The English Football League Championship is the highest division of the English Football League and second-highest overall in the English football league system after the Premier League. The league is contested by 24 clubs; each season, the two top-finishing teams in the Championship are automatically promoted to the Premier League. The teams that finish the season in 3rd to 6th place enter a playoff tournament, with the winner gaining promotion to the Premier League; the three lowest-finishing teams in the Championship are relegated to League One. The Football League Championship, introduced for the 2004–05 season, was known as the Football League First Division, before that as the Football League Second Division; the winners of the Championship receive the Football League Championship trophy, the same trophy as the old First Division champions were handed prior to the Premier League's inception in 1992. Similar to other divisions of professional English football, Welsh clubs can be part of the division, making it a cross-border league.
The Championship is the wealthiest non-top flight football division in the world and the eighth richest division in Europe. With an average match attendance for the 2018–19 season of 20,181, the Championship had the highest per-match attendance of any secondary league in the world, with only nine top-flight leagues known to have higher attendance figures. Barnsley have spent more seasons at the second level of English football than any other team and on 3 January 2011 became the first club to achieve 1,000 wins in the second level of English football with a 2–1 home victory over Coventry City. Barnsley are the first club to play 3,000 games in second-level league football. At present, Derby County and Nottingham Forest hold the longest tenure in the Championship, last being out of the division in the 2007–08 season. For history before 2004, see Football League First Division after 1993 and Football League Second Division before that yearIn its inaugural season of 2004–05, the Football League Championship announced a total attendance of 9.8 million, which it said was the fourth highest total attendance for a European football division, behind the FA Premier League, Spain's La Liga and Germany's Bundesliga, but beating Italy's Serie A and France's Ligue 1.
Sunderland won the league in the first season since re-branding, with Wigan Athletic finishing second to win promotion to the top flight of English football for the first time in their history. They had only been elected to the Football League twenty-seven years previously. West Ham United won the first Championship play-off final that season, following a 1–0 victory over Preston North End at the Millennium Stadium in Cardiff. In the 2005–06 season, Reading broke the Football League points record for a season, finishing on 106 points, exceeding the record set by Sunderland in 1999. Sunderland won their second Championship title in three seasons in the 2006–07 season. On 4 May 2007, Leeds United became the first side since the re-branding of the division to enter administration. On 28 May 2007, Derby County won the first Championship play-off final at the new Wembley Stadium, beating West Bromwich Albion 1–0 in front of nearly 75,000 spectators. West Brom would go on to win the Championship in the following season.
On 30 September 2009, Coca-Cola announced they would end their sponsorship deal with The Football League at the end of the 2009–10 season. On 16 March 2010, npower were announced as the new title sponsors of the Football League, from the start of the 2010–11 Football League season until the end of the 2012–13 season, the Football League Championship was known as the Npower Championship. On 18 July 2013, UK bookmaker Sky Bet announced that they signed a five-year agreement to sponsor the league. On 24 May 2014, the Championship play-off final between Derby County and Queens Park Rangers saw the highest crowd for any Championship fixture – 87,348 witnessed a Bobby Zamora stoppage time winner for QPR to win promotion for the London club. For the 2016–17 season, the Football League was re-branded as the English Football League; the league had an cumulative attendance of more than eleven million – excluding play-off matches – with more than two million watching Newcastle United and Aston Villa home fixtures alone.
