Electronic Frontier Foundation
The Electronic Frontier Foundation is an international non-profit digital rights group based in San Francisco, California. The foundation was formed in July 1990 by John Gilmore, John Perry Barlow and Mitch Kapor to promote Internet civil liberties. EFF provides funds for legal defense in court, presents amicus curiae briefs, defends individuals and new technologies from what it considers abusive legal threats, works to expose government malfeasance, provides guidance to the government and courts, organizes political action and mass mailings, supports some new technologies which it believes preserve personal freedoms and online civil liberties, maintains a database and web sites of related news and information and challenges potential legislation that it believes would infringe on personal liberties and fair use and solicits a list of what it considers abusive patents with intentions to defeat those that it considers without merit. EFF provides tips, how-tos and software for safer online communications.
The Electronic Frontier Foundation was formed in July 1990 by John Gilmore, John Perry Barlow and Mitch Kapor in response to a series of actions by law enforcement agencies that led them to conclude that the authorities were gravely uninformed about emerging forms of online communication, that there was a need for increased protection for Internet civil liberties. In April 1990, Barlow had been visited by a U. S. Federal Bureau of Investigation agent in relation to the theft and distribution of the source code for a series of Macintosh ROMs. Barlow described the visit as "complicated by complete unfamiliarity with computer technology. I realized right away that before I could demonstrate my innocence, I would first have to explain to him what guilt might be." Barlow felt that his experience was symptomatic of a "great paroxysm of governmental confusion during which everyone's liberties would become at risk". Barlow posted an account of this experience to The WELL online community and was contacted by Mitch Kapor, who had had a similar experience.
The pair agreed. Kapor agreed to fund any legal fees associated with such a defense and the pair contacted New York lawyers Rabinowitz, Standard and Lieberman about defending several computer hackers from a Harper's magazine forum on computers and freedom, the target of Secret Service raids; this generated a large amount of publicity which led to offers of financial support from John Gilmore and Steve Wozniak. Barlow and Kapor continued to research conflicts between the government and technology and in June 1990, Barlow posted online the influential article entitled "Crime & Puzzlement" in which Barlow announced his and Kapor's plans to create an organization to "raise and disburse funds for education and litigation in the areas relating to digital speech and the extension of the Constitution into Cyberspace."This generated further reaction and support for the ideas of Barlow and Kapor. In late June, Barlow held a series of dinners in San Francisco with major figures in the computer industry to develop a coherent response to these perceived threats.
Barlow considered that: "The actions of the FBI and Secret Service were symptoms of a growing social crisis: Future Shock. America was entering the Information Age with neither laws nor metaphors for the appropriate protection and conveyance of information itself." Barlow felt. The Electronic Frontier Foundation was formally founded on July 10, 1990, by Kapor and Barlow, who soon after elected Gilmore and Stewart Brand to join them on the Board of Directors. Initial funding was provided by Kapor, an anonymous benefactor. In 1990, Mike Godwin joined the organization as its first staff counsel. In 1991, Esther Dyson and Jerry Berman joined the EFF board of directors. By 1992, Cliff Figallo became the director of the original office, in December 1992, Jerry Berman became the acting executive director of the organization as a whole, based in a new second office; the creation of the organization was motivated by the massive search and seizure on Steve Jackson Games executed by the United States Secret Service early in 1990.
Similar but unconnected law-enforcement raids were being conducted across the United States at about that time as part of a state–federal task force called Operation Sundevil. GURPS Cyberpunk, one of the game company's projects, was mistakenly labeled as a handbook for computer crime, the Secret Service raided the offices of Steve Jackson Games; the search warrant for the raid was deemed hastily issued, the games company soon after claimed unauthorized access as well as tampering of their emails. While phone calls were protected by legislation, digital emails were an early concept and had not been considered to fall under the right to personal privacy; the Steve Jackson Games case was EFF's first high-profile case, was the major rallying point around which EFF began promoting computer- and Internet-related civil liberties. EFF's second big case was Bernstein v. United States led by Cindy Cohn, in which programmer and professor Daniel J. Bernstein sued the government for permission to publish his encryption software, a paper describing it.
