud played the title role. "To jealousy, nothing is more frightful than laughter." When asked if she believed in love: "Are you joking? I believe in passion. Nothing else. Two years, no more. All right, then: three." "A dress makes no sense unless it inspires men to want to take it off you." "I have loved to the point of madness, that, called madness, that which to me is the only sensible way to love." "La vitesse n’est ni un signe, ni une preuve, ni une provocation, ni un défi, mais un élan de bonheur." "Money may not buy happiness, but I'd rather cry in a Jaguar than on a bus" Bonjour tristesse Un certain sourire Dans un mois, dans un an (1957, Those Without Shadows, translated by
Adam Gidwitz is the author of the best selling children's books A Tale Dark and Grimm, In a Glass Grimmly, The Grimm Conclusion, all published by Puffin Books. He received a 2017 Newbery Honor for The Inquisitor’s Tale: Or, The Three Magical Children and Their Holy Dog, he grew up in Baltimore, Maryland. He attended Columbia University where he majored in English Literature and spent his junior year abroad in the University's Oxford/Cambridge Scholars program. After college he became a teacher at Saint Ann's School in Brooklyn, he credits a stint as a substitute librarian as the inspiration for writing The Grimm Trilogy. He now lives in New York with his wife, writing full-time. A Tale Dark and Grimm was named a New York Times Editor's Choice, A Publishers Weekly Best Children's Book of the Year, a School Library Journal Best Children's Book of the Year, a 2010 ALA Notable Book. A live action movie based on the book is planned; the Inquisitor's Tale Or, The Three Magical Children and Their Holy Dog was awarded a Newbery Honor on January 23, 2017.
A Tale Grimm. New York: Dutton Penguin, 2010. In a Glass Grimmly. New York: Dutton Penguin, 2012; the Grimm Conclusion. New York: Dutton Penguin, 2013; the Empire Strikes Back - So You Want to Be a Jedi. Los Angeles, Disney Lucasfilm Press, 2015; the Inquisitor’s Tale: Or, The Three Magical Children and Their Holy Dog. New York: Dutton Penguin, 2016; the Creature of the Pines. Illustrated by Hatem Aly. New York: Dutton Penguin, 2018; the Basque Dragon. Co-authored by Jesse Casey. Illustrated by Hatem Aly. New York: Dutton Penguin, 2018. Sasquatch and the Muckleshoot. Co-authored by Joseph Bruchac. Illustrated by Hatem Aly. New York: Dutton Penguin, 2018; the Chupacabras of the Rio Grande. Co-authored by David Bowles. Illustrated by Hatem Aly. New York: Dutton Penguin, 2019. Official website The New York Times, "When Stories Had Sharp Teeth" American Library Association Notable Book List