Electronic toll collection
Electronic toll collection aims to eliminate the delay on toll roads, HOV lanes, toll bridges, toll tunnels by collecting tolls without cash and without requiring cars to stop. Electronic toll booths may operate alongside cash lanes so that drivers who do not have transponders can pay a cashier or throw coins into a receptacle. With cashless tolling, cars without transponders are either excluded or pay by plate – a bill may be mailed to the address where the car's license plate number is registered, or drivers may have a certain amount of time to pay with a credit card by phone. Open road tolling is a popular form of cashless tolling without toll booths. Transponders are used to facilitate micropayments from drivers who have signed up in advance and loaded money into a declining-balance account, debited each time they pass a toll point. License plate readers and sensors can be used to detect cars which are evading tolls or which are wanted by law enforcement for other reasons. Electronic tolling is cheaper than a staffed booth, reducing transaction costs for government agencies or private road owners recouping construction or maintenance costs or deriving revenue from a toll road.
The ease of varying the amount of the toll and the ability to charge drivers without building a toll booth makes it easy to implement road congestion pricing, including for high-occupancy lanes, toll lanes that bypass congestion, city-wide congestion charges. In 1959, Nobel Economics Prize winner William Vickrey was the first to propose a system of electronic tolling for the Washington Metropolitan Area, he proposed that each car would be equipped with a transponder: "The transponder's personalised signal would be picked up when the car passed through an intersection, relayed to a central computer which would calculate the charge according to the intersection and the time of day and add it to the car’s bill." In the 1960s and the 1970s, free flow tolling was tested with fixed transponders at the undersides of the vehicles and readers, which were located under the surface of the highway. Modern toll transponders are mounted under the windshield, with readers located in overhead gantries. Italy has been the first Country in the World to deploy a full ETC in Motorways at National scale in 1989.
Telepass, the Brand name of the ETC belonging to Autostrade S.p. A. now Autostrade per l'Italia, was designed by Dr. Eng Pierluigi Ceseri and Dr. Eng. Mario Alvisi and included a full operational real time Classification of Vehicles and Enforcement via cameras interconnected with the PRA via a network of more than 3.000 Km. optical fibers. Telepass introduced the concept of ETC Interoperability because interconnected 24 different Italian Motorway Operators allowing users to travel between different Concession Areas and paying only at the end of the journey. Dr. Eng. Mario Alvisi is considered the father of ETC in Motorways because not only co-designed Telepass but was able to make it the first standardized Operating ETC system in the World as European Standard in 1996 and acting as Consultant for deployment of ETC in many Countries including Japan, the USA, etc.. Norway has been the world's pioneer in the widespread implementation of this technology. ETC was first introduced in 1986, operating together with traditional tollbooths.
In 1991, Trondheim introduced the world's first use of unaided full-speed electronic tolling. Norway now has 25 toll roads operating with electronic fee collection, as the Norwegian technology is called. In 1995, Portugal became the first country to apply a single, universal system to all tolls in the country, the Via Verde, which can be used in parking lots and gas stations; the United States is another country with widespread use of ETC in several states, though many U. S. toll roads maintain the option of manual collection. In some urban settings, automated gates are in use in electronic-toll lanes, with 5 mph legal limits on speed. However, in other areas such as the Garden State Parkway in New Jersey, at various locations in California, Pennsylvania and Texas, cars can travel through electronic lanes at full speed. Illinois' Open Road Tolling program features 274 contiguous miles of barrier-free roadways, where I-PASS or E-ZPass users continue to travel at highway speeds through toll plazas, while cash payers pull off the main roadway to pay at tollbooths.
Over 80% of Illinois' 1.4 million daily drivers use an I-PASS. Enforcement is accomplished by a combination of a camera which takes a picture of the car and a radio frequency keyed computer which searches for a drivers window/bumper mounted transponder to verify and collect payment; the system sends a notice and fine to cars that pass through without having an active account or paying a toll. Factors hindering full-speed electronic collection include significant non-participation, entailing lines in manual lanes and disorderly traffic patterns as the electronic- and manual- collection cars "sort themselves out" into their respective lanes.
