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EBCDIC

Extended Binary Coded Decimal Interchange Code is an eight-bit character encoding used on IBM mainframe and IBM midrange computer operating systems. It descended from the code used with punched cards and the corresponding six-bit binary-coded decimal code used with most of IBM's computer peripherals of the late 1950s and early 1960s, it is supported by various non-IBM platforms, such as Fujitsu-Siemens' BS2000/OSD, OS-IV, MSP, MSP-EX, the SDS Sigma series, Unisys VS/9, Burroughs MCP and ICL VME. EBCDIC was devised in 1963 and 1964 by IBM and was announced with the release of the IBM System/360 line of mainframe computers, it is an eight-bit character encoding, developed separately from the seven-bit ASCII encoding scheme. It was created to extend the existing Binary-Coded Decimal Interchange Code, or BCDIC, which itself was devised as an efficient means of encoding the two zone and number punches on punched cards into six bits; the distinct encoding of's' and'S' was maintained from punched cards where it was desirable not to have hole punches too close to each other to ensure the integrity of the physical card.

While IBM was a chief proponent of the ASCII standardization committee, the company did not have time to prepare ASCII peripherals to ship with its System/360 computers, so the company settled on EBCDIC. The System/360 became wildly successful, together with clones such as RCA Spectra 70, ICL System 4, Fujitsu FACOM, thus so did EBCDIC. All IBM mainframe and midrange peripherals and operating systems use EBCDIC as their inherent encoding. Software and many hardware peripherals can translate to and from encodings, modern mainframes include processor instructions, at the hardware level, to accelerate translation between character sets. There is an EBCDIC-oriented Unicode Transformation Format called UTF-EBCDIC proposed by the Unicode consortium, designed to allow easy updating of EBCDIC software to handle Unicode, but not intended to be used in open interchange environments. On systems with extensive EBCDIC support, it has not been popular. For example, z/OS supports Unicode, but z/OS only has limited support for UTF-EBCDIC.

IBM AIX running on the RS/6000 and its descendants including the IBM Power Systems, Linux running on IBM Z, operating systems running on the IBM PC and its descendants use ASCII, as did AIX/370 and AIX/390 running on System/370 and System/390 mainframes. The fact that all the code points were different was less of a problem for inter-operating with ASCII than the fact that sorting EBCDIC put lowercase letters before uppercase letters and letters before numbers the opposite of ASCII. Programming languages and file formats and network protocols designed for ASCII made use of available punctuation marks that did not exist in EBCDIC, making translation to EBCDIC ambiguous; the gaps between letters made simple code that worked in ASCII fail on EBCDIC. For example, "for" would set c to the 26 letters in the ASCII alphabet, but 41 characters including a number of unassigned ones in EBCDIC. Fixing this required complicating the code with function calls, resisted by programmers. By using all eight bits EBCDIC may have encouraged the use of the eight-bit byte by IBM, while ASCII was more to be adopted by systems with 36 bits.

As eight-bit bytes became widespread, ASCII systems sometimes used the "unused" bit for other purposes, such as metacharacters to mark the borders of records or words. This made it difficult to change the code to work with EBCDIC. On the PDP-11 bytes with the high bit set were treated as negative numbers, behavior, copied to C, causing unexpected problems with EBCDIC. Both of these problems hindered the adoption of extended ASCII character sets; the table below shows the "invariant subset" of EBCDIC, which are characters that should have the same assignments on all EBCDIC code pages. It shows missing ASCII and EBCDIC punctuation, located where they are in CCSID 037. Unassigned codes are filled with international or region-specific characters in the various EBCDIC code page variants, but the characters in gray are moved around or swapped as well. In each table cell below, the first row is an abbreviation for a control code or the character itself. Following are the definitions of EBCDIC control characters which either don't map onto the ASCII control characters, or have additional uses.

When mapped to Unicode, these are mapped to C1 control character codepoints in a manner specified by IBM's Character Data Representation Architecture. Although the default mapping of New Line corresponds to the ISO/IEC 6429 Next Line character, most of these C1-mapped controls match neither those in the ISO/IEC 6429 C1 set, nor those in other registered C1 control sets such as ISO 6630. Although this makes the non-ASCII EBCDIC controls a unique C1 control set, they are not among the C1 control sets registered in the ISO-IR registry, meaning that they do not have an assigned control set designation sequence. Besides U+

Steindöbra

Steindöbra is a river of Saxony, Germany. Above from its junction with Steinbach, it takes the name of Mühlbach, it is a right tributary of the Brunndöbra. Its spring is located 850m above sea level near the top of Mühlleiten pass in the western Ore Mountains, it flows south, traversing a district of Klingenthal. After three kilometers, it unites with Brunndöbra and hence continues as Döbra, which in turn unites with the Zwota, its waters thus flowing via Ohře and Elbe into the North Sea. Before flowing into Brunndöbra, a large portion of its course runs side by side with the track of the former meter-gauge light rail. List of rivers of Saxony