This was included in the highest crowds for the second to fourth tier in England since the 1958–59 season. The league comprises 24 teams. Over the course of a season, which runs annually from August to the following May, each team plays twice against the others in the league, once at'home' and once'away', resulting in each team competing in 46 games in total. Three points are awarded for one for a draw and zero for a loss; the teams are ranked in the league table by points gained goal difference goals scored and their head-to-head record for that season. In the event that two or more teams finish the season equal in all these respects, teams are separated by alphabetical order, unless a promotion, relegation or play-off place is at stake, when the teams are separated by a play-off game, though this improbable situation has never arisen in all the years the rule has existed. At the end of the season, the top two teams and the winner of the Championship play-offs are promoted to the Premier League and the bottom three teams are relegated to Football League One
John Douglas Anthony, is a former Australian politician. Elected to the House of Representatives in 1957, Anthony served as a minister in successive Coalition Governments, went on to serve as leader of the Country Party from 1971 to 1984, Deputy Prime Minister under John Gorton, William McMahon and Malcolm Fraser. Anthony is the earliest elected Country MP still alive, along with Ian Sinclair he is the last surviving minister who served in the Menzies Government and the First Holt Ministry. Anthony was born in Murwillumbah in northern New South Wales, he was the son of a well-known Country Party politician. Doug Anthony was educated at Murwillumbah Primary School and Murwillumbah High School, before attending The King's School in Sydney between 1943 and 1946 and Gatton College in Queensland. After graduating he took up dairy-farming near Murwillumbah. In 1957 he married Margot Budd, with whom he had three children: Dougald and Larry. In 1957 Larry Anthony Sr., Postmaster-General in the Liberal-Country Party coalition government led by Robert Menzies and Doug was elected to succeed his father in the ensuing by-election for the Division of Richmond, aged 27.
He was appointed Minister for the Interior in 1964. During his tenure in the Interior portfolio, there were several pushes for Canberra to become independent and self-governing in some capacity.. The Menzies government had not yet established a clear policy for Canberra’s future, Anthony stated that the city was not yet ready for self-governance. At Narrogin in August 1966, Anthony relayed to several rural communities that drought would soon sweep the region, that he was prepared to take precautions to prevent as many negative effects as possible, he was unable to comment on protests that took place outside the Canberra Hotel on 2 February 1967. Anthony was one of the leading forces against the 1967 nexus referendum, seeking to increase the senate’s power in parliament. Senator Vince Gair revived the debate around the introduction of such a law in early 1967. Anthony and the County Party decided. Towards the end of his term as Minister for the Interior, Anthony supported a federal redistribution with conditions so restrictive that it favoured country seats and would increase Country Party representation.
Splits within the Liberal and Country coalition were causing such issues to be raised and considered by parliament. These tensions were fuelled by the narrow majority with which the Liberal Party was returned to power in the 1963 election. In 1967 he became Minister for Primary Industry, his first speech in this portfolio was made regarding the wheat price in Australia. 1966-67 had yielded a smaller amount than the 1965-66 season, accordingly the price of what had to be raised. Controversially, in May 1968, Anthony initiated a payout of $21 million to offset the devaluation of the British Pound by Prime Minister Harold Wilson. Anthony’s popularity in the Industry portfolio was damaged when rural production was down $450 million in 1968 and little change had occurred in the return that farmers were getting for production. Anthony worked with Prime Minister John Gorton to try and create as many economically viable options as possible to deal with the “what crisis”. Quotas were introduced to limit production.
When China stopped importing Australian wheat in 1971, Anthony advised against communication with the country, saying it could be “politically and commercially dangerous. Anthony was made a Privy Councillor by Queen Elizabeth II on 23 June 1971. By mid-1969, it was thought that John McEwen, leader of the Country Party since 1958, was going to retire sometime in late 1970; the three members of the party considered to have the greatest chance of succeeding McEwen as leader were Anthony, Shipping Minister Ian Sinclair and Interior Minister Peter Nixon. When John McEwen retired in 1971, Anthony was chosen as his successor, taking McEwen's old posts of Minister for Trade and Industry and Deputy Prime Minister in the government of John Gorton, portfolios he retained under William McMahon, he rescinded McEwen's veto of McMahon as Prime Minister. When McMahon became Prime Minister in March 1971, only a month after Anthony had taken the Deputy Prime Minister position, he lost power as McMahon disliked Anthony and the two had a poor working relationship.