United States Shipping Board Merchant Fleet Corporation
The Emergency Fleet Corporation was established by the United States Shipping Board, sometimes referred to as the War Shipping Board, on 16 April 1917 pursuant to the Shipping Act to acquire and operate merchant ships to meet national defense and domestic commerce during World War I. The EFC was renamed the U. S. Shipping Board Merchant Fleet Corporation by act of Congress 11 February 1927; the Board and Corporation were abolished 26 October 1936 and their functions transferred to the U. S. Maritime Commission by the Merchant Marine Act of 29 June 1936; the Shipping Board had been established while the United States was at peace with intent to restore the nation's Merchant Marine. That changed with war. In the words of Edward N. Hurley, Chairman of the Board: When the United States declared war against Germany the whole purpose and policy of the Shipping Board and the Fleet Corporation suffered a radical change overnight. From a body established to restore the American Merchant Marine to its old glory, the Shipping Board was transformed into a military agency to bridge the ocean with ships and to maintain the line of communication between America and Europe.
Conceived as an instrumentality of peace, the Board became an instrumentality of war. Unlike other military agencies—the Army and Navy—it began with nothing—no ships, no officers, no crews, no organizations. Ten days after the declaration of war the Emergency Fleet Corporation was established in response to those wartime requirements. On 2 April 1917 President Woodrow Wilson cited Germany's refusal to suspend unrestricted submarine warfare in the North Atlantic and the Mediterranean in his request for a declaration of war on Germany, Congress concurred on 2 April 1917. In that April 1,250,000 deadweight tons were sunk, with 122 ocean-going ships sunk in the first two weeks after that declaration of war. British losses in that period equaled an average round-trip voyage loss of 25%. Allied losses before U. S. entry had been that heavy that construction in yards outside the U. S. was unable to sustain current losses. Congress had rejected previous attempts to create a shipping board to manage U. S. maritime affairs, beginning with bills introduced as early in the war as 4 September 1914.
President Wilson requested enactment of a shipping act until Representative Joshua W. Alexander introduced House Bill 15455 that became law as the Shipping Act of 1916; that act established the United States Shipping Board headed by five commissioners appointed by the President and confirmed by the Senate. That board had complete control over American ships and shipping. Most with respect to the Emergency Fleet Corporation was its power to form corporations for acquiring and operating merchant vessels under certain conditions. Ten days after declaration of war, on 16 April 1917, the Board created the Emergency Fleet Corporation in the District of Columbia with a capital stock of $50,000,000; the Shipping Act was a peacetime act not anticipating wartime conditions. On 11 July 1917 the President by Executive Order delegated to the EFC all his wartime power and authority to acquire existing vessels and to construct and operate all vessels acquired or to be acquired by the United States; the EFC operated under these powers rather than the basic peacetime act for the duration of the war.
While the Act had envisioned the corporations with the United States as the majority stockholder, the wartime reality was that it was the sole stockholder. The EFC could not operate the ships unless no private companies could be found to do so. In reality wartime conditions made; as a corporation with total government ownership, the EFC did not have the powers of the Board, thus the Shipping Board assumed and transferred ships and facilities to the EFC, subject to federal and state laws governing corporations. A fundamental flaw led to early controversy; the Chairman of the United States Shipping Board, William Denman, was head of the EFC with only nominal powers over the EFC with the critical exception of the power to sign contracts. The EFC General Manager, General George Washington Goethals, had all other effective powers without that one crucial power necessary to implement the Corporation's policies. Popular conception of what became the Denman-Goethals controversy involved William Denman's support of wooden ship construction and General Goethals' opposition.
