Paris is the capital and most populous city of France, with an area of 105 square kilometres and an official estimated population of 2,140,526 residents as of 1 January 2019. Since the 17th century, Paris has been one of Europe's major centres of finance, commerce, fashion and the arts; the City of Paris is the centre and seat of government of the Île-de-France, or Paris Region, which has an estimated official 2019 population of 12,213,364, or about 18 percent of the population of France. The Paris Region had a GDP of €681 billion in 2016, accounting for 31 percent of the GDP of France, was the 5th largest region by GDP in the world. According to the Economist Intelligence Unit Worldwide Cost of Living Survey in 2018, Paris was the second most expensive city in the world, after Singapore, ahead of Zurich, Hong Kong and Geneva. Another source ranked Paris as most expensive, on a par with Singapore and Hong-Kong, in 2018; the city is a major rail and air-transport hub served by two international airports: Paris-Charles de Gaulle and Paris-Orly.
Opened in 1900, the city's subway system, the Paris Métro, serves 5.23 million passengers daily, is the second busiest metro system in Europe after Moscow Metro. Gare du Nord is the 24th busiest railway station in the world, the first located outside Japan, with 262 million passengers in 2015. Paris is known for its museums and architectural landmarks: the Louvre was the most visited art museum in the world in 2018, with 10.2 million visitors. The Musée d'Orsay and Musée de l'Orangerie are noted for their collections of French Impressionist art, the Pompidou Centre Musée National d'Art Moderne has the largest collection of modern and contemporary art in Europe; the historical district along the Seine in the city centre is classified as a UNESCO Heritage Site. Popular landmarks in the centre of the city include the Cathedral of Notre Dame de Paris and the Gothic royal chapel of Sainte-Chapelle, both on the Île de la Cité. Paris received 23 million visitors in 2017, measured by hotel stays, with the largest numbers of foreign visitors coming from the United States, the UK, Germany and China.
It was ranked as the third most visited travel destination in the world in 2017, after Bangkok and London. The football club Paris Saint-Germain and the rugby union club Stade Français are based in Paris; the 80,000-seat Stade de France, built for the 1998 FIFA World Cup, is located just north of Paris in the neighbouring commune of Saint-Denis. Paris hosts the annual French Open Grand Slam tennis tournament on the red clay of Roland Garros. Paris will host the 2024 Summer Olympics; the 1938 and 1998 FIFA World Cups, the 2007 Rugby World Cup, the 1960, 1984, 2016 UEFA European Championships were held in the city and, every July, the Tour de France bicycle race finishes there. The name "Paris" is derived from the Celtic Parisii tribe; the city's name is not related to the Paris of Greek mythology. Paris is referred to as the City of Light, both because of its leading role during the Age of Enlightenment and more because Paris was one of the first large European cities to use gas street lighting on a grand scale on its boulevards and monuments.
Gas lights were installed on the Place du Carousel, Rue de Rivoli and Place Vendome in 1829. By 1857, the Grand boulevards were lit. By the 1860s, the boulevards and streets of Paris were illuminated by 56,000 gas lamps. Since the late 19th century, Paris has been known as Panam in French slang. Inhabitants are known in French as Parisiens, they are pejoratively called Parigots. The Parisii, a sub-tribe of the Celtic Senones, inhabited the Paris area from around the middle of the 3rd century BC. One of the area's major north–south trade routes crossed the Seine on the île de la Cité; the Parisii minted their own coins for that purpose. The Romans began their settlement on Paris' Left Bank; the Roman town was called Lutetia. It became a prosperous city with a forum, temples, an amphitheatre. By the end of the Western Roman Empire, the town was known as Parisius, a Latin name that would become Paris in French. Christianity was introduced in the middle of the 3rd century AD by Saint Denis, the first Bishop of Paris: according to legend, when he refused to renounce his faith before the Roman occupiers, he was beheaded on the hill which became known as Mons Martyrum "Montmartre", from where he walked headless to the north of the city.