He opposed the revaluation of the Australian dollar by McMahon in 1971-72. In mid-1972, McMahon stopped talking to Anthony and he was oblivious of many decisions that were occurring outside cabinet; when McMahon announced the 1972 election, he left Anthony in the dark and he was unaware of the date on which it would take place and the campaign techniques the coalition would use. Anthony called the Prime Minister of New Zealand, Keith Holyoake, to find out the date, as McMahon had only informed three people of the date before approaching the Governor-General. Anthony lost faith in the government and became complacent about the defeat which became obvious in the lead up to the election in December 1972. After McMahon's defeat in 1972, Anthony was said to favour a policy of absolute opposition to the Labor government of Gough Whitlam. Despite this, the Country Party voted with the Labor Government on some bills, for example the 1973 expansion of state aid to under-privileged schools, he changed the party's name to the National Country Party and began contesting urban seats in Queensland and Western Australia.
Under his leadership, the Country Party’s relationship with production industry was weakened. Anthony criticised Whitl
Eldridge Moores was an American geologist. He specialized in the understanding of ophiolites and the geology of the continental crust of the Western United States and Tethyan belt, the geology of Greece and Pakistan, the tectonic development of the Sierra Nevada and the Alpine - Himalayan systems. Moores was Distinguished Professor Emeritus of Geology at the University of Davis. In 1996, Moores was President of the Geological Society of America and editor of the society's journal Geology from 1981 to 1989, he is the recipient of the GSA's Distinguished Service Award and the Geological Association of Canada Medal. Together with geologist Robert J. Twiss, Moores co-authored two textbooks: Tectonics and Structural GeologyMoores is the main subject of the John McPhee book on California geology, Assembling California, as well as McPhee's Annals of the Former World. In 2013, Eldridge Moores was awarded the title of UC Davis distinguished professor emeritus; this title is awarded annually by the UC Davis Emeriti Association on the basis of outstanding contributions following retirement in the traditional areas of teaching and service.
Eldridge M. Moores, Robert J. Twiss Tectonics Robert J. Twiss, Eldridge M. Moores, Structural Geology 2nd edition, Eldridge M. Moores Volcanoes and Earthquakes. Lauret E. Savoy, Eldridge M. Moores, Judith E. Moores, Bedrock: Writers on the Wonders of Geology Carol S. Prentice, Judith G. Scotchmoor, Eldridge M. Moores, John P. Kiland 1906 San Francisco Earthquake Centennial Field Guide Richard Rodriguez, Sandra Phillips, Aaron Betsky, Eldridge Moores, Eldridge M. Moores Crossing the Frontier: Photographs of the Developing West, 1849 to the Present Yildirim Dilek, Eldridge M. Moores, Don Elthon, Adolphe Nicolas Ophiolites and Oceanic Crust: New Insights from Field Studies and the Ocean Drilling Program Eldridge Moores Papers at Special Collections Dept. University Library, University of California, Davis
The 1958–59 season was Manchester United's 57th season in the Football League, their 14th consecutive season in the top division of English football. It was the first season of a revamped United side, being rebuilt following the Munich air disaster in the February of the previous season which had claimed the lives of eight players; the most notable addition to the squad for the new season as forward Albert Quixall, a pre-season signing from Sheffield Wednesday. The season saw the retirement of centre-half Jackie Blanchflower as a result of the injuries he suffered in the Munich crash. Munich crash survivor Bobby Charlton was United's top scorer this season with 29 league goals, while fellow survivor Albert Scanlon was impressive with 16 goals from the left wing; the new look United side finished second in the league this season. Pld = Matches played.