That Goethals could not sign contracts while expected to build ships and Denman as President of the Fleet Corporation who could sign contracts had no control over the actual operation of the EFC resulted in the public resignation of both men. After the war, the wooden ship program in particular resulted in a large number of hulls with no useful purpose that were a disposal problem. In retrospect some considered this entire effort a waste; the impractical plan to mass-produce a thousand small wooden steamers was developed by the lawyer William Denman and an amateur yachtsman from Massachusetts. Both men convinced Woodrow Wilson of this scheme, claimed the famous engineer General George Washington Goethals agreed to assist them, the White House announced to the press that Goethals would take the job. Goethals reluctantly agreed —because his quick resignation would lead to a public relations disaster for the president—, but he soon realized that the plan for building wooden ships was flawed. Goethals encouraged ship builders to look into the mass production of steel vessels by fabricating st
Esteghlal Football Club known as Taj Football Club is an Iranian professional football club based in Tehran and founded on 26 September 1945. Esteghlal is the most successful Iranian club and competes in Iran's top flight Persian Gulf Pro League and the Iranian FA cup Hazfi Cup. Esteghlal F. C. is the football club of the multisport Esteghlal of Cultural Company. Esteghlal's home games are played at Azadi Stadium in western Tehran, the stadium, shared with city rivals Persepolis and Iran National Football Team has a total capacity of 100,000 making it the biggest football stadium in Iran. Esteghlal has won 34 official and regional trophies making them Iran's most decorated and most successful football club; the club has won 15 national titles which are a record of 7 Hazfi cup. Esteghlal has won 12 Tehran league and 4 Tehran Hazfi cup and 1 Tehran Super cup making them most successful club in Tehran football history. Esteghlal's international titles are 2 championship in AFC Champions League making them Iran's most successful club in Asian football and third in AFC champions league.
On 20 September 1945, some young athletes and students including a 23 year old military officer Parviz Khosravaani, Asghar Navaab, Enayat Jananpour and Khashaaei established a sports club on Ferdowsi Street, Tehran. Since the founders of the club were interested in cycling, the club's original name was Docharkhe Savaran, meaning'The Cyclists' in Persian. Ali Danaeifard coach and player of tour joined to them and became the first coach and Captain of Esteghlal. Esteghlal football club played its first official match in 1946. In the first year, the 1946 season, they stood in second place of Tehran Football League and Tehran Hazfi Cup, they played against strong teams like Daraei and Shahin. The 1947 season ended with the first Esteghlal's cup, after victories against Daraei and Oghaab to reach the Tehran Hazfi Cup. Docharkhe Savaran founders and players consisted of Ali Danaeifard, Parviz Khosravani, Amou Oghli and Seyyed Ali Agha agreed with the rename of the club to TAJ in 1949. From the beginning Taj or Docharkeh Savaran competed in the Tehran Local League, which at the time was the highest ranked league in Iran.
On March 6, 1950, Taj played its first official game in front of over 20,000 spectators in Amjadieh Stadium against Shahin. Taj won seven first titles in 60's. Taj won four Tehran Hazfi Cup in 1947, 1951, 1958 and 1959; the most successful club in Iran between that years, so far than other great teams like Daraei with three first titles and Shahin with two first titles and four second place. The first national cup was obtained in 1957 National Football League after victory against Tabriz team by three goals. Taj represented tehrans's football in those games. Ali Danaeifard managed Esteghlal for about twenty years, first as midfielder and coach and in 1950 until 1967 as Coach of Taj, his son Iraj Danaeifard became the star of Taj and National team in the 70s and his daughter is a football coach. Fans call him Father of Esteghlal. Iraj scored the First Iranian goal during a World Cup Finals in 1978, with the equalizer against Scotland; some of the best players of those years as follows: Boyuk Jeddikar, Aref Gholizadeh, Parviz Koozehkanani, Mahmoud Bayati, Mohammad Ranjbar, Mohammad Amir Khatami, Nader Afshar Alavinejad, George Markarian, Kambozia Jamali, Karam Nayyerloo, Hassan Habibi, Heshmat Mohajerani, Fariborz Esmaeili, Parviz Aboutaleb, Mohammad Reza Adelkhani and Ali Jabbari.
