Economic Cooperation Administration
The Economic Cooperation Administration was a U. S. government agency set up in 1948 to administer the Marshall Plan. It reported to both the Department of Commerce; the agency's first head was a former leader of car manufacturer Studebaker. The rest of the organization was headed by major business figures such as Arthur A. Kimball as well as David K. E. Bruce; the ECA had an office in the capital of each of the 16 countries participating in the Marshall Plan. In theory the ECA served as joint administrator of the Marshall Plan development projects in each European country. In practice, local officials knew far more about what was needed than ECA representatives, who developed a management strategy of listening to local officials and allowed them to set priorities for reconstruction assistance, it was succeeded by the Mutual Security Agency in 1951, one of the predecessor to the United States Agency for International Development. Records of U. S. Foreign Assistance Agencies in the National Archives Documents authored or sponsored by ECA available from the USAID Development Experience Clearinghouse Albert H. Huntington Jr. Collection of Documents Related to Foreign Aid, Dwight D. Eisenhower Presidential Library
United Nations Economic Commission for Africa
The United Nations Economic Commission for Africa was established in 1958 by the United Nations Economic and Social Council to encourage economic cooperation among its member states following a recommendation of the United Nations General Assembly. It is one of five regional commissions; the ECA has 54 member states corresponding to the 54 member states of the United Nations that lie within the continent of Africa or in oceans nearby the continent. The Commission's work is structured into seven programme divisions: African Centre for Statistics Macroeconomic Policy Social development Policy Innovation and Technology Regional integration and Trade Capacity Development Addis Ababa, Ethiopia Yaoundé, Cameroon Kigali, Rwanda Rabat, Morocco Lusaka, Zambia Niamey, Niger United Nations System United Nations Economic and Social Commission for Western Asia overlapping membership Official website
Evangelical Christian Academy (Madrid, Spain)
The Evangelical Christian Academy is a Christian school in Madrid, Spain, established to meet the educational needs of missionary children. ECA distinguishes itself among other private Christian schools by recruiting volunteer teachers in order to offset the cost of tuition for missionary children. ECA serves 100 students in grades Kindergarten through 12th grade. Students graduating from this school have gone on to study at institutions such as Oxford, Moody Bible Institute, Georgia Tech, Bob Jones University, Covenant College. Since 2002, the school has been located in the village of Camarma de Esteruelas, 20 miles outside of Madrid, Spain; the school first opened in 1973. ECA is supported by a group of mission agencies, each of which are represented on a Board of Trustees; the following mission agencies appear on the Board of Trustees: ABWE – Association of Baptists for Worldwide Evangelization Assemblies of God FWB - Free Will Baptist Global Outreach IMB - International Mission Board of the Southern Baptists MTW – Mission to The World One Mission Society Resourcing Christian Education SEND International TEAM – The Evangelical Alliance Mission WorldTeam World Venture Several mission agencies, such as CAM International, One Mission Society, SEND International recruit missionaries to teach at the school.
These mission agencies help ECA meet its need for teachers. ECA distinguishes itself from other private schools by its means of operation; each teacher raises his or her own financial support before teaching at ECA. The money saved by employing missionary teachers is used to reduce the cost of tuition for missionary children; the fact that ECA's tuition differs for missionary children and non-missionary children highlights the fact that the school was designed to serve missionary children in Spain. ECA is accredited with the Association of Christian Schools International. Official website
School of Communications and Arts, University of São Paulo
The School of Communications and Arts at the University of São Paulo is an institution of higher education and research in the field of Arts and Communication located in São Paulo, Brazil. It was established in 1966 as School of Cultural Communication. University of São Paulo's undergraduate courses are spread over 36 Schools, each school with its own departments. Students that choose majors in communication and arts will have the great majority of classes in the School of Communications and Arts - although they may take subjects in different schools. ECA offers majors in all the following areas: Dramatic Arts Plastic Arts Audiovisual Arts Library Sciences Editorial Business Journalism Music Marketing and Publicity Public Relations TourismIn total, University of São Paulo School of Communications and Arts has 22 undergraduate courses, from which 15 are devoted to Arts: Scenic Design, Theater Direction, Theater Acting, Theory of Theater, Engraving, Inter-media, Painting and Lyrical Art, Musical composition, Musical Instruments and graduation in Art Education, Acting Performances, Fine Arts and Music.