More the organization has been involved in defending Edward Felten, Jon Lech Johansen and Dmitry Sklyarov. The organization was located at Mitch Kapor's Kapor Enterprises offices. By the fall of 1993, the main EFF offices were consolidated into a single office, headed by Executive Director Jerry Berman. During this time, som
Economic Freedom Fighters
The Economic Freedom Fighters is a South African far-left political party. It was started by expelled former African National Congress Youth League President Julius Malema, his allies, in 2013. Malema is President of the EFF, heading the Central Command Team which serves as the central structure of the party, it is the third-largest party in both houses of the South African Parliament, receiving 1,169,259 votes and a 6.35% share of the vote in the 2014 general election. At a 26 July 2013 press briefing in Soweto, Malema announced that the new party had over 1000 members, double the 500 required for registration with the Independent Electoral Commission; the EFF is now registered with the IEC, after an objection to its registration by the Freedom Front Plus was dismissed in September 2013. In 2015, the EFF suspended MP Lucky Twala and expelled three MPs, Mpho Ramakatsa, Andile Mngxitama and Khanyisile Litchfield-Tshabalala. Mngxitama formed his own party, named Black First Land First, while Litchfield-Tshabalala joined the United Democratic Movement.
The EFF "draws inspiration from the broad Marxist–Leninist tradition and Fanonian schools of thought in their analyses of the state, imperialism and class contradictions in every society", according to one of its declarations. It criticises the African National Congress and their primary opposition, the Democratic Alliance, for their pro-business stances, which it claims have sold out the black people of South Africa to capitalism as cheap labour, it promises to tackle corruption, provide quality social housing, provide free primary healthcare and education for all, as well as proposing to expropriate stolen land, nationalise the mining and banking sectors, double welfare grants and the minimum wage, end the proposed toll system for highways. The EFF takes significant inspiration from Thomas Sankara in terms of both ideology. In a May 2014 column, the prominent EFF member Jackie Shandu declared his party a "proudly Sankarist formation"; the EFF has been vocal in its criticism of black business owners and black owners of mining companies in South Africa.
In an address at the Oxford Union in November 2015, Malema spoke out against billionaire mining company owner Patrice Motsepe. Further protests in 2015, the EFF delivered demands that included the socialization of the mining sector and called for more explicit targets for the 26% BEE ownership required by law; the EFF is a vocal proponent of expanding the role of South African state owned enterprises in the country's economy. Malema addressed a crowd in Marikana, Rustenburg in the platinum mining area, blaming mining companies and calling out platinum mining company Lonmin in particular, for poverty in the region; the party supports the re-introduction of the death penalty. In 2016, after local elections in South Africa, the EFF has suggested that they will back the Democratic Alliance in hung-metro areas, but would not be entering into a coalition with any political party in South Africa; the EFF was the only parliamentary party. High-profile members of the Central Command Team include Floyd Shivambu, Fana Mokoena and Mbuyiseni Ndlozi.
Controversial businessman Kenny Kunene joined the Central Command Team in July 2013 before resigning from the Central Command Team on 20 August 2013 and from the organisation on 26 August 2013. On 4 November 2013, it was announced that Dali Mpofu had left the African National Congress after 33 years of membership and joined the EFF. Ringo Madlingozi appeared in the parliamentary candidate list for 2019 elections, thus ending the speculation of whether he was a member or not Musician and actress Ntando Duma publicly pledged alligiance to EFF in February 2019. According to a November 2013 Ipsos survey, the party's supporters are younger than average, with 49% being younger than 24, overwhelmingly black and male, with women representing only 33% of the support base. A disproportionate number of supporters live in Malema's home province of Limpopo, while only 1% live in KwaZulu-Natal, a more populous province; the party was expected to make an impact in the 2014 general election, taking between 4 per cent and 8 per cent of the national vote.
This was enough for the party to hold the balance of power in provinces where the governing African National Congress was in danger of losing its absolute majority. In fact, the ANC retained its absolute majority, but the EFF moved into third place, surging past the shrinking Inkatha Freedom Party, with a 6.35% share of the vote to the IFP's 2.40%. On 6 August 2015 the EFF announced that it has secured a Constitutional court case for its Jacob Zuma campaign of "#PayBackTheMoney"; the case was heard on the 9 February 2016. The Judgement was released by Chief Justice Mogoeng Mogoeng; the judgement stated that The President has violated the Constitution of South Africa, along with the Speaker of the National Assembly Baleka Mbete. The President was given 60 days to fulfill the requirements of the Public Protector Thuli Madonsela. On 27 February 2018 the EFF tabled a motion in The National Assembly to amend the Constitution so as to allow for the expropriation of land without compensation; the motion, brought by the EFF leader Julius Malema, was adopted with a vote of 241 in support, 83 against.