Clovis the Frank, the first king of the Merovingian dynasty, made the city his capital from 508. As the Frankish domination of Gaul began, there was a gradual immigration by the Franks to Paris and the Parisian Francien dialects were born. Fortification of the Île-de-la-Citie failed to avert sacking by Vikings in 845, but Paris' strategic importance—with its bridges prevent
Fitzroy is an inner-city suburb of Melbourne, Australia, 3 km north-east of Melbourne's Central Business District in the local government area of the City of Yarra. At the 2016 Census, Fitzroy had a population of 10,445. Planned as Melbourne's first suburbs in 1839, it was also one of the city's first areas to gain municipal status, in 1858, it occupies most densely populated suburban area, just 100 ha. Fitzroy is known throughout Australia for its street art, music scene and culture of bohemianism, is the main home of Melbourne's Fringe Festival, its commercial heart is Brunswick Street, one of Melbourne's major retail and nightlife strips. Long associated with the working class, Fitzroy has undergone waves of urban renewal and gentrification since the 1980s and today is inhabited by a wide variety of socio-economic groups, featuring both some of the most expensive rents in Melbourne and one of its largest public housing complexes, Atherton Gardens, its built environment is diverse and features some of the finest examples of Victorian era architecture in Melbourne.
Much of the suburb is covered by a historic preservation precinct, with many individual buildings and streetscapes covered by Heritage Overlays. The most recent changes to Fitzroy are mandated by the Melbourne 2030 Metropolitan Strategy, in which both Brunswick Street and nearby Smith Street are designated for redevelopment as Activity centres, it was named after Sir Charles Augustus FitzRoy, the Governor of New South Wales from 1846 to 1855. It is bordered by Victoria Parade, Smith Street and Nicholson Street. Fitzroy was Melbourne's first suburb, created in 1839 when the area between Melbourne and Alexandra Parade was subdivided into vacant lots and offered for sale. Newtown was renamed Collingwood, the area now called Fitzroy was made a ward of the Melbourne City Council. On 9 September 1858, Fitzroy became a municipality in its own right, separate from the City of Melbourne. In accordance with the Municipal Act, on 28 September 1858, a meeting of ratepayers was held in'Mr Templeton's schoolroom, George street' to prepare for a local council election, with Dr Thomas Embling, MLA for Collingwood, presiding.
The council election took place two days and the first councilors were. The first council meeting, held after the declaration of election, was at the Exchange Hotel, George Street, Symons was unanimously elected chair. Surrounded as it was by a large number of factories and industrial sites in the adjoining suburbs, Fitzroy was ideally suited to working men's housing, from the 1860s to the 1880s, Fitzroy's working class population rose dramatically; the area's former mansions became boarding houses and slums, the heightened poverty of the area prompted the establishment of several charitable and philanthropic organisations in the area over the next few decades. A notable local entrepreneur was Macpherson Robertson, whose confectionery factories engulfed several blocks and stand as heritage landmarks today; the Fitzroy Gasworks was erected on Reilly Street in 1861, dominating the suburb, with the Gasometer Hotel located opposite. The establishment of the Housing Commission of Victoria in 1938 saw swathes of new residences being constructed in Melbourne's outer suburbs.
With many of Fitzroy's residents moving to the new accommodation, their places were taken by post-war immigrants from Italy and Greece and the influx of Italian and Irish immigrants saw a marked shift towards Catholicism from Fitzroy's traditional Methodist and Presbyterian roots. The Housing Commission would build two public housing estates in Fitzroy in the 1960s. Before World War I, Fitzroy was a working-class neighbourhood, with a concentration of political radicals living there. Postwar immigration into the suburb resulted in the area becoming diverse. Many working-class Chinese immigrants settled in Fitzroy due to its proximity to Chinatown. There is a noticeable Vietnamese community, a small enclave of Africans, the area serves as a centre of Melbourne's Hispanic community, with many Spanish and Latin American-themed restaurants, clubs and some stores. Like other inner-city suburbs of Melbourne, Fitzroy underwent a process of gentrification during the 1980s and 1990s; the area's manufacturing and warehouse sites were converted into apartments, the corresponding rising rents in Fitzroy saw many of the area's residents move to Northcote and Brunswick.