Chicago Aurora and Elgin Railroad

The Chicago Aurora and Elgin Railroad, known colloquially as the "Roarin' Elgin" or the "Great Third Rail", was an interurban railroad that operated passenger and freight service on its line between Chicago and Aurora, Geneva, St. Charles, Elgin, Illinois; the railroad operated a small branch to Mt. Carmel Cemetery in Hillside and owned a branch line to Westchester. Wounded by the increased use of automobiles after World War II, the CA&E abruptly ended passenger service in 1957. Freight service was suspended in 1959, the railroad was abandoned in 1961. Most of the right-of-way has since been converted to the Illinois Prairie Path rail trail; the first known attempt to create an electric railway between the metropolis of Chicago and the Fox Valley settlement of Aurora was in late 1891. By this time, passengers in Aurora and Elgin were served by steam engines. Elgin was served by the Milwaukee Road. Geneva and West Chicago served by the North Western Railway. St. Charles served by The Great Western.

And, Aurora was served by the Chicago and Quincy. However, it was thought that an electric line would facilitate interurban travel, as there would be no freight trains to slow passenger trains. A group of investors founded the Aurora Interurban Railway with a $1 million investment. However, the railroad was unable to secure additional funds. A second attempt came two years with the Chicago, Elgin & Aurora Electric Railway. Plans called for the railroad to run through Turner and Glen Ellyn. Like its predecessor, the railroad failed to acquire the necessary funds for construction, yet another group incorporated the DuPage Interurban Electric Railway in 1897, but was met with a similar fate. Small electric lines opened in the 1890s. A profitable streetcar railway stretched from Aurora north to Carpentersville; the success of this railway inspired investors to again attempt an electric connection to Chicago. A group led by F. Mahler, E. W. Moore, Henry A. Everett, Edward Dickinson, Elmer Barrett formed independent railway lines that were projected to stretch from Aurora and Elgin to Chicago.

These two companies were incorporated on February 24, 1899. The Everett-Moore group was Ohio's largest interurban railroad company and had experience administrating several lines around Cleveland, most notably the Lake Shore Electric Railway; these two companies, the Aurora, Wheaton & Chicago Railway and Elgin & Chicago Railway, were incorporated on February 24, 1899. Only one day after their founding, a second group of Cleveland-based investors, led by the Pomeroy-Mandelbaum group, incorporated the Aurora, Wheaton, & Chicago Railroad Company. Pomeroy-Mandelbaum was the second largest interurban railway company in Ohio and intended to compete against the Everett-Moore group. A meeting between the Everett-Moore syndicate and Pomeroy-Mandelbaum group occurred in either 1900 or 1901 to discuss the future of the two companies, they came to an agreement: Everett-Moore would build and maintain the railways connecting Aurora to Chicago while the Pomeroy-Mandelbaum group would control railways linking cities in the Fox River Valley.

A third railway, the Batavia & Eastern Railway Company, was incorporated by the Everett-Moore group in 1901 to link the town of Batavia to the Aurora line. On March 12, 1901, all of the incorporated Everett-Moore companies were merged into one, renamed the Aurora, Elgin & Chicago Railway Company. Three million dollars' worth of bonds were issued in 1901 to support track construction. Construction commenced on September 1900, when the AE&C started to grade its right-of-way; the AE&C received permission to cross existing track lines in February 1902, alleviating one of the largest obstacles in the railway's construction. Construction escalated following the winter months; that month, the railway connected to the Metropolitan West Side Elevated Railroad at 52nd Avenue in Chicago. The company operated steam locomotives on completed portions to deliver construction goods to where they were needed. Wheaton was selected as the site of the railroad's headquarters, car barn, machine shop. $1.5 million in preferred stock was issued in April 1902 to cover unexpected costs.

AE&C purchased a 28-acre lot south of Batavia and constructed a power station to provide electricity. Commercial electric power was not yet available at the time, so the railroad needed to provide its own power for the third rail. Steam boilers were fed with coal provided by the Burlington & Quincy Railroad. On April 11, 1902, they signed a contract with General Electric to provide electrical generators and converters for the powerhouse; the line completed a network of utility poles through the right-of-way, allowing communication and power exchange between electrical substations along the track in Aurora and Lombard. A fifth station was built southeast of Wayne for the Elgin branch; the substations converted the alternating current in the power lines to a lower-voltage direct current for use in the third rail. After its completion, the power station provided power for at least three small trolley lines and several Fox Valley communities; the Cleveland Construction Company was hired to build the line.

All three rails were traditional "T" design rails laid on stone ballast. Wooden railroad ties were separated at standard gauge; every fifth tie was 9 f