The only parties who did not support the motion were the Democratic Alliance, Freedom Front Plus and the ACDP. Land Expropriation is one of the EFF's Seven cardinal pillars. In 2018, the student wing of the EFF, the EFF Student Command won many universities across the country; the red berets defeated the ANC-aligned South African Students Congress at the Durban University of Technology, the University of Zululand and Mangosuthu Univers
Functionally graded material
In materials science Functionally Graded Materials may be characterized by the variation in composition and structure over volume, resulting in corresponding changes in the properties of the material. The materials can be designed for specific function and applications. Various approaches based on the bulk, preform processing, layer processing and melt processing are used to fabricate the functionally graded materials; the concept of FGM was first considered in Japan in 1984 during a space plane project, where a combination of materials used would serve the purpose of a thermal barrier capable of withstanding a surface temperature of 2000 K and a temperature gradient of 1000 k across a 10 mm section. In recent years this concept has become more popular in Europe in Germany. A transregional collaborative research center is funded since 2006 in order to exploit the potential of grading monomaterials, such as steel and polypropylen, by using thermomechanically coupled manufacturing processes; the basic structural units of FGMs are elements or material ingredients represented by maxel.
The term maxel was introduced in 2005 by Rajeev Dwivedi and Radovan Kovacevic at Research Center for Advanced Manufacturing. The attributes of maxel include the volume fraction of individual material components. A maxel is used in the context of the additive manufacturing processes to describe a physical voxel, which defines the build resolution of either a rapid prototyping or rapid manufacturing process, or the resolution of a design produced by such fabrication means. There are many areas of application for FGM; the concept is to make a composite material by varying the microstructure from one material to another material with a specific gradient. This enables the material to have the best of both materials. If it is for thermal, or corrosive resistance or malleability and toughness both strengths of the material may be used to avoid corrosion, fatigue and stress corrosion cracking; the transition between the two materials can be approximated by means of a power series. The aircraft and aerospace industry and the computer circuit industry are interested in the possibility of materials that can withstand high thermal gradients.
This is achieved by using a ceramic layer connected with a metallic layer. The Air Vehicles Directorate has conducted a Quasi-static bending test results of functionally graded titanium/titanium boride test specimens which can be seen below; the test correlated to the finite element analysis using a quadrilateral mesh with each element having its own structural and thermal properties. Advanced Materials and Processes Strategic Research Programme have done analysis on producing a thermal barrier coating using Zr02 and NiCoCrAlY, their results have proved successful but no results of the analytical model are published. The rendition of the term that relates to the additive fabrication processes has its origins at the RMRG at Loughborough University in the United Kingdom; the term forms a part of a descriptive taxonomy of terms relating directly to various particulars relating to the additive CAD-CAM manufacturing processes established as a part of the research conducted by architect Thomas Modeen into the application of the aforementioned techniques in the context of architecture.
Gradient of elastic modulus changes the fracture toughness of adhesive contacts. Numerical methods have been developed for modelling the mechanical response of FGMs, with the finite element method being the most popular one; the variation of material properties was introduced by means of rows of homogeneous elements, leading to a discontinuous step-type variation in the mechanical properties. Santare and Lambros developed functionally graded finite elements, where the mechanical property variation takes place at the element level. Martínez-Pañeda and Gallego extended this approach to commercial finite element software. Contact properties of FGH can be simulated using the Boundary Element Method
Fuck is an obscene English-language word which refers to the act of sexual intercourse but is commonly used as an intensifier or to denote disdain. While its origin is obscure, it is considered to be first attested to around 1475. In modern usage, the term "fuck" and its derivatives can be used as a noun, a verb, an adjective, an interjection or an adverb. There are many common phrases that employ the word as well as compounds that incorporate it, such as "motherfucker," "fuckwit", "fuckup" and "fucknut"; the word is considered obscene but is used in many informal and familiar situations. It is unclear whether the word has always been considered vulgar or, if not, when it first came to be used to describe unpleasant circumstances or people in an intentionally offensive way, such as in the term motherfucker, one of its more common usages in some parts of the English-speaking world; some English-speaking countries censor it on radio. Andrea Millwood Hargrave's 2000 study of the attitudes of the British public found that fuck was considered the third most severe profanity and its derivative motherfucker second.
Cunt was considered the most severe. The word has become less vulgar and more publicly acceptable, an example of the "dysphemism treadmill", wherein former vulgarities become inoffensive and commonplace. According to linguist Pamela Hobbs, "notwithstanding its increasing public use, enduring cultural models that inform our beliefs about the nature of sexuality and sexual acts preserve its status as a vile utterance that continues to inspire moral outrage." Hobbs considers users rather than usage of the word and sub-divides users into'non-users', for whom the word "evokes the core sexual meanings and associated sexual imagery that motivate the taboo", and'users' for whom "metaphorical uses of the word fuck no more evoke images of sexual intercourse than a ten-year-old's'My mom'll kill me if she finds out' evokes images of murder," so that the "criteria of taboo are missing."Because of its increasing usage in the public forum, in 2005 the word was included for the first time as one of three vulgarities in The Canadian Press's Canadian Press Caps and Spelling guide.
