Canterbury is a historic English cathedral city and UNESCO World Heritage Site, situated in the heart of the City of Canterbury, a local government district of Kent, England. It lies on the River Stour; the Archbishop of Canterbury is the primate of the Church of England and the worldwide Anglican Communion owing to the importance of St Augustine, who served as the apostle to the pagan Kingdom of Kent around the turn of the 7th century. The city's cathedral became a major focus of pilgrimage following the 1170 martyrdom of Thomas Becket, although it had been a well-trodden pilgrim destination since the murder of St Alphege by the men of King Canute in 1012. A journey of pilgrims to Becket's shrine served as the frame for Geoffrey Chaucer's 14th century classic The Canterbury Tales. Canterbury is a popular tourist destination: one of the most-visited cities in the United Kingdom, the city's economy is reliant upon tourism; the city has been occupied since Paleolithic times and served as the capital of the Celtic Cantiaci and Jute Kingdom of Kent.
Many historical structures fill the area, including a city wall founded in Roman times and rebuilt in the 14th century, the ruins of St Augustine's Abbey and a Norman castle, the oldest extant school in the world, the King's School. Modern additions include the Marlowe Theatre and the St Lawrence Ground, home of the Kent County Cricket Club. There is a substantial student population, brought about by the presence of the University of Kent, Canterbury Christ Church University, the University for the Creative Arts, the Girne American University Canterbury campus. Canterbury remains, however, a small city in terms of geographical size and population, when compared with other British cities; the Roman settlement of Durovernum Cantiacorum occupied the location of an earlier British town whose ancient British name has been reconstructed as *Durou̯ernon, although the name is sometimes supposed to have derived from various British names for the Stour. In Sub-Roman Britain, it was known in Old Welsh as Cair Ceint.
Occupied by the Jutes, it became known in Old English as Cantwareburh, which developed into the present name. The Canterbury area has been inhabited since prehistoric times. Lower Paleolithic axes, Neolithic and Bronze Age pots have been found in the area. Canterbury was first recorded as the main settlement of the Celtic tribe of the Cantiaci, which inhabited most of modern-day Kent. In the 1st century AD, the Romans named it Durovernum Cantiacorum; the Romans rebuilt the city, with new streets in a grid pattern, a theatre, a temple, a forum, public baths. Although they did not maintain a major military garrison, its position on Watling Street relative to the major Kentish ports of Rutupiae and Lemanae gave it considerable strategic importance. In the late 3rd century, to defend against attack from barbarians, the Romans built an earth bank around the city and a wall with seven gates, which enclosed an area of 130 acres. Despite being counted as one of the 28 cities of Sub-Roman Britain, it seems that after the Romans left Britain in 410 Durovernum Cantiacorum was abandoned for around 100 years, except by a few farmers and decayed.
Over the next 100 years, an Anglo-Saxon community formed within the city walls, as Jutish refugees arrived intermarrying with the locals. In 597, Pope Gregory the Great sent Augustine to convert its King Æthelberht to Christianity. After the conversion, being a Roman town, was chosen by Augustine as the centre for his episcopal see in Kent, an abbey and cathedral were built. Augustine thus became the first Archbishop of Canterbury; the town's new importance led to its revival, trades developed in pottery and leather. By 630, gold coins were being struck at the Canterbury mint. In 672, the Synod of Hertford gave. In 842 and 851, Canterbury suffered great loss of life during Danish raids. In 978, Archbishop Dunstan refounded the abbey built by Augustine, named it St Augustine's Abbey; the Siege of Canterbury saw a large Viking army besiege Canterbury in 1011, culminating in the city being pillaged and the eventual murder of Archbishop Alphege in 19 April 1012. Remembering the destruction caused by the Danes, the inhabitants of Canterbury did not resist William the Conqueror's invasion in 1066.