In June 1994, the City of Yarra was created, by combining the Cities of Fitzroy and Richmond. Fitzroy's topography is flat, it is laid out in grid plan and is characterised by a tightly spaced rectangular grid of medium-sized streets, with many of its narrow streets and back lanes facilitating only one-way traffic. Its built form is a legacy of its early history when a mixture of land uses was allowed to develop close to each other, producing a great diversity of types and scales of building. In the 2016 Australian Census conducted by the Australian Bureau of Statistics, Fitzroy had a population of 10,445; the median age was younger than the national average, while the median weekly individual income was higher than the national average. Only 24.9% of Fitzroy's population are married, compared to 48.1% nationwide. 53.3% of people were born in Australia. The most common countries of birth were England 3.9%, Vietnam 3.3%, New Zealand 2.9%, China 2.7% and United States of America 1.2%. 61.0% of
The Argus (Melbourne)
The Argus was a morning daily newspaper in Melbourne, Australia, established in 1846 and closed in 1957. It was considered to be the general Australian newspaper of record for this period. Known as a conservative newspaper for most of its history, it adopted a left-leaning approach from 1949; the Argus's main competitor was The Age. The newspaper was owned by William Kerr, a journalist who had worked with The Sydney Gazette before moving to Melbourne in 1839 to work on John Pascoe Fawkner's newspaper, the Port Phillip Patriot; the first edition was published on 2 June 1846, with the paper soon known for its scurrilous abuse and sarcasm, such that by 1853, Kerr had lost ownership after a series of libel suits. The paper was published under the name of Edward Wilson. By the 1880s, Richard Twopeny regarded it as "the best daily paper published out of England." The paper become a stablemate to the weekly, The Australasian, to become The Australasian Post in 1946. During the Depression in 1933, it launched the Melbourne Evening Star in competition with The Herald newspaper of The Herald and Weekly Times Ltd, but was forced to close the venture in 1936.
In 1949 the paper was acquired by the London-based Daily Mirror newspaper group. On 28 July 1952, The Argus became the first newspaper in the world to publish colour photographs in a daily paper; the paper had interests in radio and, in 1956, the new medium of television, being part of the consortium General Telecasters Victoria and its television station GTV-9. The company's newspaper operation experienced a severe loss of profitability in the 1950s, attributable to increased costs of newsprint and acute competition for newspaper circulation in Melbourne. In 1957, the paper was discontinued and sold to the Herald and Weekly Times group, which undertook to re-employ Argus staff and continue publication of selected features, HWT made an allocation of shares to the UK owners; the final edition was published on 19 January 1957. The company's other print and broadcasting operations were unaffected; the takeover of The Argus by the powerful Mirror Group, of Fleet Street, led to hopes of a renaissance for The Argus.
Fresh capital, new ideas, new strategies from London. But instead, the new arrivals from England finished up destroying their new possession. Frederick William Haddon – Argus sub-editor in 1863, editor 1867–1898 Edward Wilson Andrew Murray, editor in 1855 and 1856 Howard Willoughby Julian Howard Ashton, journalist and critic Roy Curthoys, editor 1929–1935 List of newspapers in Australia Argus Building Argus finals system, a series of systems for determining the Premiers of the Victorian Football League and other Australian rules football competitions in the early 20th century Australasian Sketcher with Pen and Pencil Don Hauser, The Printers of the Streets and Lanes Of Melbourne Nondescript Press, Melbourne 2006 Jim Usher The Argus – life and death of a newspaper Australian Scholarly Publishing, Melbourne 2008 The Melbourne Argus at Trove The Argus at Trove The Argus: Special War Edition – 1 May 1915 Digitised World War I Victorian newspapers from the State Library of Victoria
Impressionism is a 19th-century art movement characterized by small, yet visible brush strokes, open composition, emphasis on accurate depiction of light in its changing qualities, ordinary subject matter, inclusion of movement as a crucial element of human perception and experience, unusual visual angles. Impressionism originated with a group of Paris-based artists whose independent exhibitions brought them to prominence during the 1870s and 1880s; the Impressionists faced harsh opposition from the conventional art community in France. The name of the style derives from the title of a Claude Monet work, soleil levant, which provoked the critic Louis Leroy to coin the term in a satirical review published in the Parisian newspaper Le Charivari; the development of Impressionism in the visual arts was soon followed by analogous styles in other media that became known as impressionist music and impressionist literature. Radicals in their time, early Impressionists violated the rules of academic painting.