Tehran old derby was a sensitive match which played between TAJ and Shahin in mid century, until 1967. After desolation of Shahin. Other teams Added Shahin's players to their teams including Newborn team Persepolis. Shahin was not related to Persepolis. Boyuk Jeddikar is best scorer of that rival matches for Taj; the 1970 Asian Club Championship was the 3rd edition of the annual Asian club football competition hosted by Asian Football Confederation. Seven clubs from seven countries competed in the tournament; the tournament was held in Iran in April. The clubs were split in two groups and the group winners and runners-up advanced to semifinals. Taj defeated Hapoel Tel Aviv of Israel 2–1 in the final to win its first Asian Club Championship and started new era in Iranian football with announced of professionalization of football in Iran; this year had another Honor for TAJ, The first Iranian national league title: 1970–71 Local League under management of legendary Rajkov. TAJ defeated PAS 2-1 in final match.
Captain Ali Jabbari introduced as best player of the league. TAJ have reached to third place of 1971 Asian Club Championship, a year after the first Asian Cup of club, they were defeated ROK Army of Korea 3-2 in Third place match. Esteghlal stood with only two points less than Persepolis. Gholam Hossein Mazloumi was the top scorer of the league, with 15 goals. TAJ reached the 1974-75 Takht Jamshid Cup the next year, the second official Ir
Everton Football Club is a football club in Liverpool, that competes in the Premier League, the top flight of English football. The club have competed in the top division for a record 116 seasons, missing the top division only four times since The Football League was created in 1888. Everton have won 15 major trophies: the League Championship nine times, the FA Cup five times and the UEFA Cup Winners Cup once. Formed in 1878, Everton were founding members of The Football League in 1888 and won their first League Championship two seasons later. Following four League Championship and two FA Cup wins, Everton experienced a lull in the immediate post World War Two period, until a revival in the 1960s, which saw the club win two League Championships and an FA Cup; the mid-1980s represented their most recent period of sustained success, with two League Championships, an FA Cup, the 1985 European Cup Winners' Cup. The club's most recent major trophy was the 1995 FA Cup; the club's supporters are known as Evertonians.
Everton have a rivalry with neighbours Liverpool, the two sides contest the Merseyside derby. The club has been based at Goodison Park in Walton, since 1892, after moving from Anfield following a row over its rent; the club's home colours are royal blue shirts with white socks. Everton were founded as St Domingo FC in 1878 so that members of the congregation of St Domingo Methodist New Connexion Chapel in Breckfield Road North, Everton could play sport year round – cricket was played in summer; the club's first game was a 1–0 victory over Everton Church Club. The club was renamed Everton in November 1879 after the local area, as people outside the congregation wished to participate; the club was a founding member of the Football League in 1888–89 and won their first League Championship title in the 1890–91 season. Everton won the FA Cup for the first time in 1906 and the League Championship again in 1914–15; the outbreak of the First World War in 1914 interrupted the football programme while Everton were champions, something that would again occur in 1939.
It was not until 1927. In 1925 the club signed Dixie Dean from Tranmere Rovers. In 1927–28, Dean set the record for top-flight league goals in a single season with 60 goals in 39 league games, a record that still stands, he helped. However, Everton were relegated to the Second Division two years during internal turmoil at the club; the club rebounded and was promoted at the first attempt, while scoring a record number of goals in the Second Division. On return to the top flight in 1931–32, Everton wasted no time in reaffirming their status and won a fourth League Championship at the first opportunity. Everton won their second FA Cup in 1933 with a 3–0 win against Manchester City in the final; the era ended in 1938–39 with a fifth League Championship. The outbreak of the Second World War again saw the suspension of league football, when official competition resumed in 1946, the Everton team had been split up and paled in comparison to the pre-war team. Everton were relegated for the second time in 1950–51 and did not earn promotion until 1953–54, when they finished as runners-up in their third season in the Second Division.
The club have been a top-flight presence since. Everton's second successful era started when Harry Catterick was made manager in 1961. In 1962–63, his second season in charge, Everton won the League Championship. In 1966 the club won the FA Cup with a 3–2 win over Sheffield Wednesday. Everton again reached the final in 1968, but this time were unable to overcome West Bromwich Albion at Wembley. Two seasons in 1969–70, Everton won the League Championship, finishing nine points clear of nearest rivals Leeds United. During this period, Everton were the first English club to achieve five consecutive years in European competitions – covering the seasons from 1961–62 to 1966–67. However, the success did not last. Harry Catterick retired, but his successors failed to win any silverware for the remainder of the 1970s despite finishing fourth in 1974–75 under manager Billy Bingham, third in 1977–78 and fourth the following season under manager Gordon Lee. Lee was sacked in 1981. Howard Kendall guided Everton to their most successful era.