William ordered a wooden motte-and-bailey castle to be built by the Roman city wall. In the early 12th century, the castle was rebuilt with stone. After the murder of Archbishop Thomas Becket at the cathedral in 1170, Canterbury became one of the most notable towns in Europe, as pilgrims from all parts of Christendom came to visit his shrine; this pilgrimage provided the framework for Geoffrey Chaucer's 14th-century collection of stories, The Canterbury Tales. Canterbury Castle was captured by the French Prince Louis during his 1215 invasion of England, before the death of John caused his English supporters to desert his cause and support the young Henry III. Canterbury is associated with several saints from this period who lived in Canterbury: Saint Augustine of Canterbury Saint Anselm of Canterbury Saint Thomas Becket Saint Mellitus Saint Theodore of Tarsus Saint Dunstan Saint Adrian of Canterbury Saint Alphege Saint Æthelberht of Kent The Black Death hit Canterbury in 1348. At 10,000, Canterbury had the 10th largest population in England.
In 1363, during the Hundred Years' War, a Commission of Inquiry found that disrepai
Tittleshall is a village and civil parish in the English county of Norfolk. The village and parish of Tittleshall has an area of 1376 hectares or 13.82 km2. The parish is bordered to the north with the parishes of Raynham and Colkirk, to the west with Wellingham All Saints, to the south with the parishes of Litcham and Mileham and to the east with the parishes Whissonsett; the western edge of the parish marks the border between the local government districts of Breckland, of which Tittleshall is part, the district of King's Lynn and West Norfolk. The Village is situated 12 km south-west of the town of Fakenham, 18 km north-east of the town of Swaffham, 40 km north-west of the city of Norwich. In the 2011 census had a population of 406 in 161 households. For the purposes of local government, the parish falls within the district of Breckland; the village name of Tittleshall is thought to derive from the Old English for Tyttel’s nook. The earliest evidence of human activity within the parish are a number of Neolithic pits and ditches as well as a prehistoric pit.
At least three ring ditches have been discovered, along with a double ring ditch containing cremation pits. Tillleshall has an entry in the Domesday Book of 1085 where its population, land ownership and productive resources were extensively detailed. In the survey Tittleshall is recorded by the name of Titeshala; the main tenants were Wymer from William de Warenne, Ralph Sturmy from Ralph Baynard. The survey lists that for the Wymer tenancy, there had always been 7 smallholders on this land. Meadow 6 acres, always 3 1/2 ploughs, woodland, 1 fishery. Value 20s, now 30. For Ralph Sturmy’s tenancy there were 12 villagers, now 8, and 4 smallholders, now 14. And 6 slaves, now 2. Meadow 10 acres, always 2 ploughs in lordship, and 4 men’s ploughs, now 2. Woodland, 100 pigs. 6 head of cattle. 30 pigs, now 19. 100 sheep, now 80. 40 goats, now 73. 4 beehives. 1 Freeman, acres 6 acres. Value 70s, now the same. 1 church, acres 6 acres, value 5d. The whole has 1/2 league in width, tax 5d; the parish church of Saint Mary has a nave built in the perpendicular style, illuminated with transomed windows.
There is a canonical sundial on the south wall. The chancel and west tower are in the decorated style; the chancel has a large Decorated five-light window with reticulated tracery, there is an elaborately moulded tower arch on the west tower. The church has a Kingpost roof; the church was used over many years by members of the Coke family who had bought the Tittleshall manor following the reformation, as part of their expansion of the Holkham Estate. Saint Mary’s was chosen as the final resting place for many of the Coke family during the post medieval period. There are a number of Coke family monuments at Saint Mary’s dating from 1598 up unto the building of the family mausoleum at Holkham in the 1870s. On the west wall of the nave there is an old Tittleshall School honours board which bears the names of eighteen children who passed scholarships to grammar school during the first sixty years of the twentieth century. Several of these names appear on the war memorial. Edward Coke, English jurist and Member of Parliament whose writings on the common law were the definitive legal texts for nearly 150 years William Hoste, Royal Navy captain during the Napoleonic Wars E. W. Bullinger and controversial Anglican scholar, served as parish curate in Tittleshall from 1863–1866.