They constructed their pictures from brushed colours that took precedence over lines and contours, following the example of painters such as Eugène Delacroix and J. M. W. Turner, they painted realistic scenes of modern life, painted outdoors. Still lifes and portraits as well as landscapes were painted in a studio; the Impressionists found that they could capture the momentary and transient effects of sunlight by painting outdoors or en plein air. They portrayed overall visual effects instead of details, used short "broken" brush strokes of mixed and pure unmixed colour—not blended smoothly or shaded, as was customary—to achieve an effect of intense colour vibration. Impressionism emerged in France at the same time that a number of other painters, including the Italian artists known as the Macchiaioli, Winslow Homer in the United States, were exploring plein-air painting; the Impressionists, developed new techniques specific to the style. Encompassing what its adherents argued was a different way of seeing, it is an art of immediacy and movement, of candid poses and compositions, of the play of light expressed in a bright and varied use of colour.
The public, at first hostile came to believe that the Impressionists had captured a fresh and original vision if the art critics and art establishment disapproved of the new style. By recreating the sensation in the eye that views the subject, rather than delineating the details of the subject, by creating a welter of techniques and forms, Impressionism is a precursor of various painting styles, including Neo-Impressionism, Post-Impressionism and Cubism. In the middle of the 19th century—a time of change, as Emperor Napoleon III rebuilt Paris and waged war—the Académie des Beaux-Arts dominated French art; the Académie was the preserver of traditional French painting standards of style. Historical subjects, religious themes, portraits were valued; the Académie preferred finished images that looked realistic when examined closely. Paintings in this style were made up of precise brush strokes blended to hide the artist's hand in the work. Colour was restrained and toned down further by the application of a golden varnish.
The Académie had an annual, juried art show, the Salon de Paris, artists whose work was displayed in the show won prizes, garnered commissions, enhanced their prestige. The standards of the juries represented the values of the Académie, represented by the works of such artists as Jean-Léon Gérôme and Alexandre Cabanel. In the early 1860s, four young painters—Claude Monet, Pierre-Auguste Renoir, Alfred Sisley, Frédéric Bazille—met while studying under the academic artist Charles Gleyre, they discovered that they shared an interest in painting landscape and contemporary life rather than historical or mythological scenes. Following a practice that had become popular by mid-century, they ventured into the countryside together to paint in the open air, but not for the purpose of making sketches to be developed into finished works in the studio, as was the usual custom. By painting in sunlight directly from nature, making bold use of the vivid synthetic pigments that had become available since the beginning of the century, they began to develop a lighter and brighter manner of painting that extended further the Realism of Gustave Courbet and the Barbizon school.
A favourite meeting place for the artists was the Café Guerbois on Avenue de Clichy in Paris, where the discussions were led by Édouard Manet, whom the younger artists admired. They were soon joined by Camille Pissarro, Paul Cézanne, Armand Guillaumin. During the 1860s, the Salon jury rejected about half of the works submitted by Monet and his friends in favour of works by artists faithful to the approved style. In 1863, the Salon jury rejected Manet's The Luncheon on the Grass because it depicted a nude woman with two clothed men at a picnic. While the Salon jury accepted nudes in historical and allegorical paintings, they condemned Manet for placing a realistic nude in a contemporary setting; the jury's worded rejection of Manet's painting appalled his admirers, the unusually large number of rejected works that year perturbed many French artists. After Emperor Napoleon III saw the rejected works of 1863, he decreed that the public be allowed to judge the work themselves, the Salon des Refusés was organized.