Domestically, Everton won the FA Cup in 1984 and two League Championships in 1984–85 and 1986–87. In Europe, the club won its first, so far only, European trophy by securing the European Cup Winners' Cup in 1985; the European success came after first beating University College Dublin, Inter Bratislava and Fortuna Sittard. Everton defeated German giants Bayern Munich 3–1 in the semi-finals, despite trailing at half time, recorded the same scoreline over Austrian club Rapid Vienna in the final. Having won both the League and Cup Winners' Cup in 1985, Everton came close to winning a treble, but lost to Manchester United in the FA Cup final; the following season, 1985–86, Everton were runners-up to neighbours Liverpool in both the League and the FA Cup, but did recapture the League Championship in 1986–87. After the Heysel Stadium disaster and the subsequent ban of all English clubs from continental football, Everton lost the chance to compete for more European trophies. A large proportion of the title-winning side was broken up following the ban.
Kendall himself moved to Athletic Bilbao after the 1987 title triumph and was succeeded by assistant Colin Harvey. Harvey took Everton to the 1989 FA Cup Fi
Europa FC is a football club from Gibraltar who play in the Gibraltar Premier Division. As with all other clubs in the territory, Europa FC share the Victoria Stadium on Winston Churchill Avenue; the club was founded in 1925. It was continuously active up to 1970; the club merged with College in the 1980s, going by College Cosmos until 2013, in 2014 split again from College, changing from College Europa back to Europa FC, while College 1975 entered the Gibraltar Second Division. The name change was cleared by UEFA and the Gibraltar Football Association has granted back the honours the club lost when it folded initially; the club saw considerable success in early 1930s, where it won 4 of its 6 titles. However, against the likes of Prince of Wales, the club struggled to become a major force and won its 6th and final title in the 1951-52. After further declining fortunes, the club merged with College in 1970, although it failed to see a revival in fortunes as it would continue to move between the top two divisions of Gibraltar football for the next 40 years, last being out of the top flight in 2012-13.
Despite a 4th-place finish in the 2013–14 Gibraltar Premier Division, 2014 they were the first team from Gibraltar to play the UEFA Europa League after they finished runners-up in the Rock Cup. They lost the first match 0–3 against FC Vaduz from Liechtenstein. In the second leg they lost 1 -- 0 at home. In 2015 the club had Gibraltar's first player to appear at a major international tournament, with Charly representing Equatorial Guinea at the 2015 Africa Cup of Nations. In 2015 the club was renamed to their original name Europa FC; the side entered the UEFA Europa League once again, without a manager as Dimas Carrasco had not yet been appointed. The side lost 9–0 on aggregate to SK Slovan Bratislava with a new look side that received criticism from fans due to the lack of Gibraltarian players and large number of Spanish signings. Another season in 2nd place followed, although July 2016 did see Europa win their first continental cup tie, winning 3–2 on aggregate against FC Pyunik in the 2016-17 UEFA Europa League.
Further investment in the side under Juan Jose Gallardo saw an influx of young Gibraltarians join the Greens to align them with the league's new Home Grown Player Rule, including eventual international Sykes Garro and, most notably, key player Liam Walker from title rivals Lincoln Red Imps. The investment in the side drew dividends as the title race between Lincoln and Europa went down to the final round of games. Victory against Glacis United on 21 May, thanks to goals from Liam Walker and Kike Gómez, saw the club win their first title since 1952. A week the Greens won the 2017 Rock Cup, completing a domestic treble of Pepe Reyes Cup, Gibraltar Premier Division and Rock Cup for the first time in their history. However, after their extra-time defeat to The New Saints in the 2017–18 UEFA Champions League in July 2017, Gallardo stepped down from his managerial position to focus on his role as sporting director. Jonathan Parrado was brought in to take over management of the team; the following manager at least one major accomplishment while in charge of Europa: Gibraltar Premier DivisionWinners: 1928–29, 1929–30, 1931–32, 1932–33, 1937–38, 1951–52, 2016–17Gibraltar Second DivisionWinners: 2012–13Rock CupWinners: 1938, 1946, 1950, 1951, 1952, 2017, 2017–18Gibraltar Premier CupWinners: 2014–15Pepe Reyes CupWinners: 2016–17, 2018-19 Notes1Q: First qualifying round 2Q: Second qualifying round As of 3 February 2019Note: Flags indicate national team as defined under FIFA eligibility rules.