Http://www.tittleshall.com Map sources for Tittleshall Information from Genuki Norfolk on Tittleshall
Christian David Ginsburg
Christian David Ginsburg was a Polish-born British Bible scholar and a student of the Masoretic tradition in Judaism. He was born to a Jewish family in Warsaw but converted to Christianity at the age of 15. Coming to England shortly after the completion of his education in the Rabbinic College at Warsaw, Ginsburg continued his study of the Hebrew Scriptures, with special attention to the Megillot; the first result was a translation of the Song of Songs, with a historical and critical commentary, published in 1857. A similar translation of Ecclesiastes, followed by treatises on the Karaites, the Essenes, the Kabbala, kept the author prominently before biblical students while he was preparing the first sections of his magnum opus, the critical study of the Masorah. Beginning in 1867 with the publication of Jacob ben Hayyim ibn Adonijah's Introduction to the Rabbinic Bible and English, with notices, the Masoret haMasoret of Elias Levita, in Hebrew, with translation and commentary, Ginsburg took rank as an eminent Hebrew scholar.
In 1870, he was appointed one of the first members of the committee for the revision of the English version of the Old Testament under contract with the Trinitarian Bible Society. His life-work culminated in the publication of the Masorah, in three volumes, followed by the Massoretico-critical edition of the Hebrew Bible, the elaborate introduction to it. Ginsburg had one predecessor in the field, the learned Jacob ben Hayyim, who, in 1524-1525, had published the second Rabbinic Bible, containing what has since been known as the Masorah, but the materials were not available and criticism was not sufficiently advanced for a complete edition. Ginsburg took up the subject where it was left off by those early pioneers, he collected portions of the Masorah from the countless manuscripts scattered throughout Europe and the East. Ginsburg published Facsimiles of Manuscripts of the Hebrew Bible, The Text of the Hebrew Bible in Abbreviations, in addition to a critical treatise On the relationship of the so-called Codex Babylonicus of A.
D. 916 to the Eastern Recension of the Hebrew Text. In the last-mentioned work, he seeks to prove that the St. Petersburg Codex, for so many years accepted as the genuine text of the Babylonian school, is in reality a Palestinian text, altered so as to render it conformable to the Babylonian recension, he subsequently undertook the preparation of a new edition of the Hebrew Bible for the British and Foreign Bible Society. He contributed many articles to John Kitto's Encyclopaedia, William Smith's Dictionary of Christian Biography and the Encyclopædia Britannica; this article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Chisholm, Hugh, ed.. "Ginsburg, Christian David". Encyclopædia Britannica. 12. Cambridge University Press. P. 29. The Massorah; the Massorah. The Massorah; the Massorah. The Massoreth Ha-Massoreth of Elias Levita, being an exposition of the Massoretic notes on the Hebrew Bible, or the ancient critical apparatus of the Old Testament in Hebrew, with an englisch translation, critical and explanatory notes, Longmans, 1867.
Works by or about Christian David Ginsburg at Internet Archive Introduction to the Massoretico-Critical Edition of the Hebrew Bible Christian David Ginsburg's biography on Messianic Judaism Wiki
Acts of the Apostles
Acts of the Apostles referred to as Acts, or formally the Book of Acts, is the fifth book of the New Testament. Acts and the Gospel of Luke make up a two-part work, Luke–Acts, by the same anonymous author dated to around 80–90 AD; the first part, the Gospel of Luke, tells how God fulfilled his plan for the world's salvation through the life and resurrection of Jesus of Nazareth, the promised Messiah. Acts continues the story of Christianity in the 1st century, beginning with Jesus's ascension to Heaven; the early chapters, set in Jerusalem, describe the Day of Pentecost and the growth of the church in Jerusalem. The Jews are receptive to the Christian message, but soon they turn against the followers of Jesus. Rejected by the Jews, under the guidance of the Apostle Peter the message is taken to the Gentiles; the chapters tell of Paul's conversion, his mission in Asia Minor and the Aegean, his imprisonment in Rome, where, as the book ends, he awaits trial. Luke–Acts is an attempt to answer a theological problem, namely how the Messiah of the Jews came to have an overwhelmingly non-Jewish church.