While many viewers came only to laugh, the Salon des Refusés drew attention to the existence of a new tendency in art and attracted more visi
The Heidelberg School was an Australian art movement of the late 19th century. The movement has latterly been described as Australian Impressionism. Melbourne art critic Sidney Dickinson coined the term in a July 1891 review of works by Arthur Streeton and Walter Withers, he noted that these and other local artists, who painted en plein air in Heidelberg on the city's outskirts, could be considered members of the "Heidelberg School". The term has since evolved to cover painters who worked together at "artists' camps" around Melbourne and Sydney in the 1880s and 1890s. Along with Streeton and Withers, Tom Roberts, Charles Conder and Frederick McCubbin are considered key figures of the movement. Drawing on naturalist and impressionist ideas, they sought to capture Australian life, the bush, the harsh sunlight that typifies the country; the works of these artists are notable, not only for their merits as compositions, but as part of Australia's cultural heritage. The period leading up to Federation in 1901 saw an upsurge in Australian nationalism, is the setting for many classic stories of Australian folklore, made famous in the works of bush poets associated with the Bulletin School, such as Henry Lawson and Banjo Paterson.
The Heidelberg School's work provides a visual complement to these tales and their images have become icons of Australian art. The artists are well-represented in Australia's major public galleries, including the National Gallery of Australia, the National Gallery of Victoria and the Art Gallery of New South Wales; the name refers to the rural area of Heidelberg east of Melbourne where practitioners of the style found their subject matter, though usage expanded to cover other Australian artists working in similar areas. The core group painted there on several occasions at "artist's camps" in the late 1880s and early 1890s. Besides Arthur Streeton and Walter Withers, other major artists in the movement included Tom Roberts, Frederick McCubbin and Charles Conder. See below for a list of other associated artists. In August 1889, several artists of the Heidelberg School staged the 9 by 5 Impression Exhibition at Buxton's Rooms, Swanston Street, opposite the Melbourne Town Hall; the exhibition's three principal artists were Charles Conder, Tom Roberts and Arthur Streeton, with minor contributions from Frederick McCubbin, National Gallery students R. E. Falls and Herbert Daly, sculptor Charles Douglas Richardson, who exhibited five sculpted impressions.
Most of the 183 works included in the exhibition were painted on wooden cigar-box lids, measuring 9 by 5 inches, hence the name of the exhibition. Louis Abrahams, a member of the Box Hill artists' camp, sourced most of the lids from his family's tobacconist shop. In order to emphasise the small size of the paintings, they were displayed in broad Red Gum frames, some left unornamented, others decorated with verse and small sketches, giving the works an "unconventional, avant garde look"; the Japonist décor featured Japanese screens and vases with flowers that perfumed the gallery, while the influence of Whistler's Aestheticism was evident in the harmony and "total effect" of the display. The artists wrote in the catalogue: An effect is only momentary: so an impressionist tries to find his place. Two half-hours are never alike, he who tries to paint a sunset on two successive evenings, must be more or less painting from memory. So, in these works, it has been the object of the artists to render faithfully, thus obtain first records of effects differing, of fleeting character.
The exhibition caused a stir in Melbourne with many of the city's leading social and political figures attending during its three-week run. The general public responded positively, within two weeks of the exhibition's opening, most of the 9 by 5s had sold; the response from critics, was mixed. The most scathing review came from James Smith Australia's most prominent art critic, who said the 9 by 5s were "destitute of all sense of the beautiful" and "whatever influence was to exercise could scarcely be otherwise than misleading and pernicious." The artists pinned the review to the entrance of the venue—attracting many more passing pedestrians to, in Streeton's words, "see the dreadful paintings"—and responded with a letter to the Editor of Smith's newspaper, The Argus. Described as a manifesto, the letter defends freedom of choice in subject and technique, concluding: It is better to give our own idea than to get a superficial effect, apt to be a repetition of what others have done before us, may shelter us in a safe mediocrity, while it will not attract condemnation, could never help towards the development of what we believe will be a great school of painting in Australia.