Players may hold more than one non-FIFA nationality. As of 5 March 2019The following players are registered to play in the Gibraltar Intermediate League. Players in italics are registered for the first team. Note: Flags indicate national team as defined under FIFA eligibility rules. Players may hold more than one non-FIFA nationality. Official Website Europa F. C. on Twitter College Europa FC at UEFA.com
European Film College
The European Film College is a film school in Denmark, offering an 8 1/2-month foundation programme in practical filmmaking covering the fields of script-writing, sound, lighting, editing and producing. The school is based in Ebeltoft and 115 students from around the world graduate from the course every year. A board was established in 1989 in Denmark to promote and further film making for young people in Europe; the European Film College subsequently opened on its present premises in May 1993, designed by Heikkinen – Komonen Architects. Since the opening The European Film College has trained more than 2000 young people in the art and craft of film making; the institution is based on the Danish tradition of the Folk High School, adult education institutions that do not grant academic degrees but aim to give students a common foundation in a particular field of study. This means that both students and principal are living at the school throughout the programme; the current Principal is Nadia Kløvedal Reich.
Previous Principals include Bjørn Erichsen, Kjeld Veirup, Jens Rykær, Pia Maria Marquard, Søren Høy and Mette Damgaard-Sørensen. The school has an active network of former students ambassadors across the world. English is the working language both in everyday life; the curriculum combines classroom instruction in the different areas of film making as well as 3 major projects, the chance to make extracurricular projects and several smaller exercises where students are assigned to crews to make film productions. Throughout the programme students rotate the key roles in a film crew in order to gain an overview of all areas of film production. Exercises and projects are evaluated in the presence of all students and teachers; the students live on campus and the course fee includes tuition, food and leisure activities. 50% of the students are Danish and the rest come from all over the world, in recent years from at least 25 different countries. The majority of the students are aged between 19 and 25.
The European Film College requires no prior qualifications for admission but selects applicants based on a combination of experience and background. The aim is to create a global learning atmosphere with an equal balance of female students; the college has a equipped 300 sq m. film studio, 13 Avid editing suites, a sound studio, professional sound equipment and more than 20 professional HD cameras of various sizes. The college has two cinemas; the larger Store Bjørn is fitted with Dolby Digital Surround sound, first-class film and Blu-ray projection and luxury seating for 220 viewers. The smaller one, Lille Bjørn cinema can accommodate 45 viewers and can play Blu-ray and DVD; the European Film College is situated on the outskirts of the town of Ebeltoft, on the Djursland peninsula. Popular attractions, such as the modern Glass Museum, the New Malt Factory and the Fregatten Jylland ship, attracts many tourists in the summer; the closest cities are Grenå 30 km by Aarhus, 45 km by road to the west.
There is an hourly bus service connecting with Aarhus and a coach service to Copenhagen departs from Ebeltoft harbour. The Aarhus Airport is 15 km to the north. Ebeltoft and most of Djursland was designated as a National Park in 2009 and presents conservational important and interesting nature scenery. On campus there is a playing field and volleyball courts. Students can use the indoor swimming pool at reduced rates. Joachim Trier Nikolaj Arcel Charlotte Bruus Christensen Pernille Fischer Christensen Beate Bille Philip "Pilou" Asbæk Philippe Lesage Official website European Film College on IMDb Den Europæiske Filmhøjskole
Essendon Football Club
The Essendon Football Club, nicknamed the Bombers, is a professional Australian rules football club that plays in the Australian Football League, the sport's premier competition. Thought to have formed in 1872, the club played its first recorded game on 7 June 1873 against a Carlton Second 20, winning 1 goal to nil; the club played a senior club in the Victorian Football Association in 1878, one year after the VFA formed. It is associated with Essendon, a suburb in the north-west of Melbourne, Victoria. Since 2013, the club has been headquartered at The Hangar, Melbourne Airport, plays its home games at either Docklands Stadium or the Melbourne Cricket Ground. While it stopped playing games at the ground thereafter, Windy Hill remained its training and administration base until the end of 2013. Dyson Heppell is the current team captain. A founding member club of both the Victorian Football Association, in 1877, the Victorian Football League, in 1896, Essendon is one of Australia's best-known football clubs.