Luke–Acts can be seen as a defense of the Jesus movement addressed to the Jews: the bulk of the speeches and sermons in Acts are addressed to Jewish audiences, with the Romans serving as external arbiters on disputes concerning Jewish customs and law. On the one hand, Luke portrays the Christians as a sect of the Jews, therefore entitled to legal protection as a recognised religion; the title "Acts of the Apostles" was first used by Irenaeus in the late 2nd century. It is not known whether this was one invented by Irenaeus; the Gospel of Luke and Acts make up a two-volume work. Together they account for 27.5% of the New Testament, the largest contribution attributed to a single author, providing the framework for both the Church's liturgical calendar and the historical outline into which generations have fitted their idea of the story of Jesus and the early church. The author is not named in either volume. According to Church tradition dating from the 2nd century, he was the "Luke" named as a companion of the apostle Paul in three of the letters attributed to Paul himself.
The author "does not share Paul's own view of himself as an apostle. He was educated, a man of means urban, someone who respected manual work, although not a worker himself. While no proposed date for the composition of Acts is universally accepted, the most common scholarly position is to date Luke–Acts to 80-90 AD, on the grounds that it uses Mark as a source, looks back on the destruction of Jerusalem, does not show any awareness of the letters of Paul; the earliest possible date for the composition of Acts is set by the events with which it ends, Paul's imprisonment in Rome c. 63 AD, but such an early dating is a minority position. The last possible date would be set by its first definite citation by another author, but there is no unanimity on this. A minority of scholars in the latter camp, conclude that Acts dates to the 2nd century, believing that it shows awareness of the letters of Paul, the works of Josephus, or the writings of Marcion. There are two major textual variants of the Western text-type and the Alexandrian.
The oldest complete Alexandrian manuscripts date from the 4th century and the oldest Western ones from the 6th, with fragments and citations going back to the 3rd. Western texts of Acts are 6.2–8.4% longer than Alexandrian texts, the additions tending to enhance the Jewish rejection of the Messiah and the role of the Holy Spirit, in ways that are stylistically different from the rest of Acts. The majority of scholars prefer the Alexandrian text-type over the Western as the more authentic, but this same argument would favour the Western over the Alexandrian for the Gospel of Luke, as in that case the Western version is the shorter; the title "Acts of the Apostles" would seem to identify it with the genre telling of the deeds and achievements of great men, but it was not the title given by the author. The anonymous author aligned Luke–Acts to the "narratives" (διήγησ
Heinrich Bullinger was a Swiss reformer, the successor of Huldrych Zwingli as head of the Zürich church and pastor at Grossmünster. A much less controversial figure than John Calvin or Martin Luther, his importance has long been underestimated. Heinrich Bullinger was born to Heinrich Bullinger senior, dean of the capitular church, Anna Wiederkehr, at Bremgarten, Aargau; the bishop of Constance, who had clerical oversight over Aargau, had unofficially sanctioned clerical concubinage, having waived all penalties against the offense in exchange for an annual fee. As such and Anna were able to live as virtual husband and wife, young Heinrich was the fifth son born to the couple. At 12 years of age, Bullinger was sent to the distant but celebrated gymnasium of Emmerich in the Duchy of Cleves. In 1519, at the age of 15, his parents, intending him to follow his father into the clergy, sent him to the University of Cologne, just as Luther's protests against the sale of indulgences was becoming known.