The 9 by 5 Impression Exhibition is now regarded as a landmark event in Australian art history. One-third of the 9 by 5s are known to have survived, many of which are held in Australia's public collections, have sold at auction for prices exceeding $1,000,000. Opened at 9 Collins Street in April 1888, Grosvenor Chambers, built "expressly for occupation by artists" became the focal point of Melbourne's art scene, an urban base from which members of the Heidelberg School could meet the booming city's demand for portraits. Tom Roberts, Jane Sutherland and Clara Southern were the first to occupy studios in the building, were soon followed by Charles Conder and Louis Abrahams. Many of the artists decorated their studios in an'Aesthetic' manner, showing the influence of James Abbott McNeill Whistler. Roberts' use of eucalypts and golden wattle as floral decorations started a fad for gum leaves in the home; the presence of Roberts and Conder at Grosvenor Chambers is reflected in the high number
Victoria Street, Melbourne
Victoria Street is one of the major thoroughfares of inner Melbourne, running east-west for over six kilometres between Munster Terrace in North Melbourne and the Yarra River. The road is known as Victoria Parade for over one-and-a-half kilometres of its length, distinguishable with a wide reservation and tramway down the middle. Victoria Street touches the north-east corner of the Hoddle Grid at the intersection of La Trobe Street and Spring Street, opposite the Carlton Gardens. After crossing the Yarra river over Victoria Bridge the street continues as Barkers Road; the road is well known for being an arterial road for cross-city traffic and for featuring the Queen Victoria Market, Victoria Parade hospital precinct and Melbourne's Little Saigon. Victoria Street forms a part of the borders of several inner Melbourne suburbs, including West Melbourne, North Melbourne, Carlton, East Melbourne, Collingwood and Abbotsford. In addition to the Carlton Gardens, several other Melbourne landmarks are located on Victoria Street, including RMIT University, the Royal Exhibition Building, St Vincent's Hospital, Queen Victoria Market, the Eastern Hill Fire Station, the Victorian Trades Hall, Victoria Gardens Shopping Centre.
The Richmond and Abbotsford stretch of Victoria Street is amongst Melbourne's most well known restaurant strips, hosting many Vietnamese eateries and grocery stores. Before its relocation to Westgarth, the Valhalla Cinema was located in Victoria Street, Richmond. Victoria Street was reserved as a government road in 1839; the road was called Simpson's Road after a magistrate who constructed a small footpath and road in 1843. The street was renamed Victoria Street in the 1850s in honour of Queen Victoria's popularity and her namesake colony. Though not part of the original Hoddle Grid, it was included as a thoroughfare in Hoddle's Mile extension; the street formed the boundary between the former cities of Collingwood and Richmond, as such did not feature many grand or civic buildings, though it does now feature numerous properties on the Victorian Heritage Register. The western end of the street became a shopping centre for present-day Abbotsford and North Richmond in the 19th century, lined by predominantly double-storey terrace shops.
The eastern end of the street was an industrial area comprising engineering factories and wool scouring industry. During the economic boom in the 1880s many of the buildings along Victoria Street were reconstructed and in 1884, the bridge over the Yarra River was built; this stimulated the subdivision of land at the end of Victoria Street and made it more accessible than by using the former ferry service between the river banks. In 1886 a cable car tram line was installed at the eastern end of the street; this was subsequently converted into an electric tramway in 1929. During the middle of the 20th century the importance of the street declined, however the area has been revitalised in more recent years as the shopping and community focus for some of Melbourne's South-East Asian migrants; the eastern stretch of Victoria Street is known colloquially as'Little Saigon' or'Little Vietnam'. This is due to the influx of migrants to the surrounding area following the Vietnam War, the subsequent development of Vietnamese businesses during the 1980s.
This stretch of Victoria Street has become famous as an Asian grocery and restaurant precinct with Japanese and Thai options alongside the longer-standing Vietnamese establishments. On 16 January 2014, a culturally-themed gateway was installed at the intersection of Victoria Street and Hoddle Street to recognise "the cultural contributions that have established Victoria Street's reputation as a bustling and diverse retail and dining strip."A Lunar Festival celebrating Tết, the Vietnamese New Year festival of the Lunar calendar, has been held in the Little Saigon stretch of Victoria Street since 1994. The street is closed to traffic and many food and culture stalls, live performances and events line the section of road between Hoddle Street and Church Street. Victoria Street is serviced extensively by public transport, with St Vincent's Plaza acting as an interchange stop for most tram and bus routes that run along the street. Several tram routes run along portions of Victoria Street and Victoria Parade's length, including the 11, 12, 57 and 109.