James Alexander Teit was an anthropologist and guide who worked with Franz Boas to study Interior Salish First Nations peoples in the late 19th and early 20th centuries. He made many contributions towards native ethnology, he worked with Edward Sapir of the Geological Survey of Canada in 1911. Teit was born in Lerwick Scotland's Shetland Islands but immigrated to Canada and married a Nlaka'pamux woman named Susanna Lucy Antko, it was through his wife that he became knowledgeable of the culture and language of the Nlaka'pamux people. In 1899 James Teit lost his wife Lucy to pneumonia. After his wife's death Teit moved to the small town of British Columbia. While living in Spences Bridge he married Josephine Morens. Together they had six children: Erik 1905, Inga 1907, Magnus 1909, Rolf 1912, Sigurd 1915, Thorald 1919, they had a stillborn they named Teit. Inga and Erik are buried in the Morens family graveyard with their baby brother. James and Josephine are buried in Merritt B. C. Teit, James; the Thompson Indians of British Columbia.
Memoirs of the American Museum of Natural History. The Jesup North Pacific Expedition. Vol. II, Pt. IV. New York, American Museum of Natural History. AMNH Digital Repository. Teit, James; the Lillooet Indians. Memoirs of the American Museum of Natural History; the Jesup North Pacific Expedition. Vol. II, Pt. V. New York, American Museum of Natural History. AMNH Digital Repository. Teit, James; the Shuswap. Memoirs of the American Museum of Natural History; the Jesup North Pacific Expedition. Vol. II, Pt. VII. New York, American Museum of Natural History. AMNH Digital Repository. Teit, James. Mythology of the Thompson Indians. Memoirs of the American Museum of Natural History; the Jesup North Pacific Expedition. Vol. VIII, Pt. II. New York, American Museum of Natural History. AMNH Digital Repository. Teit, James A.. "On Tahltan Work, 1912." Summary Report of the Geological Survey of Canada 1912. Ottawa, Department of Mines. P. 484-487. GEOSCAN. Haeberlin, H. K. Teit, James A. Roberts, Helen H. and Boas, Franz.. "Coiled Basketry in British Columbia and Surrounding Region."
Forty-first Annual Report of the Bureau of American Ethnology, 1927-1928. Vol. 41, p. 441-522. Washington D. C. Smithsonian Bureau of American Ethnology. Description of whole report by archive.org. Teit, James A.. "Ethnobotany of the Thompson Indians, British Columbia." Forty-fifth Annual Report of the Bureau of American Ethnology, 1927-1928. Vol. 45, p. 441-522. Washington D. C. Smithsonian Bureau of American Ethnology. Description of whole report by archive.org. Teit, James A.. "The Salishan Tribes of the Western Plateaus." Forty-fifth Annual Report of the Bureau of American Ethnology, 1927-1928. Vol. 45, p. 23-396. Washington D. C. Smithsonian Bureau of American Ethnology. Description of whole report by archive.org. Teit, James A.. "Tattooing and Face and Body Painting of the Thompson Indians, British Columbia." Forty-fifth Annual Report of the Bureau of American Ethnology, 1927-1928. Vol. 45, p. 397-439. Washington D. C. Smithsonian Bureau of American Ethnology. Description of whole report by archive.org. Works by James Alexander Teit at Faded Page Biography at the Dictionary of Canadian Biography Online
Fanfare for the Comic Muse is the 1990 debut album by The Divine Comedy. Recording took place at Homestead Studios in May 1990 with producer Sean O Neill. Lorcan Mac Loughlann engineered the sessions, Mudd Wallace mixed the recordings, it has since been disowned by the band's lead singer/songwriter Neil Hannon due to its stylistic difference from the band's works, heading towards a more R. E. M.-styled jangle pop direction than their more distinctive orchestral pop output. "The Rise and Fall" was re-recorded for the Timewatch EP. All songs written by Neil Hannon. "Ignorance Is Bliss" – 3:42 "Indian Rain" – 3:24 "Bleak Landscape" – 3:40 "Tailspin" – 2:44 "The Rise and Fall" – 4:21 "Logic vs Emotion" – 4:34 "Secret Garden" – 4:09 Personnel per booklet. Https://web.archive.org/web/20070928174934/http://eccentrick.co.uk/indulgence/dcbc.html