In 1520–21 Bullinger felt that he needed to decide the issues for himself and, having been exposed to Luther's works, began his own reading of Peter Lombard's Sentences and the Decretum of Gratian. This led him to recognize that both relied on the authority of the Church Fathers, which in turn led him to read them, including Chrysostom's and Jerome's commentaries and Melanchthon's'Loci communes'. From this reading Bullinger came to conclusion that Lutheran teaching was more faithful to the Church Fathers and the Bible than medieval authors. In 1522, now a convinced "Martinian", Bullinger ceased receiving the Eucharist giving up his previous intention of entering the Carthusian order and earned his Master of art degree. In 1523, he accepted a post as head of the cloister school at Kappel, though only after negotiating special conditions that meant he didn't need to take monastic vows or attend mass. At the school, Bullinger initiated a systematic program of Bible reading and exegesis for the monks there.
He heard Jud preach several times during Reformation in Zürich. During this period, under the influence of the Waldensians, Bullinger moved to a more symbolic understanding of the Eucharist, he contacted Zwingli with his thoughts in September 1524. In 1527, he spent five months in Zürich studying ancient languages and attending the Prophezei that Zwingli had set up there. While there, he impressed the Zürich authorities and they sent him with their delegation to the Bern Disputation - there he met Bucer and Haller for the first time. In 1528, at the urging of the Zürich Synod, he left the Kappel cloister to become a regular parish minister. In 1529 Bullinger's father announced that he had been preaching false doctrines for years and now renounced them in favour of Protestant doctrines; as a result, his congregation at Bremgarten decided to remove him as their priest. Several candidates were invited to preach sermons as potential replacements, including the young Bullinger, his sermon was so powerful that it led to an immediate burst of iconoclasm in the church, the congregation spontaneously stripped the images from their church and burned them.
In the same year, he married a former nun. His marriage was regarded as a shining example, his house was continually filled with fugitives and people searching for advice or help. Bullinger was a caring father of his eleven children who liked to play with them and wrote verses to them for Christmas. All of his sons became Protestant ministers themselves. After the defeat at Battle of Kappel, where Zwingli fell, the Aargau region was forced to return to Catholicism. Bullinger and two other ministers were expelled to the protest of the inhabitants. Having gained a reputation as a leading Protestant preacher, Bullinger received offers to take up the position of pastor from Zürich, Basel and Appenzell. During his negotiations with the civic leaders of Zürich, Bullinger refused to accept their terms - they had offered him the position with the condition that he should not criticise government policy. Bullinger insisted on his right to expound the Bible if it contradicted the position of the civic authorities.
In a compromise, they agreed that Bullinger had the right to criticize the government in writing. Bullinger took up the post of minister of Zürich. Bullinger arrived with his wife and two little children in Zürich, where he on the Sunday after his arrival stood in Zwingli's pulpit in the Grossmünster and, according to a contemporary description, "thundered a sermon from the pulpit that many thought Zwingli was not dead but resurrected like the phoenix". In December of the same year, he was, at the age of 27, elected to be the successor of Zwingli as antistes of the Zürich church, he accepted the election only after the council had assured him explicitly that he was in his preaching "free and without restriction" if it necessitated critique of the government. He kept his office up to his death in 1575. Bullinger established himself as a staunch defender of the ecclesiological system developed by Zwingli. In 1532, when Jud proposed making ecclesiastical discipline separate from the secular power, Bullinger argues that the need for a separate set of church courts ended when the magistrate became Christian, that in a place with a Christian magistr
Church of England
The Church of England is the established church of England. The Archbishop of Canterbury is the most senior cleric, although the monarch is the supreme governor; the Church of England is the mother church of the international Anglican Communion. It traces its history to the Christian church recorded as existing in the Roman province of Britain by the third century, to the 6th-century Gregorian mission to Kent led by Augustine of Canterbury; the English church renounced papal authority when Henry VIII failed to secure an annulment of his marriage to Catherine of Aragon in 1534. The English Reformation accelerated under Edward VI's regents, before a brief restoration of papal authority under Queen Mary I and King Philip; the Act of Supremacy 1558 renewed the breach, the Elizabethan Settlement charted a course enabling the English church to describe itself as both catholic and reformed: catholic in that it views itself as a part of the universal church of Jesus Christ in unbroken continuity with the early apostolic church.