Bus routes connecting Melbourne City Centre to its Eastern suburbs run along Victoria Parade for parts of their journeys between Spring Street and Hoddle Street. Bus route 402 to Footscray terminates on Victoria St at the Carlton Gardens. North Richmond railway station lies on Victoria Street in the Eastern Suburb of Richmond at the corner of Regent Street, it is close-by Little Saigon and a connected tram stop. Though no other railway stations are located on Victoria Street itself, North Melbourne railway station is near its western end. Australian roads portal Victoria Bridge, Melbourne
Nocturne painting is a term coined by James Abbott McNeill Whistler to describe a painting style that depicts scenes evocative of the night or subjects as they appear in a veil of light, in twilight, or in the absence of direct light. In a broader usage, the term has come to refer to any painting of a night scene, or night-piece, such as Rembrandt's The Night Watch. Whistler used the term within the title of his works to represent paintings with a "dreamy, pensive mood" by applying a musical name, he titled works using other terms associated with music, such as a "symphony", "harmony", "study" or "arrangement", to emphasize the tonal qualities and the composition and to de-emphasize the narrative content. The use of the term "nocturne" can be associated with the Tonalism movement of the American of the late 19th century and early 20th century, "characterized by soft, diffused light, muted tones and hazy outlined objects, all of which imbue the works with a strong sense of mood." Along with winter scenes, nocturnes were a common Tonalist theme.
Frederic Remington used the term as well for his nocturne scenes of the American Old West. In northern Europe, the Dutch Golden Age produced one of the greatest artists of all time; the first artist to paint scenes on a regular basis in the nocturne mode was Rembrandt van Rijn. Many of his portraits were painted using a nocturne method; as in The Mill, most of his landscapes were painted to evoke a sense of the nocturne, which could be expressed in either a calm or stormy manner. “Nocturne” was a term, applied to certain types of musical compositions before James Abbott McNeill Whistler, inspired by the language of music, began using the word within the titles of many of his works, such as Nocturne in Blue and Silver, in the collection of the Tate Gallery, United Kingdom. Frederic Remington is so identified for his nocturne scenes of the American Old West that they were celebrated in 2003-2004 with an exhibition, Frederic Remington: The Color of Night, co-organized and shown in turn by the National Gallery of Art, Washington, D.
C. and the Gilcrease Museum, Oklahoma. The exhibition generated a colorful book of the same title and travelled to the Denver Art Museum in Denver, Colorado. Remington painted many of his nocturnes in the last years of his life, when he was transitioning from a career as an illustrator to that of a fine artist and had chosen Impressionism as the style in which he worked at the time. One example of his work is The Stampede; the paintings pictured in the gallery below are in order of date completed, left to right: Thomas Cole, Moonlight George Inness, Pool in the Woods, 1892, Worcester Art Museum, Massachusetts John Henry Twachtman, Canal Venice c. 1878, private collection John Henry Twachtman, L'Etang c. 1884, private collection Albert Pinkham Ryder, Death on a Pale Horse c. 1910, The Cleveland Museum of Art, Ohio Frank Tenney Johnson, Rough Riding Rancheros c. 1933 Edward Hopper, Nighthawks, 1942, Art Institute of Chicago, Illinois Other artists who created nocturne scenes are: Jacob van Ruisdael, Landscape with Church ] Jacob van Ruisdael, Landscape Augustus Leopold Egg and Present Number Three ] John LaFarge, The Lady of Shalott Edgar Degas, Philadelphia Museum of Art Vincent van Gogh, Starry Night Over the Rhone Artists who have used the term for a series of their works James Abbott McNeill Whistler Frederic Remington Rembrandt van Rijn Night in paintings Tonalism Night photography Holden, Donald.
Whistler: Landscapes and Seascapes. Lakewood, New Jersey: Watson-Guptill Publications, 1984. Anderson, Nancy with Alexander Nemerov and William Sharpe. Frederic Remington: The Color of Night. Washington, D. C.: National Gallery of Art, 2003. Sharpe, William C. New York Nocturne: The City After Dark In Literature and Photography, 1850-1950. Princeton, New Jersey: Princeton University Press, 2008. Simpson and others. Like Breath on Glass: Whistler and the Art of Painting Softly. Williamstown, Massachusetts: Sterling and Francine Clark Art Institute, 2008