Furthermore, ECA operates the School of Drama, a traditional school of theater known for its "Actor Performance" course. Department of Acting Performances – CAC Department of Fine Arts – CAP Department of Librarianship and Documentation – CBD Department of Communication and Arts – CCA Department of Journalism and Publishing – CJE Department of Music – CMU Department of Public Relations and Propaganda and Tourism – CRP Department of Cinema and Television – CTR School of Drama – EAD ECA is the best school of communications in Brazil and the only Brazilian school of communication with international reputation; the school is ranked in the 46th position worldwide for the communication subject according to QS University Rankings - information from the 2014 ranking. CALC is the Student Union responsible for representing the school's students in the university system. Organization responsible for providing training in a variety of sports for ECA students, it was created in 1971 within the Student Union but in 1990 it became an independent organization.
ECA Junior is an Advertising company ran by students of the Department of Public Relations, Advertising and Tourism. It was created in the 1990s by students in the major of Social Communication Advertising and Publicity; the organization is supported by major Brazilian companies like Petrobras and it aims at providing advertising services to small companies unable to afford the high cost of traditional advertising
European Communities Act 1972 (UK)
The European Communities Act 1972 known as the ECA 1972 is an Act of the Parliament of the United Kingdom which made legal provision for the accession of the United Kingdom to the three European Communities, namely the EEC, the Coal and Steel Community. The Treaty of Accession was signed by the Conservative Prime Minister Edward Heath and the President of the European Commission Franco Maria Malfatti in Brussels on 22 January 1972; the Act provided for the incorporation into UK law of the whole of European Community law and its "acquis communautaire": its Treaties and Directives, together with judgments of the European Court of Justice. By the Act, Community Law became binding on all legislation passed by the UK Parliament. Arguably the most significant statute to be passed by the Heath government of 1970-74, the Act is one of the most significant UK constitutional statutes passed; the act has been amended from its original form, incorporating the changes wrought by the Single European Act, the Maastricht Treaty, the Amsterdam Treaty, the Nice Treaty, the Treaty of Lisbon.
On 13 July 2017, the Brexit Secretary, David Davis, introduced what became the European Union Act to Parliament which makes provision for repealing the 1972 Act on "exit day", when enacted defined as 29 March 2019 at 11 p.m. but postponed by EU decision to either 22 May 2019 or 12 April 2019. When the European Communities came into being in 1958, the UK chose to remain aloof and instead join the alternative bloc, EFTA; the British government regretted its decision, in 1961, along with Denmark and Norway, the UK applied to join the three Communities. However, President Charles de Gaulle saw British membership as a Trojan horse for US influence, vetoed it; the four countries resubmitted their applications in 1967, the French veto was lifted upon Georges Pompidou succeeding de Gaulle in 1969. In 1970, accession negotiations took place between the UK Government, led by Conservative Prime Minister Edward Heath, the European Communities and various European leaders. Despite disagreements over the CAP and the UK's relationship with the Commonwealth, terms were agreed.
In October 1971, after a lengthy Commons debate, MPs voted 356-244 in favour of joining the EEC. For the Treaty to take effect upon entry into the Communities on 1 January 1973, for the UK to embrace the EEC Institutions and Community law, an Act of Parliament was required. Only three days after the signing of the Treaty, a European Communities Bill of just 12 clauses was presented to the House of Commons by Geoffrey Rippon; the European Communities Act came into being, Edward Heath signed the Treaty of Accession in Brussels on 22 January 1972. Denmark and Ireland joined the Community on the same day, 1 January 1973, as the UK; the European Communities Bill was introduced the House of Commons for its first reading by Geoffrey Rippon, Chancellor of the Duchy of Lancaster on 26 January 1972. On 17 February 1972, the House of Commons voted narrowly by 309-301 in favour of the Bill at its second reading, after three days of intense debate. Just before the vote the Prime Minister Edward Heath argued his case in the debate with the following words.