This is expressed in its emphasis on the teachings of the early Church Fathers, as formalised in the Apostles', Athanasian creeds. Reformed in that it has been shaped by some of the doctrinal principles of the 16th-century Protestant Reformation, in particular in the Thirty-Nine Articles of Religion and the Book of Common Prayer. In the earlier phase of the English Reformation there were both Catholic martyrs and radical Protestant martyrs; the phases saw the Penal Laws punish Roman Catholic and nonconforming Protestants. In the 17th century, the Puritan and Presbyterian factions continued to challenge the leadership of the Church which under the Stuarts veered towards a more catholic interpretation of the Elizabethan Settlement under Archbishop Laud and the rise of the concept of Anglicanism as the via media. After the victory of the Parliamentarians the Prayer Book was abolished and the Presbyterian and Independent factions dominated; the Episcopacy was abolished. The Restoration restored the Church of England and the Prayer Book.
Papal recognition of George III in 1766 led to greater religious tolerance. Since the English Reformation, the Church of England has used a liturgy in English; the church contains several doctrinal strands, the main three known as Anglo-Catholic and Broad Church. Tensions between theological conservatives and progressives find expression in debates over the ordination of women and homosexuality; the church includes both liberal and conservative members. The governing structure of the church is based on dioceses, each presided over by a bishop. Within each diocese are local parishes; the General Synod of the Church of England is the legislative body for the church and comprises bishops, other clergy and laity. Its measures must be approved by both Houses of Parliament. According to tradition, Christianity arrived in Britain in the 1st or 2nd century, during which time southern Britain became part of the Roman Empire; the earliest historical evidence of Christianity among the native Britons is found in the writings of such early Christian Fathers as Tertullian and Origen in the first years of the 3rd century.
Three Romano-British bishops, including Restitutus, are known to have been present at the Council of Arles in 314. Others attended the Council of Serdica in 347 and that of Ariminum in 360, a number of references to the church in Roman Britain are found in the writings of 4th century Christian fathers. Britain was the home of Pelagius. While Christianity was long established as the religion of the Britons at the time of the Anglo-Saxon invasion, Christian Britons made little progress in converting the newcomers from their native paganism. In 597, Pope Gregory I sent the prior of the Abbey of St Andrew's from Rome to evangelise the Angles; this event is known as the Gregorian mission and is the date the Church of England marks as the beginning of its formal history. With the help of Christians residing in Kent, Augustine established his church at Canterbury, the capital of the Kingdom of Kent, became the first in the series of Archbishops of Canterbury in 598. A archbishop, the Greek Theodore of Tarsus contributed to the organisation of Christianity in England.
The Church of England has been in continuous existence since the days of St Augustine, with the Archbishop of Canterbury as its episcopal head. Despite the various disruptions of the Reformation and the English Civil War, the Church of England considers itself to be the same church, more formally organised by Augustine. While some Celtic Christian practices were changed at the Synod of Whitby, the Christian in the British Isles was under papal authority from earliest times. Queen Bertha of Kent was among the Christians in England who recognised papal authority before Augustine arrived, Celtic Christians were carrying out missionary work with papal approval long before the Synod of Whitby; the Synod of Whitby established the Roman date for Easter and the Roman style of monastic tonsure in England. This meeting of the ecclesiastics with Roman customs with local bishops was summoned in 664 at Saint Hilda's double monastery of Streonshalh called Whitby Abbey, it was presided over by King Oswiu, who made the final ruling.