Journalists were advised to refrain from censoring the word but use it sparingly and only when its inclusion was essential to the story. The Oxford English Dictionary states that the ultimate etymology is uncertain, but that the word is "probably cognate" with a number of Germanic words with meanings involving striking and having sex or is derivative of the Old French word that meant "to fuck." The word has probable cognates such as German ficken. This points to a possible etymology where Common Germanic fuk- comes from an Indo-European root meaning "to strike", cognate with non-Germanic words such as Latin pugno "I fight" or pugnus "fist". By application of Grimm's law, this hypothetical root has the form *pug–. There is a theory that fuck is most derived from Flemish, German, or Dutch roots, is not derived from an Old English root. There may be a kinship with the Latin futuere, a verb with exactly the same meaning as the English verb "to fuck". From fūtuere came French foutre, Catalan fotre, Italian fottere, Romanian futere, vulgar peninsular Spanish joder, Portuguese foder, the obscure English equivalent to futter, coined by Richard Francis Burton.
However, there is no clear past derivation for the Latin word. These roots if cognates, are not the original Indo-European word for to copulate, but Wayland Young argues that they derive from the Indo-European *bhu– or *bhug–, or as causative "create". A possible intermediate might be a Latin 4th-declension verbal noun *fūtus, with possible meanings including "act of creating". However, the connection to futuere has been disputed—Anatoly Liberman calls it a "coincidence" and writes that it is not to have been borrowed from the Low German precursors to fuck. Greek phyō has various meanings, including "to beget", or, "to give birth to", its perfect pephyka can be likened to its equivalents in other Germanic languages. One reason that the word fuck is so hard to trace etymologically is that it was used far more extensively in common speech than in traceable written forms. There are several urban-legend false etymologies postulating an acronymic origin for the word. None of these acronyms were recorded before the 1960s, according to the lexicographical work The F-Word, thus are backronyms.
In any event, the word fuck has been in use far too long for some of these supposed origins to be possible. Some of these urban legends are. If a couple were caught committing adultery, they would be punished "For Unlawful Carnal Knowledge In the Nude," with "FUCKIN" written on the stocks above them to denote the crime. A similar variant on this theory involves the recording by church clerks of the crime of "Forbidden Use of Carnal Knowledge." Another theory is that of a royal permission. During the Black Death in the Middle Ages, towns were trying to control populations and their interactions. Since uncontaminated resources were scarce many towns required permission to have children. Hence, the legend goes, that couples that were having children were required to first obtain royal permission and place a sign somewhere visible from the road in their home that said "Fornicating Un
Felix Kurt Jähn, known professionally as Felix Jaehn, is a German DJ and record producer specialising in tropical house. Jaehn was raised in Schönberg, near Wismar in Mecklenburg-Vorpommern, Germany, he took violin lessons at age of 5 and began his DJ career at 16. Jaehn lived in London for a year, where he attended a Point Blank Music College at the age of 17. Afterwards he studied Business Administration at Humboldt-University in Berlin. In August 2013 he released his debut single "Sommer am Meer". In November 2014 he released the single "Shine". In March 2015 he released the single "Dance with Me". In April 2015, he released a remix of Rufus and Chaka Khan classic "Ain't Nobody" retitled "Ain't Nobody" featuring the vocals of Jasmine Thompson; the remix was an international pan-European hit topping the German Singles Chart. He is now signed to Universal Music. In July 2015 he released the single "Eagle Eyes". In 2017, he collaborated with Mike Williams to release the single "Feel Good" through Spinnin' Records.
He is arguably best known for remixing Jamaican singer Omi song "Cheerleader". The single was an international hit for him topping the charts in Germany, Belgium, Mexico, France, the Netherlands, Sweden, the United Kingdom and the United States, it was a popular wedding dance song in the United States. In 2015, Jaehn launched Eff, a music duo project made up of German singer Mark Forster as vocalist and Jaehn as DJ and producer; the two met in an event in Vienna in 2015. Eff is a reference to Forster, their first and only single as Eff was "Stimme" that has topped the German Singles Chart for three consecutive weeks charting in Austria and Switzerland. Jaehn came out as bisexual in an interview for Die Zeit in February 2018. In the interview, he told Die Zeit "sometimes I was more interested in girls, sometimes more interested in boys." Studio AlbumsI Official website