The Bill passed on to Committee Stage before its third reading. During this discussion in the House of Commons, MPs pointed out that the Government had structured the European Communities Bill so that Parliament could debate the technical issues about how the treaty enactment would occur but could not debate the treaty of accession itself and decried this sacrifice of Parliament's sovereignty to the Government's desire to join the European project. On 13 July 1972, the House of Commons voted 301-284 in favour of the Bill in its third and final reading before passing on to the House of Lords. Before the vote took place, Geoffrey Rippon argued in the House of Commons before the vote: The Bill passed to the House of Lords; the Act received Royal Assent on 17 October, the UK's instrument of ratification of the Treaty of Accession was deposited the next day with the Italian government as required by the Treaty. Since the Treaty specified its effective date as 1 January 1973 and the Act specified only "entry date" for its actions, the Act and the Treaty took effect 1 January 1973, when the United Kingdom became a member state of the European Communities along with Denmark and the Republic of Ireland.
The European Communities Act was the instrument whereby the UK Parliament effected the changes required by the Treaty of Accession by which the UK joined the European Union. Section 2 says "the Treaties are without further enactment to be given legal effect" in the UK, it enables, under section 2, UK government ministers to make regulations to transpose EU Directives and rulings of the European Court of Justice into UK law. The Treaty itself says the member states will conform themselves to the European Communities existing and future decisions; the Act and the Treaty of Accession have been interpreted by UK courts
Escuela Campo Alegre
Escuela Campo Alegre is a K-12 American International school located in Caracas, Venezuela. It was founded in 1937 in the neighborhood of Campo Alegre, but the school grew in such a way that it had to be moved to its present location in Las Mercedes; the school provides courses from the nursery level up through 12th grade. Escuela Campo Alegre is an international private school for expatriate and Venezuelan children located in Caracas, Venezuela in the district known as Las Mercedes. ECA has been open for over 70 years and every year receives students from all over the world; the overall student body is composed of students from over 30 different languages. On a yearly basis an average of 300 to 400 students are enrolled between the nursery age and the 12th grade. Out of all the students that are at ECA ten percent of them are US expatriates in Venezuela. ECA teaches students that are in different grade levels by having different “sections” for each different portion of school; the high school portion is located in the main building, the middle school portion is located on the outside part of ECA over the cafeteria and next to the tennis courts, the elementary school section is located next to the soccer stadium on the east side of the school, the preschool and kindergarten section of the school is located next door to the elementary section.
The school campus includes a brand new three-story building opened in Summer 2012. The building includes a new early childhood center, multi-purpose rooms, three-floor fitness room, three new gymnasiums, other PE facilities. On top of the building is a new astroturf field, which opened August 2011; the field measures. On campus are three tennis courts, two indoor basketball courts and one covered basketball court, all of which can be used for volleyball, wall climbing and other sports. Equipped modern Library and Media Center, Technology Centers for each division, separate art and music centers for each division, A 4-story parking lot, 690-seat professional theatre, recording movie studio, wireless connection throughout the school, science laboratories for each division, modern cafeteria for the elementary school, middle school, high school, faculty and staff; the school has a pool with a large viewing gallery. Grade School Sections: The High School portion of ECA is made up of about 90 students in grades 9-12 and 20 faculty members that are in charge of the high school at ECA.
The High School at ECA offers classes that would be offered here like classes for students wishing to pursue AP or IB classes. Classes are distinguished by the color of their shirts so when in high school at ECA students that are between the grades 9 and 12 must wear a beige shirt as uniform. Sports include soccer basketball; as for after high school education students most students reach higher education by moving to The United States to go to college. The Middle School portion of ECA is made up of about 60 students between the grades 6 and 8 who because of the student distinction and uniform code must wear blue shirts to show they are in middle school; the Middle School portion of ECA is located just over one of the cafeterias located at ECA and is the portion of the school with the most outdoor classrooms. The ECA Middle School is a place where students work daily with real-life issues. Our 8th grade experiences the wonderful city of Washington, D. C." The Elementary portion of ECA is located next to the soccer stadium and is made up of about 110 students between the grades of 1 and 5.
The students in the elementary school must wear white shirts as their uniform and to be able to be distinguished as an elementary schooler. Apart from the normal elementary curriculum, which includes basic math and English classes, the elementary students are able to take part in after school activities. There are many other activities that highlight student success such as student-led conferences and spring musical productions and much more. ECA Home Page