The final ruling was decided in favor of Roman tradition because St. Peter holds the keys to the gate of Heaven. In 1534, King Henry VIII separated the English Church from Rome. A theological separation had been foreshadowed by various movements within the English Church, such as Lollardy, but the English Reformation gained political support when Henry VIII wanted an a
London is the capital and largest city of both England and the United Kingdom. Standing on the River Thames in the south-east of England, at the head of its 50-mile estuary leading to the North Sea, London has been a major settlement for two millennia. Londinium was founded by the Romans; the City of London, London's ancient core − an area of just 1.12 square miles and colloquially known as the Square Mile − retains boundaries that follow its medieval limits. The City of Westminster is an Inner London borough holding city status. Greater London is governed by the Mayor of the London Assembly. London is considered to be one of the world's most important global cities and has been termed the world's most powerful, most desirable, most influential, most visited, most expensive, sustainable, most investment friendly, most popular for work, the most vegetarian friendly city in the world. London exerts a considerable impact upon the arts, education, fashion, healthcare, professional services and development, tourism and transportation.
London ranks 26 out of 300 major cities for economic performance. It is one of the largest financial centres and has either the fifth or sixth largest metropolitan area GDP, it is the most-visited city as measured by international arrivals and has the busiest city airport system as measured by passenger traffic. It is the leading investment destination, hosting more international retailers and ultra high-net-worth individuals than any other city. London's universities form the largest concentration of higher education institutes in Europe. In 2012, London became the first city to have hosted three modern Summer Olympic Games. London has a diverse range of people and cultures, more than 300 languages are spoken in the region, its estimated mid-2016 municipal population was 8,787,892, the most populous of any city in the European Union and accounting for 13.4% of the UK population. London's urban area is the second most populous in the EU, after Paris, with 9,787,426 inhabitants at the 2011 census.
The population within the London commuter belt is the most populous in the EU with 14,040,163 inhabitants in 2016. London was the world's most populous city from c. 1831 to 1925. London contains four World Heritage Sites: the Tower of London. Other landmarks include Buckingham Palace, the London Eye, Piccadilly Circus, St Paul's Cathedral, Tower Bridge, Trafalgar Square and The Shard. London has numerous museums, galleries and sporting events; these include the British Museum, National Gallery, Natural History Museum, Tate Modern, British Library and West End theatres. The London Underground is the oldest underground railway network in the world. "London" is an ancient name, attested in the first century AD in the Latinised form Londinium. Over the years, the name has attracted many mythicising explanations; the earliest attested appears in Geoffrey of Monmouth's Historia Regum Britanniae, written around 1136. This had it that the name originated from a supposed King Lud, who had taken over the city and named it Kaerlud.
Modern scientific analyses of the name must account for the origins of the different forms found in early sources Latin, Old English, Welsh, with reference to the known developments over time of sounds in those different languages. It is agreed; this was adapted into Latin as Londinium and borrowed into Old English, the ancestor-language of English. The toponymy of the Common Brythonic form is much debated. A prominent explanation was Richard Coates's 1998 argument that the name derived from pre-Celtic Old European *lowonida, meaning "river too wide to ford". Coates suggested that this was a name given to the part of the River Thames which flows through London. However, most work has accepted a Celtic origin for the name, recent studies have favoured an explanation along the lines of a Celtic derivative of a proto-Indo-European root *lendh-, combined with the Celtic suffix *-injo- or *-onjo-. Peter Schrijver has suggested, on these grounds, that the name meant'place that floods'; until 1889, the name "London" applied to the City of London, but since it has referred to the County of London and Greater London.
"London" is sometimes written informally as "LDN". In 1993, the remains of a Bronze Age bridge were found on the south foreshore, upstream of Vauxhall Bridge; this bridge either reached a now lost island in it. Two of those timbers were radiocarbon dated to between 1750 BC and 1285 BC. In 2010 the foundations of a large timber structure, dated to between 4800 BC and 4500 BC, were found on the Thames's south foreshore, downstream of Vauxhall Bridge; the function of the mesolithic structure is not known. Both structures are on the south bank. Although there is evidence of scattered Brythonic settlements in the area, the first major settlement was founded by the Romans about four years after the invasion