Essendon has won 16 VFL/AFL premierships, along with Carlton, is the most of any club in the competition. The club won four consecutive VFA premierships between 1891 and 1894, a feat unmatched in VFA/VFL history; the club was founded by members of the Royal Agricultural Society, the Melbourne Hunt Club and the Victorian Woolbrokers. The Essendon Football Club is thought to have formed in 1872 at a meeting it the home of a well-known brewery family, the McCrackens, whose Ascot Vale property hosted a team of local junior players. Robert McCracken, the owner of several city hotels, was the founder and first president of the Essendon Football club and his son, its first secretary. Alex became president of the newly formed VFL. Alex's cousin, Collier McCracken, who had played with Melbourne, was the team's first captain; the club played its first recorded match against the Carlton second twenty on 7 June 1873, with Essendon winning by one goal. Essendon played 13 matches in its first season, losing two.
The club was one of the inaugural junior members of the Victorian Football Association in 1877, began competing as a senior club from the 1878 season. During its early years in the Association, Essendon played its home matches at Flemington Hill, but moved to the East Melbourne Cricket Ground in 1881. In 1878, Essendon played in the first match on what would be considered by modern standards to be a full-sized field at Flemington Hill. In 1879 Essendon played Melbourne in one of the earliest night matches recorded when the ball was painted white. In 1883 the team played four matches in eight days in Adelaide: losing to Norwood, defeating Port Adelaide, a combined South Australian team, South Adelaide. In 1891 Essendon won their first VFA premiership, which they repeated in 1892, 1893 and 1894. One of the club's greatest players, Albert Thurgood played for the club during this period, making his debut in 1892. Essendon was undefeated in the 1893 season. At the end of the 1896 season Essendon along with seven other clubs formed the Victorian Football League.
Essendon's first VFL game was in 1897 was against Geelong at Corio Oval in Geelong. Essendon won its first VFL premiership by winning the 1897 VFL finals series. Essendon again won the premiership in 1901; the club won successive premierships in 1911 and 1912 over Collingwood and South Melbourne respectively. The club is recorded as having played at Glass' Paddock and Flemington Hill, it is that these are three different names for the one ground, given that McCracken's Paddock was a parcel of land that sat within the larger Glass's Paddock which in turn was situated in an area known at the time as Flemington Hill. In 1882 the club moved home games to the East Melbourne Cricket Ground, after an application to play on the Essendon Cricket Ground was voted down by Lord Mayor James Taylor on the basis that City of Essendon the mayor considered the Essendon Cricket Ground "to be suitable only for the gentleman's game of cricket",The club became known by the nickname "the Same Old Essendon", from the title and hook of the principal song performed by a band of supporters which occupied a section of the grandstand at the club's games.
The nickname first appeared in print in the local North Melbourne Advertiser in 1889, ended up gaining wide use as the diminutive "Same Olds". This move away from Essendon, at a time when fans would walk to their local ground, didn't go down too well with many Essendon people, it was known firstly as Essendon Town and, after 1905, as Essendon. After the 1921 season, the East Melbourne Cricket Ground was closed and demolished to expand the Flinders Street Railyard. Having played at the East Melbourne Cricket Ground from 1882 to 1921, having won four VFA premierships and four VFL premierships whilst there, Essendon was looking for a new home, was offered grounds at the current Royal Melbourne Showgrounds, at Victoria Park, at Arden St, North Melbourne, the Essendon Cricket Ground; the Essendon City Council offered the team the Essendon Cricket Ground, announcing that it would be pre